SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 61
Download to read offline
By
K. RAKESH GUPTA
 INTRODUCTION
 DEFINITION
 THEORY
 FACTORS AFFECTING FLOURESCENCE
 INSTRUMENTATION
 APPLICATIONS IN PHARMACY
 CONCLUSION
 REFERENCES
Luminescence is the emission of light by a
substance. It occurs when an electron
returns to the electronic ground state from
an excited state and loses its excess energy as
a photon.
It is of 3 types.
Fluorescence spectroscopy.
Phosphorescence spectroscopy.
Chemiluminescence spectroscopy
When a beam of light is incident on certain
substances they emit visible light or
radiations. This is known as fluorescence.
Fluorescence starts immediately after the
absorption of light and stops as soon as the
incident light is cut off.
The substances showing this phenomenon are
known as flourescent substances.
 When light radiation is incident on certain
substances they emit light continuously even
after the incident light is cut off.
 This type of delayed fluorescence is called
phosphorescence.
 Substances showing phosphorescence are
phosphorescent substances.
 A molecular electronic state in which all of the
electrons are paired are called singlet state.
 In a singlet state molecules are diamagnetic.
 Most of the molecules in their ground state are
paired.
 When such a molecule absorbs uv/visible
radiation, one or more of the paired electron
raised to an excited singlet state /excited
triplet state.
Ground excited singlet triplet state
singlet state spins unpaired
states spin paired
no net mag.field net mag.field
Fluorescence
Phosphorescence
Radiation less processes
Vibration relaxation
Internal conversion
External conversion
Intersystem crossing
LIGHT EMITING AT ONCE SOURCE STARTS &
STOPS WHEM SOURCE STOPS
JABLONSKI ENERGY DIAGRAM
FLUORESCENCE AND
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE
Fluorescence is most commonly observed in
compounds containing aromatic functional
groups with low energy.
Most unsubstituted aromatic hydrocarbons
show fluorescence - quantum efficiency
increases with the no: of rings and degree of
condensation.
CONTD…
Simple heterocyclic do not exhibit
fluorescence.
The n - *singlet quickly converts to the
n - * triplet and prevents fluorescence.
Fusion of heterocyclic nucleus to benzene ring
increases fluorescence.
Substitution on the benzene ring shifts
wavelength of absorbance maxima and
corresponding changes in fluorescence
peaks
 Fluorescence decreases with
increasing atomic no: of the
halogen.
 Substitution of carboxylic acid or
carboxylic group on aromatic ring
inhibits fluorescence.
 Fluorescence is favored in molecules
with structural rigidity.
 organic chelating agents complexed with
metal ion increases fluorescence.
 Nature of molecule
 Nature of substituent
 Effect of concentration
 Adsorption, Light
 Oxygen,ph
 Photodecomposition
 Temp . &viscosity
 Quantum yield
 Intensity of incident light
 Path length
nature of molecules
All the molecules cannot show the
phenomenon of fluorescence.
Only the molecules absorbs uv/visible
radiation can show this phenomenon.
Greater the absorbency of the molecule
the more intense its fluorescence.
nature of substituent
Electron donating group enhances
fluorescence – e.g.:NH2,OH etc.
Electron withdrawing groups decrease
or destroy fluorescence.
e.g.:COOH,NO2, N=N etc.
High atomic no: atom introduced into 
electron system decreases fluorescence.
Fluorescence is directly
proportional to concentration.
FI = Q X Ia
i.e, F = QIOact
Q = Constant for a particular substance
IO = Constant for an instrument
a = Molecular extinction coefficient
t = Path length
C = Concentration of the substance
F = KC Where K represents all constants
FI α Concentration.
 Extreme sensitiveness of the method
requires very dilute solution.
Adsorption of the fluorescent substances on
the container wall create serious problems.
Hence strong solutions must be diluted.
 Monochromatic light is essential for the
excitation of fluorescence because the
intensity will vary with wavelength.
OXYGEN
The presence of oxygen may interfere in 2
ways.
1] by direct oxidation of the fluorescent
substances to non fluorescent.
2] by quenching of fluorescence.
 Alteration of the ph of the solution will have
significant effect on fluorescence.
 Fluorescent spectrum is different for ionized
and un-ionized species.
TEMPERATURE & VISCOSITY
 Increase in temperature/decrease in viscosity
will decrease fluorescence.
Kf = fluorescence
kec = external conversion
kic = internal conversion
kisc = intersystem crossing
kpd = pre dissociation
Kd = dissociation
fluorescence quantum yield:
 Increase in intensity of light incident on
sample increases fluorescence intensity.
 The intensity of light depends upon
1)light emitted from the lamp.
2)Excitation monochromaters
3)Excitation slit width
 The effective path length depends on
both the excitation and emission slit
width.
 Use of microcuvette does not reduce
the fluorescence.
 Use of microcell may reduce
interferences and increases the
measured fluorescence
 Decrease in fluorescence intensity due to specific
effects of constituents of the solution.
 Due to concentration, ph, pressure of chemical
substances, temperature, viscosity, etc.
Types of quenching
Self quenching
Chemical quenching
Static quenching
Collision quenching
Fluorescence
Concentration of
fluorescing species
Deviations at higher concentrations can be
attributed to self-quenching or self-absorption.
Fluorescence
Concentration of
fluorescing species
Calibration curve
(Low con)
calibration curve
(High con)
 Here decrease in fluorescence intensity due to
the factors like change in ph,presence of
oxygen, halides &heavy metals.
 ph- aniline at ph 5-13 gives fluorescence
but at ph <5 &>13 it does not exhibit
fluorescence.
 halides like chloride,bromide,iodide &
electron withdrawing groups like no2,cooH
etc. leads to quenching.
 Heavy metals leads to quenching, because
of collisions of triplet ground state.
 This occurs due to complex formation.
e.g.. caffeine reduces the fluorescence of
riboflavin by complex formation.
COLLISIONAL QUENCHING
 It reduces fluorescence by collision. where
no. of collisions increased hence quenching
takes place.
INSTRUMENTATION
 SOURCE OF LIGHT
 FILTERS AND MONOCHROMATORS
 SAMPLE CELLS
 DETECTORS
 MERCURY ARC LAMP.
 XENON ARC LAMP.
 TUNGSTEN LAMP.
 TUNABLE DYE LASERS.
MERCURY ARC LAMP
Produce intense line spectrum above 350nm.
High pressure lamps give lines at 366,405, 436,
546,577,691,734nm.
Low pressure lamps give additional radiation at
254nm.
 Intense radiation by passage of current through an
atmosphere of xenon.
 Spectrum is continuous over the range between over 250-
600nm,peak intensity about 470nm.
Intensity of the lamp is low.
If excitation is done in the visible
region this lamp is used.
It does not offer UV radiation.
Pulsed nitrogen laser as the
primary source.
Radiation in the range between
360 and 650 nm is produced.
FILTERS
Primary filter-absorbs visible light & transmits
uv light.
Secondary filter-absorbs uv radiations &
transmits visible light.
MONOCHROMATORS
Exitation monochromaters-isolates only the
radiation which is absorbed by the molecule.
Emission monochromaters-isolates only the
radiation emitted by the molecule.
 The majority of fluorescence assays are carried out in
solution.
 Cylindrical or rectangular cells fabricated of silica or
glass used.
 Path length is usually 10mm or 1cm.
 All the surfaces of the sample holder are polished in
fluorimetry.
PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL
PHOTO TUBE
PHOTOMULTIPLIER TUBES – Best
and accurate.
Multiplication of photo electrons by
secondary emission of radiation.
A photo cathode and series of dynodes are
used.
Each cathode is maintained at
75-100v higher than the preceding one.
Over all amplification of 106 is obtained.
Tungsten lamp as source of light.
The primary filter absorbs visible radiation
and transmits uv radiation.
Emitted radiation measured at 90o by
secondary filter.
Secondary filter absorbs uv radiation and
transmits visible radiation.
 Simple in construction
 Easy to use.
 Economical
disadvantages
 It is not possible to use reference solution &
sample solution at a time.
 Rapid scanning to obtain Exitation & emission
spectrum of the compound is not possible.
 Similar to single beam instrument.
 Two incident beams from light source pass through
primary filters separately and fall on either sample or
reference solution.
 The emitted radiation from sample or reference pass
separately through secondary filter.
 Sample & reference solution can be analyzed
simultaneously.
disadvantage
 Rapid scanning is not possible due to use of
filters.
Power
supply
Source primary filter
secondary filter
Detector
Sample cell
Slit
Data processor
1] Determination of inorganic substances
Determination of ruthenium ions in presence of
other platinum metals.
Determination of aluminum (III) in alloys.
Determination of boron in steel by complex formed
with benzoin.
Estimation of cadmium with
2-(2 hydroxyphenyl) benzoxazole in presence of
tartarate.
 Field determination of uranium salts.
3]fluorescent indicators
Mainly used in acid-base titration.
e.g.:
eosin- colorless-green.
Fluorescein:colourless-green.
Quinine sulphate: blue-violet.
Acridine: green-violet
Reagent Ion Fluorescence
wavelength
Sensitivity
Alizarin
garnet B
Al3+ 500 0.007
Flavanol
8-Hydroxy
quinoline
Sn4+
Li2+
470
580
0.1
0.2
4] Fluorometric reagent
 Aromatic structure with two or more donor
functional groups
compound reagent excitation
wavelength
fluorescence
hydrocortisone 75%v/v
H2SO4 in
ethanol
460 520
nicotinamide cyanogen
chloride
250 430
5] organic analysis
Qualitative and quantitative analysis of organic
aromatic compounds present in cigarette smoke, air
pollutants, automobile exhausts etc.
6] pharmaceutical analysis
7] Liquid chromatography
Fluorescence is an imp method of
determining compounds as they
appear at the end of chromatogram or
capillary electrophoresis column.
8]determination of vitamin B1 &B2.
Douglas A Skoog, Principles of instrumental
analysis
 H:UV-Vis Luminescence Spectroscopy - Theory.mht
Dr.B.K.Sharma, Instrumental methods of chemical
analysis
Gurdeep R Chatwal, Instrumental methods of
chemical analysis
 http://images.google.co.in/imghp?oe=UTF-
8&hl=en&tab=wi&q=fluorescence
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluorescence
 http://www.bertholdtech.com/ww/en
pub/bioanalytik/biomethods/fluor.cfm
Fluorimetry

More Related Content

What's hot

UV-Visible Spectroscopy
UV-Visible SpectroscopyUV-Visible Spectroscopy
UV-Visible SpectroscopySudha Reddy
 
Ultra violet (UV) spectroscopy, introduction,principle instrumentation,differ...
Ultra violet (UV) spectroscopy, introduction,principle instrumentation,differ...Ultra violet (UV) spectroscopy, introduction,principle instrumentation,differ...
Ultra violet (UV) spectroscopy, introduction,principle instrumentation,differ...mariomS7
 
Thin layer Chromatography (TLC)
Thin layer Chromatography (TLC)Thin layer Chromatography (TLC)
Thin layer Chromatography (TLC)GOKULAKRISHNAN S
 
Fluorimetry/ Fluoroscences
Fluorimetry/ FluoroscencesFluorimetry/ Fluoroscences
Fluorimetry/ FluoroscencesROHIT
 
Quenching of Fluorescence
Quenching of FluorescenceQuenching of Fluorescence
Quenching of FluorescenceFatema Zohora
 
Atomic absorption spectroscopy
Atomic absorption spectroscopy Atomic absorption spectroscopy
Atomic absorption spectroscopy Mayur Bodhankar
 
Instrumentation of IR spectroscopy
Instrumentation of IR spectroscopyInstrumentation of IR spectroscopy
Instrumentation of IR spectroscopyTalha Liaqat
 
Fluorimetry presentation
Fluorimetry presentationFluorimetry presentation
Fluorimetry presentationVinass Jamali
 
Spectrofluorimetry
Spectrofluorimetry Spectrofluorimetry
Spectrofluorimetry kabil07
 
Column chromatography
Column chromatographyColumn chromatography
Column chromatographyRakesh Guptha
 
Flame photometer (Atomic Emission Spectroscopy) Flame emission spectroscopy
Flame photometer (Atomic Emission Spectroscopy) Flame emission spectroscopyFlame photometer (Atomic Emission Spectroscopy) Flame emission spectroscopy
Flame photometer (Atomic Emission Spectroscopy) Flame emission spectroscopyMuhammad Asif Shaheeen
 

What's hot (20)

GEL CHROMATOGRAPHY
GEL CHROMATOGRAPHYGEL CHROMATOGRAPHY
GEL CHROMATOGRAPHY
 
Flourimetry factors
Flourimetry factorsFlourimetry factors
Flourimetry factors
 
UV-Visible Spectroscopy
UV-Visible SpectroscopyUV-Visible Spectroscopy
UV-Visible Spectroscopy
 
Ultra violet (UV) spectroscopy, introduction,principle instrumentation,differ...
Ultra violet (UV) spectroscopy, introduction,principle instrumentation,differ...Ultra violet (UV) spectroscopy, introduction,principle instrumentation,differ...
Ultra violet (UV) spectroscopy, introduction,principle instrumentation,differ...
 
Thin layer Chromatography (TLC)
Thin layer Chromatography (TLC)Thin layer Chromatography (TLC)
Thin layer Chromatography (TLC)
 
Fluorimetry/ Fluoroscences
Fluorimetry/ FluoroscencesFluorimetry/ Fluoroscences
Fluorimetry/ Fluoroscences
 
Quenching of Fluorescence
Quenching of FluorescenceQuenching of Fluorescence
Quenching of Fluorescence
 
Atomic absorption spectroscopy
Atomic absorption spectroscopy Atomic absorption spectroscopy
Atomic absorption spectroscopy
 
Instrumentation of IR spectroscopy
Instrumentation of IR spectroscopyInstrumentation of IR spectroscopy
Instrumentation of IR spectroscopy
 
Fluorimetry presentation
Fluorimetry presentationFluorimetry presentation
Fluorimetry presentation
 
Interference In Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy.
Interference In Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy.Interference In Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy.
Interference In Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy.
 
Partition column-chromatography
Partition column-chromatographyPartition column-chromatography
Partition column-chromatography
 
Flame photometry
Flame photometryFlame photometry
Flame photometry
 
Sampling Techniques in IR Spectroscopy
Sampling Techniques in IR SpectroscopySampling Techniques in IR Spectroscopy
Sampling Techniques in IR Spectroscopy
 
Paper chromatography
Paper chromatographyPaper chromatography
Paper chromatography
 
Spectrofluorimetry
Spectrofluorimetry Spectrofluorimetry
Spectrofluorimetry
 
Quenching In Fluorimetry.
Quenching In Fluorimetry.Quenching In Fluorimetry.
Quenching In Fluorimetry.
 
Column chromatography
Column chromatographyColumn chromatography
Column chromatography
 
Hptlc presentation ppt
Hptlc presentation pptHptlc presentation ppt
Hptlc presentation ppt
 
Flame photometer (Atomic Emission Spectroscopy) Flame emission spectroscopy
Flame photometer (Atomic Emission Spectroscopy) Flame emission spectroscopyFlame photometer (Atomic Emission Spectroscopy) Flame emission spectroscopy
Flame photometer (Atomic Emission Spectroscopy) Flame emission spectroscopy
 

Viewers also liked

Viewers also liked (6)

Fluorimetry
FluorimetryFluorimetry
Fluorimetry
 
Spectrofluorimetry
SpectrofluorimetrySpectrofluorimetry
Spectrofluorimetry
 
Spectrofluorimetry Lecture
Spectrofluorimetry LectureSpectrofluorimetry Lecture
Spectrofluorimetry Lecture
 
Introduction and Principle of IR spectroscopy
Introduction and Principle of IR spectroscopyIntroduction and Principle of IR spectroscopy
Introduction and Principle of IR spectroscopy
 
Nmr spectroscopy
Nmr spectroscopyNmr spectroscopy
Nmr spectroscopy
 
Mass spectrometry
Mass spectrometryMass spectrometry
Mass spectrometry
 

Similar to Fluorimetry

1250706_634570128835168750.ppt
1250706_634570128835168750.ppt1250706_634570128835168750.ppt
1250706_634570128835168750.pptArun Nt
 
Flourimetry 140618015916-phpapp01 - copy
Flourimetry 140618015916-phpapp01 - copyFlourimetry 140618015916-phpapp01 - copy
Flourimetry 140618015916-phpapp01 - copyMANISH KUMAR
 
Fluorimetry ANALYSIS- SPECTOSCOPY PPT
Fluorimetry ANALYSIS- SPECTOSCOPY PPTFluorimetry ANALYSIS- SPECTOSCOPY PPT
Fluorimetry ANALYSIS- SPECTOSCOPY PPTDr Duggirala Mahendra
 
Flourescence spectroscopy- instrumentation and applications
Flourescence spectroscopy-  instrumentation and applicationsFlourescence spectroscopy-  instrumentation and applications
Flourescence spectroscopy- instrumentation and applicationssinghsnehi01
 
fluorimetry.pptx FINAL YEAR B PHARM SEVENTH SEMESTER PCI PATTERN
fluorimetry.pptx FINAL YEAR B PHARM SEVENTH SEMESTER PCI PATTERNfluorimetry.pptx FINAL YEAR B PHARM SEVENTH SEMESTER PCI PATTERN
fluorimetry.pptx FINAL YEAR B PHARM SEVENTH SEMESTER PCI PATTERNDhanashree Kad
 
spectrofluorimetry1 - 211209042138 .pptx
spectrofluorimetry1 - 211209042138 .pptxspectrofluorimetry1 - 211209042138 .pptx
spectrofluorimetry1 - 211209042138 .pptxTamilarasiSasivarnam1
 
Fluorimetry phosphorimetry
Fluorimetry phosphorimetryFluorimetry phosphorimetry
Fluorimetry phosphorimetryEnosh Gummadi
 
Payalfluorimetryupload
PayalfluorimetryuploadPayalfluorimetryupload
PayalfluorimetryuploadKhannapayal
 
Spectrofluorimetry
SpectrofluorimetrySpectrofluorimetry
SpectrofluorimetryMaharshi9
 

Similar to Fluorimetry (20)

1250706_634570128835168750.ppt
1250706_634570128835168750.ppt1250706_634570128835168750.ppt
1250706_634570128835168750.ppt
 
Flourimetry
FlourimetryFlourimetry
Flourimetry
 
Flourimetry 140618015916-phpapp01 - copy
Flourimetry 140618015916-phpapp01 - copyFlourimetry 140618015916-phpapp01 - copy
Flourimetry 140618015916-phpapp01 - copy
 
Flourimetry.ppt
Flourimetry.pptFlourimetry.ppt
Flourimetry.ppt
 
Fluorimetry ANALYSIS- SPECTOSCOPY PPT
Fluorimetry ANALYSIS- SPECTOSCOPY PPTFluorimetry ANALYSIS- SPECTOSCOPY PPT
Fluorimetry ANALYSIS- SPECTOSCOPY PPT
 
Flourimetry
FlourimetryFlourimetry
Flourimetry
 
Flourescence spectroscopy- instrumentation and applications
Flourescence spectroscopy-  instrumentation and applicationsFlourescence spectroscopy-  instrumentation and applications
Flourescence spectroscopy- instrumentation and applications
 
fluorimetry.pptx FINAL YEAR B PHARM SEVENTH SEMESTER PCI PATTERN
fluorimetry.pptx FINAL YEAR B PHARM SEVENTH SEMESTER PCI PATTERNfluorimetry.pptx FINAL YEAR B PHARM SEVENTH SEMESTER PCI PATTERN
fluorimetry.pptx FINAL YEAR B PHARM SEVENTH SEMESTER PCI PATTERN
 
Fluorimetry.pptx
Fluorimetry.pptxFluorimetry.pptx
Fluorimetry.pptx
 
FLUORIMETRY.pptx
FLUORIMETRY.pptxFLUORIMETRY.pptx
FLUORIMETRY.pptx
 
spectrofluorimetry1 - 211209042138 .pptx
spectrofluorimetry1 - 211209042138 .pptxspectrofluorimetry1 - 211209042138 .pptx
spectrofluorimetry1 - 211209042138 .pptx
 
Fluorimetry phosphorimetry
Fluorimetry phosphorimetryFluorimetry phosphorimetry
Fluorimetry phosphorimetry
 
Payalfluorimetryupload
PayalfluorimetryuploadPayalfluorimetryupload
Payalfluorimetryupload
 
Fluorometry
FluorometryFluorometry
Fluorometry
 
Spectrofluorimetry
SpectrofluorimetrySpectrofluorimetry
Spectrofluorimetry
 
Fluorometry
FluorometryFluorometry
Fluorometry
 
Fluorimetry
FluorimetryFluorimetry
Fluorimetry
 
Fluorimetry
FluorimetryFluorimetry
Fluorimetry
 
Fluorimetry.pdf
Fluorimetry.pdfFluorimetry.pdf
Fluorimetry.pdf
 
Spectrofluorimetry
SpectrofluorimetrySpectrofluorimetry
Spectrofluorimetry
 

More from Rakesh Guptha

More from Rakesh Guptha (6)

Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
Atomic Absorption SpectroscopyAtomic Absorption Spectroscopy
Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
 
Chromophore
ChromophoreChromophore
Chromophore
 
Ms interpretation
Ms interpretationMs interpretation
Ms interpretation
 
Mass spectrometry hh
Mass spectrometry hhMass spectrometry hh
Mass spectrometry hh
 
HPLC
HPLCHPLC
HPLC
 
Hptlc
HptlcHptlc
Hptlc
 

Recently uploaded

Wessex Health Partners Wessex Integrated Care, Population Health, Research & ...
Wessex Health Partners Wessex Integrated Care, Population Health, Research & ...Wessex Health Partners Wessex Integrated Care, Population Health, Research & ...
Wessex Health Partners Wessex Integrated Care, Population Health, Research & ...Wessex Health Partners
 
ANEMIA IN PREGNANCY by Dr. Akebom Kidanemariam
ANEMIA IN PREGNANCY by Dr. Akebom KidanemariamANEMIA IN PREGNANCY by Dr. Akebom Kidanemariam
ANEMIA IN PREGNANCY by Dr. Akebom KidanemariamAkebom Gebremichael
 
COVID-19 (NOVEL CORONA VIRUS DISEASE PANDEMIC ).pptx
COVID-19  (NOVEL CORONA  VIRUS DISEASE PANDEMIC ).pptxCOVID-19  (NOVEL CORONA  VIRUS DISEASE PANDEMIC ).pptx
COVID-19 (NOVEL CORONA VIRUS DISEASE PANDEMIC ).pptxBibekananda shah
 
Chronic-Fatigue-Syndrome-CFS-Understanding-a-Complex-Disorder.pptx
Chronic-Fatigue-Syndrome-CFS-Understanding-a-Complex-Disorder.pptxChronic-Fatigue-Syndrome-CFS-Understanding-a-Complex-Disorder.pptx
Chronic-Fatigue-Syndrome-CFS-Understanding-a-Complex-Disorder.pptxSasikiranMarri
 
PULMONARY EDEMA AND ITS MANAGEMENT.pdf
PULMONARY EDEMA AND  ITS  MANAGEMENT.pdfPULMONARY EDEMA AND  ITS  MANAGEMENT.pdf
PULMONARY EDEMA AND ITS MANAGEMENT.pdfDolisha Warbi
 
Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)
Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)
Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)Mohamed Rizk Khodair
 
CCSC6142 Week 3 Research ethics - Long Hoang.pdf
CCSC6142 Week 3 Research ethics - Long Hoang.pdfCCSC6142 Week 3 Research ethics - Long Hoang.pdf
CCSC6142 Week 3 Research ethics - Long Hoang.pdfMyThaoAiDoan
 
Informed Consent Empowering Healthcare Decision-Making.pptx
Informed Consent Empowering Healthcare Decision-Making.pptxInformed Consent Empowering Healthcare Decision-Making.pptx
Informed Consent Empowering Healthcare Decision-Making.pptxSasikiranMarri
 
VarSeq 2.6.0: Advancing Pharmacogenomics and Genomic Analysis
VarSeq 2.6.0: Advancing Pharmacogenomics and Genomic AnalysisVarSeq 2.6.0: Advancing Pharmacogenomics and Genomic Analysis
VarSeq 2.6.0: Advancing Pharmacogenomics and Genomic AnalysisGolden Helix
 
SHOCK (Medical SURGICAL BASED EDITION)).pptx
SHOCK (Medical SURGICAL BASED EDITION)).pptxSHOCK (Medical SURGICAL BASED EDITION)).pptx
SHOCK (Medical SURGICAL BASED EDITION)).pptxAbhishek943418
 
Culture and Health Disorders Social change.pptx
Culture and Health Disorders Social change.pptxCulture and Health Disorders Social change.pptx
Culture and Health Disorders Social change.pptxDr. Dheeraj Kumar
 
METHODS OF ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE IN NURSING.pptx by navdeep kaur
METHODS OF ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE IN NURSING.pptx by navdeep kaurMETHODS OF ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE IN NURSING.pptx by navdeep kaur
METHODS OF ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE IN NURSING.pptx by navdeep kaurNavdeep Kaur
 
PNEUMOTHORAX AND ITS MANAGEMENTS.pdf
PNEUMOTHORAX   AND  ITS  MANAGEMENTS.pdfPNEUMOTHORAX   AND  ITS  MANAGEMENTS.pdf
PNEUMOTHORAX AND ITS MANAGEMENTS.pdfDolisha Warbi
 
Units of Radiation Measurements, Quality Specification, Half-Value Thickness,...
Units of Radiation Measurements, Quality Specification, Half-Value Thickness,...Units of Radiation Measurements, Quality Specification, Half-Value Thickness,...
Units of Radiation Measurements, Quality Specification, Half-Value Thickness,...Dr. Dheeraj Kumar
 
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus -SLE PT2.ppt
Systemic  Lupus  Erythematosus -SLE PT2.pptSystemic  Lupus  Erythematosus -SLE PT2.ppt
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus -SLE PT2.pptraviapr7
 
Screening for colorectal cancer AAU.pptx
Screening for colorectal cancer AAU.pptxScreening for colorectal cancer AAU.pptx
Screening for colorectal cancer AAU.pptxtadehabte
 
epilepsy and status epilepticus for undergraduate.pptx
epilepsy and status epilepticus  for undergraduate.pptxepilepsy and status epilepticus  for undergraduate.pptx
epilepsy and status epilepticus for undergraduate.pptxMohamed Rizk Khodair
 
Presentation on General Anesthetics pdf.
Presentation on General Anesthetics pdf.Presentation on General Anesthetics pdf.
Presentation on General Anesthetics pdf.Prerana Jadhav
 
Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein antibody associated disease (MOGAD)
Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein antibody associated disease (MOGAD)Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein antibody associated disease (MOGAD)
Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein antibody associated disease (MOGAD)MohamadAlhes
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Wessex Health Partners Wessex Integrated Care, Population Health, Research & ...
Wessex Health Partners Wessex Integrated Care, Population Health, Research & ...Wessex Health Partners Wessex Integrated Care, Population Health, Research & ...
Wessex Health Partners Wessex Integrated Care, Population Health, Research & ...
 
ANEMIA IN PREGNANCY by Dr. Akebom Kidanemariam
ANEMIA IN PREGNANCY by Dr. Akebom KidanemariamANEMIA IN PREGNANCY by Dr. Akebom Kidanemariam
ANEMIA IN PREGNANCY by Dr. Akebom Kidanemariam
 
COVID-19 (NOVEL CORONA VIRUS DISEASE PANDEMIC ).pptx
COVID-19  (NOVEL CORONA  VIRUS DISEASE PANDEMIC ).pptxCOVID-19  (NOVEL CORONA  VIRUS DISEASE PANDEMIC ).pptx
COVID-19 (NOVEL CORONA VIRUS DISEASE PANDEMIC ).pptx
 
Chronic-Fatigue-Syndrome-CFS-Understanding-a-Complex-Disorder.pptx
Chronic-Fatigue-Syndrome-CFS-Understanding-a-Complex-Disorder.pptxChronic-Fatigue-Syndrome-CFS-Understanding-a-Complex-Disorder.pptx
Chronic-Fatigue-Syndrome-CFS-Understanding-a-Complex-Disorder.pptx
 
PULMONARY EDEMA AND ITS MANAGEMENT.pdf
PULMONARY EDEMA AND  ITS  MANAGEMENT.pdfPULMONARY EDEMA AND  ITS  MANAGEMENT.pdf
PULMONARY EDEMA AND ITS MANAGEMENT.pdf
 
Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)
Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)
Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)
 
CCSC6142 Week 3 Research ethics - Long Hoang.pdf
CCSC6142 Week 3 Research ethics - Long Hoang.pdfCCSC6142 Week 3 Research ethics - Long Hoang.pdf
CCSC6142 Week 3 Research ethics - Long Hoang.pdf
 
Informed Consent Empowering Healthcare Decision-Making.pptx
Informed Consent Empowering Healthcare Decision-Making.pptxInformed Consent Empowering Healthcare Decision-Making.pptx
Informed Consent Empowering Healthcare Decision-Making.pptx
 
VarSeq 2.6.0: Advancing Pharmacogenomics and Genomic Analysis
VarSeq 2.6.0: Advancing Pharmacogenomics and Genomic AnalysisVarSeq 2.6.0: Advancing Pharmacogenomics and Genomic Analysis
VarSeq 2.6.0: Advancing Pharmacogenomics and Genomic Analysis
 
SHOCK (Medical SURGICAL BASED EDITION)).pptx
SHOCK (Medical SURGICAL BASED EDITION)).pptxSHOCK (Medical SURGICAL BASED EDITION)).pptx
SHOCK (Medical SURGICAL BASED EDITION)).pptx
 
Culture and Health Disorders Social change.pptx
Culture and Health Disorders Social change.pptxCulture and Health Disorders Social change.pptx
Culture and Health Disorders Social change.pptx
 
METHODS OF ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE IN NURSING.pptx by navdeep kaur
METHODS OF ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE IN NURSING.pptx by navdeep kaurMETHODS OF ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE IN NURSING.pptx by navdeep kaur
METHODS OF ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE IN NURSING.pptx by navdeep kaur
 
PNEUMOTHORAX AND ITS MANAGEMENTS.pdf
PNEUMOTHORAX   AND  ITS  MANAGEMENTS.pdfPNEUMOTHORAX   AND  ITS  MANAGEMENTS.pdf
PNEUMOTHORAX AND ITS MANAGEMENTS.pdf
 
Units of Radiation Measurements, Quality Specification, Half-Value Thickness,...
Units of Radiation Measurements, Quality Specification, Half-Value Thickness,...Units of Radiation Measurements, Quality Specification, Half-Value Thickness,...
Units of Radiation Measurements, Quality Specification, Half-Value Thickness,...
 
JANGAMA VISHA .pptx-
JANGAMA VISHA .pptx-JANGAMA VISHA .pptx-
JANGAMA VISHA .pptx-
 
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus -SLE PT2.ppt
Systemic  Lupus  Erythematosus -SLE PT2.pptSystemic  Lupus  Erythematosus -SLE PT2.ppt
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus -SLE PT2.ppt
 
Screening for colorectal cancer AAU.pptx
Screening for colorectal cancer AAU.pptxScreening for colorectal cancer AAU.pptx
Screening for colorectal cancer AAU.pptx
 
epilepsy and status epilepticus for undergraduate.pptx
epilepsy and status epilepticus  for undergraduate.pptxepilepsy and status epilepticus  for undergraduate.pptx
epilepsy and status epilepticus for undergraduate.pptx
 
Presentation on General Anesthetics pdf.
Presentation on General Anesthetics pdf.Presentation on General Anesthetics pdf.
Presentation on General Anesthetics pdf.
 
Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein antibody associated disease (MOGAD)
Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein antibody associated disease (MOGAD)Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein antibody associated disease (MOGAD)
Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein antibody associated disease (MOGAD)
 

Fluorimetry

  • 2.  INTRODUCTION  DEFINITION  THEORY  FACTORS AFFECTING FLOURESCENCE  INSTRUMENTATION  APPLICATIONS IN PHARMACY  CONCLUSION  REFERENCES
  • 3. Luminescence is the emission of light by a substance. It occurs when an electron returns to the electronic ground state from an excited state and loses its excess energy as a photon. It is of 3 types. Fluorescence spectroscopy. Phosphorescence spectroscopy. Chemiluminescence spectroscopy
  • 4. When a beam of light is incident on certain substances they emit visible light or radiations. This is known as fluorescence. Fluorescence starts immediately after the absorption of light and stops as soon as the incident light is cut off. The substances showing this phenomenon are known as flourescent substances.
  • 5.  When light radiation is incident on certain substances they emit light continuously even after the incident light is cut off.  This type of delayed fluorescence is called phosphorescence.  Substances showing phosphorescence are phosphorescent substances.
  • 6.  A molecular electronic state in which all of the electrons are paired are called singlet state.  In a singlet state molecules are diamagnetic.  Most of the molecules in their ground state are paired.  When such a molecule absorbs uv/visible radiation, one or more of the paired electron raised to an excited singlet state /excited triplet state.
  • 7. Ground excited singlet triplet state singlet state spins unpaired states spin paired no net mag.field net mag.field
  • 8. Fluorescence Phosphorescence Radiation less processes Vibration relaxation Internal conversion External conversion Intersystem crossing
  • 9. LIGHT EMITING AT ONCE SOURCE STARTS & STOPS WHEM SOURCE STOPS
  • 10.
  • 12.
  • 13.
  • 14. FLUORESCENCE AND CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Fluorescence is most commonly observed in compounds containing aromatic functional groups with low energy. Most unsubstituted aromatic hydrocarbons show fluorescence - quantum efficiency increases with the no: of rings and degree of condensation.
  • 15. CONTD… Simple heterocyclic do not exhibit fluorescence. The n - *singlet quickly converts to the n - * triplet and prevents fluorescence.
  • 16. Fusion of heterocyclic nucleus to benzene ring increases fluorescence.
  • 17. Substitution on the benzene ring shifts wavelength of absorbance maxima and corresponding changes in fluorescence peaks  Fluorescence decreases with increasing atomic no: of the halogen.  Substitution of carboxylic acid or carboxylic group on aromatic ring inhibits fluorescence.
  • 18.  Fluorescence is favored in molecules with structural rigidity.  organic chelating agents complexed with metal ion increases fluorescence.
  • 19.  Nature of molecule  Nature of substituent  Effect of concentration  Adsorption, Light  Oxygen,ph  Photodecomposition  Temp . &viscosity  Quantum yield  Intensity of incident light  Path length
  • 20. nature of molecules All the molecules cannot show the phenomenon of fluorescence. Only the molecules absorbs uv/visible radiation can show this phenomenon. Greater the absorbency of the molecule the more intense its fluorescence.
  • 21. nature of substituent Electron donating group enhances fluorescence – e.g.:NH2,OH etc. Electron withdrawing groups decrease or destroy fluorescence. e.g.:COOH,NO2, N=N etc. High atomic no: atom introduced into  electron system decreases fluorescence.
  • 23. FI = Q X Ia i.e, F = QIOact Q = Constant for a particular substance IO = Constant for an instrument a = Molecular extinction coefficient t = Path length C = Concentration of the substance F = KC Where K represents all constants FI α Concentration.
  • 24.  Extreme sensitiveness of the method requires very dilute solution. Adsorption of the fluorescent substances on the container wall create serious problems. Hence strong solutions must be diluted.
  • 25.  Monochromatic light is essential for the excitation of fluorescence because the intensity will vary with wavelength. OXYGEN The presence of oxygen may interfere in 2 ways. 1] by direct oxidation of the fluorescent substances to non fluorescent. 2] by quenching of fluorescence.
  • 26.  Alteration of the ph of the solution will have significant effect on fluorescence.  Fluorescent spectrum is different for ionized and un-ionized species. TEMPERATURE & VISCOSITY  Increase in temperature/decrease in viscosity will decrease fluorescence.
  • 27. Kf = fluorescence kec = external conversion kic = internal conversion kisc = intersystem crossing kpd = pre dissociation Kd = dissociation fluorescence quantum yield:
  • 28.  Increase in intensity of light incident on sample increases fluorescence intensity.  The intensity of light depends upon 1)light emitted from the lamp. 2)Excitation monochromaters 3)Excitation slit width
  • 29.  The effective path length depends on both the excitation and emission slit width.  Use of microcuvette does not reduce the fluorescence.  Use of microcell may reduce interferences and increases the measured fluorescence
  • 30.  Decrease in fluorescence intensity due to specific effects of constituents of the solution.  Due to concentration, ph, pressure of chemical substances, temperature, viscosity, etc. Types of quenching Self quenching Chemical quenching Static quenching Collision quenching
  • 31. Fluorescence Concentration of fluorescing species Deviations at higher concentrations can be attributed to self-quenching or self-absorption. Fluorescence Concentration of fluorescing species Calibration curve (Low con) calibration curve (High con)
  • 32.  Here decrease in fluorescence intensity due to the factors like change in ph,presence of oxygen, halides &heavy metals.  ph- aniline at ph 5-13 gives fluorescence but at ph <5 &>13 it does not exhibit fluorescence.  halides like chloride,bromide,iodide & electron withdrawing groups like no2,cooH etc. leads to quenching.  Heavy metals leads to quenching, because of collisions of triplet ground state.
  • 33.  This occurs due to complex formation. e.g.. caffeine reduces the fluorescence of riboflavin by complex formation. COLLISIONAL QUENCHING  It reduces fluorescence by collision. where no. of collisions increased hence quenching takes place.
  • 35.  SOURCE OF LIGHT  FILTERS AND MONOCHROMATORS  SAMPLE CELLS  DETECTORS
  • 36.  MERCURY ARC LAMP.  XENON ARC LAMP.  TUNGSTEN LAMP.  TUNABLE DYE LASERS.
  • 37. MERCURY ARC LAMP Produce intense line spectrum above 350nm. High pressure lamps give lines at 366,405, 436, 546,577,691,734nm. Low pressure lamps give additional radiation at 254nm.
  • 38.  Intense radiation by passage of current through an atmosphere of xenon.  Spectrum is continuous over the range between over 250- 600nm,peak intensity about 470nm.
  • 39. Intensity of the lamp is low. If excitation is done in the visible region this lamp is used. It does not offer UV radiation.
  • 40. Pulsed nitrogen laser as the primary source. Radiation in the range between 360 and 650 nm is produced.
  • 41. FILTERS Primary filter-absorbs visible light & transmits uv light. Secondary filter-absorbs uv radiations & transmits visible light. MONOCHROMATORS Exitation monochromaters-isolates only the radiation which is absorbed by the molecule. Emission monochromaters-isolates only the radiation emitted by the molecule.
  • 42.  The majority of fluorescence assays are carried out in solution.  Cylindrical or rectangular cells fabricated of silica or glass used.  Path length is usually 10mm or 1cm.  All the surfaces of the sample holder are polished in fluorimetry.
  • 44. Multiplication of photo electrons by secondary emission of radiation. A photo cathode and series of dynodes are used. Each cathode is maintained at 75-100v higher than the preceding one. Over all amplification of 106 is obtained.
  • 45.
  • 46.
  • 47.
  • 48. Tungsten lamp as source of light. The primary filter absorbs visible radiation and transmits uv radiation. Emitted radiation measured at 90o by secondary filter. Secondary filter absorbs uv radiation and transmits visible radiation.
  • 49.  Simple in construction  Easy to use.  Economical disadvantages  It is not possible to use reference solution & sample solution at a time.  Rapid scanning to obtain Exitation & emission spectrum of the compound is not possible.
  • 50.  Similar to single beam instrument.  Two incident beams from light source pass through primary filters separately and fall on either sample or reference solution.  The emitted radiation from sample or reference pass separately through secondary filter.
  • 51.  Sample & reference solution can be analyzed simultaneously. disadvantage  Rapid scanning is not possible due to use of filters.
  • 52. Power supply Source primary filter secondary filter Detector Sample cell Slit Data processor
  • 53.
  • 54. 1] Determination of inorganic substances Determination of ruthenium ions in presence of other platinum metals. Determination of aluminum (III) in alloys. Determination of boron in steel by complex formed with benzoin. Estimation of cadmium with 2-(2 hydroxyphenyl) benzoxazole in presence of tartarate.
  • 55.  Field determination of uranium salts. 3]fluorescent indicators Mainly used in acid-base titration. e.g.: eosin- colorless-green. Fluorescein:colourless-green. Quinine sulphate: blue-violet. Acridine: green-violet
  • 56. Reagent Ion Fluorescence wavelength Sensitivity Alizarin garnet B Al3+ 500 0.007 Flavanol 8-Hydroxy quinoline Sn4+ Li2+ 470 580 0.1 0.2 4] Fluorometric reagent  Aromatic structure with two or more donor functional groups
  • 57. compound reagent excitation wavelength fluorescence hydrocortisone 75%v/v H2SO4 in ethanol 460 520 nicotinamide cyanogen chloride 250 430 5] organic analysis Qualitative and quantitative analysis of organic aromatic compounds present in cigarette smoke, air pollutants, automobile exhausts etc. 6] pharmaceutical analysis
  • 58. 7] Liquid chromatography Fluorescence is an imp method of determining compounds as they appear at the end of chromatogram or capillary electrophoresis column. 8]determination of vitamin B1 &B2.
  • 59. Douglas A Skoog, Principles of instrumental analysis  H:UV-Vis Luminescence Spectroscopy - Theory.mht Dr.B.K.Sharma, Instrumental methods of chemical analysis Gurdeep R Chatwal, Instrumental methods of chemical analysis

Editor's Notes

  1. E
  2. http://www.bertholdtech.com/ww/en