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  1. 1. EDU 702 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY SURVEY, CORRELATION & CAUSAL COMPARITIVE RESEARCH Prepared for: DR. JOHAN @ EDDY LUARAN Prepared by: Akmal Binti Ahamed Kamal 2013518657 Fatin Athirah Binti Ismail 2013374739 Maryam Solehah Binti Zakaria 2013932773 Nor Nadia Bt Abdul Razak 2013168885 Nur Nabihah Binti Mohd Nizar 2013151033 Nurul Aina Binti Che Arifin 2013110407
  2. 2. What? Determine specific characteristic. Descriptive survey Interview SURVEY RESEARCH
  3. 3. Describe characteristic of a population Distribute themselves on one or more variables Why are survey conducted?
  4. 4. Type of survey Cross sectional survey Collect information from a sample at just one point in time Longitudinal survey Collect information at different point in time 1) Trend study 2) Cohort study 3) Panel study
  5. 5. 1. Trend Study ~ A populations whose members may changer over the time 2. Cohort Study ~ A particular populations whose members do not change 3. Panel Study ~ use the same sample at different times
  6. 6.  Is means a survey should be sufficiently interesting & important to motivate individuals to respond.  Researcher need to define clearly their objective in conducting a survey.  Each question should relate to one or more of the survey objective.  One strategy for defining survey questions is use a hierarchical approach.  What is hierarchical approach? Steps in survey research
  7. 7.  The focus of study in a survey is called the unit of analysis.  What is unit of analysis?  As in other types of research, the group of person that is the focus of the study called the target population.  There are four basic ways to collect data in a survey such as:  By direct administration to a group  By mail  By telephone  By personal interview
  8. 8.  What?  Investigate the possibility of relationships between only two variables.  Descriptive research- describe an existing relationship between variables.  Carried out for one or two basic purposes either to help explain important human behaviour or to predict likely outcomes. CORRELATION RESEARCH
  9. 9. To carried out to help explain important human behaviours or to predict likely outcomes. Purposes of correlational research
  10. 10.  Explanatory studies  It is to clarify out understanding of important phenomena by identifying relationship among variables.  Always investigate a number of variables they believe are related to a more complex variables such as motivation or learning. Types of correlational research
  11. 11. Selecting a problem Choosing a sample Selecting or developing instrument Determining procedures Collecting and analyzing data Interpreting result Basic steps
  12. 12. Teacher about to study the causes of the amount of descriptive behaviours display in class. Student having difficulty in mathematic subject. Teacher about to study the causes of student does not perform in the subject. Example
  13. 13.  What?  Investigator attempt to determine the cause or consequences of differences that already exist between or among group of individuals.  Sometimes viewed, along with correlational research, as a form of associational research, since both describe conditions that already exist. CAUSAL COMPARATIVE RESEARCH
  14. 14. That two groups of individuals differ on some variable ( such as teaching style) and then interrupt to determine the reason for, or the result of this difference. Example
  15. 15. Group Differences  The group difference variable in a causal comparative study is:  Either a variable that cannot be manipulated (such as ethnicity) or one that might have been manipulated but for one reasons or another has not been (such as teaching style)  Example: in the effects of a new diet on very young children
  16. 16.  It is about one of the type of research method that using comparison between cause and effect. Comparisons can establish whether something can be explained by the same causes or not. The difference can be a conclusion but not for the cause of difference. Interpretation of this kind of method is limited because these studies are of value in identified possible causes of observed variation in the behaviour pattern of students.  This kind of research can be used in prediction about problem such as, the different achievements of student in the class. If it about teaching methods, it can be research either it is related with art multimedia method or the self-learning methods. Type Of Research
  17. 17.  Research objectives are:  To identify the meaning of survey, correlation and causal comparative research.  To examine the types of survey, correlation and causal comparative research.  To identify the purposes of this three research method. Example Of Research Objectives
  18. 18.  Research questions are:  What are the meaning of survey, correlation and causal comparative research?  What are the types of survey, correlation and causal comparative research?  What are the purposes of this three research method? Example Of Research Questions
  19. 19.  What are three (3) longitdinal designed are commonly employed in survey research?  What are advantages and disadvantages to collect data in a survey by web- based survey ?  What will you find when you handle correlational research?  What is purpose of correlational research?  What differences in abilities are caused by gender?  Do you think casual comparative-research can avoid the bias judgement? Question