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Mixed method

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EDUCATION

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Mixed method

  1. 1. Lecturer: Dr. Johan Presented by :Huwaida binti Tajudin 2013422458 Hanafi bin Hasbullah 2013401686 Saiful Nizam bin Mat Saat 2013416388 Mohd Faizal Ridha 2013426796
  2. 2. MIXED-METHODS RESEARCH What does it mean? - Involves the use of both quantitative and qualitative methods in a single study. - Those who engage in such research argues that the use of both methods provides a more complete understanding of research problems than does the use of either one.
  3. 3. What does it mean? • Started in the early 1950s. • Only has achieved a significant place in educational research. • The first journal devoted to it began publication in 2005. • There are different views to what a MIXED METHOD RESEARCH is.
  4. 4. Examples of the kinds of mixed-methods studies “Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methodologies in Research on Teachers’ Lives, Work, and Effectiveness.” “Closed and Open-Ended Question Tools in a Telephone Survey About ‘The Good Teacher’.” “Emotions and Change During Professional Development for Teachers: A Mixed Methods Study’.” “Telling It All: A Story of Women’s Social Capital Using a Mixed Methods Approach’.”
  5. 5. There are different views to what a MIXED METHOD RESEARCH is :Numerical and statistical analysis. In-depth information, often in narrative form, frequently obtained through the analysis of written communication.
  6. 6. What does it mean? - Qualitative – Developing a holistic picture and analysis of the phenomenon being studied with an emphasis on ‘thick’ rather than ‘selective’ description. - Quantitative – Observation and interviewing, prominent instruments used in qualitative research, are also commonly found in quantitative studies.
  7. 7. Why do mixed-methods research IT HAS SEVERAL STRENGTHS: 1. Clarify and explain relationships found to exist between variables. 2. Explore relationships between variables IN DEPTH. 3. Mixed method studies can help to confirm or cross-validate relationships discovered between variables, as when quantitative and qualitative methods are compared to see if they converge on a single interpretation of a phenomenon.
  8. 8. Drawbacks of Mixed-Method Studies. • You might ask “Why all research problems are not addressed using mixed methods designs?” 1. Extremely time-consuming and expensive to carry out. 2. Many researchers are only experienced in only one type of research.
  9. 9. Avoiding the drawbacks 1. Multiple researchers with differing areas of expertise work as a team. 2. Better off doing a purely quantitative or qualitative study and doing it well.
  10. 10. 1) THE EXPLORATORY DESIGN  Viewing the study as a two-phase project. (analyze data separately)  QUALITATIVE data collection precedes quantitative data collection.  Greater emphasis is placed on the QUALITATIVE data in the study.  Example: You first conduct interviews and then follow up with a few individuals who answered positively to the questions by giving out survey forms.
  11. 11. SEQUENTIAL OF EXPLORATORY DESIGN QUALITATIVE QUANTITATIVE QUAL DATA COLLECTION QUAL DATA ANALYSIS QUAN DATA COLLECTION QUAN DATA ANALYSIS INTERPRETATION
  12. 12. 2) THE EXPLANATORY DESIGN • Viewing the study as a two-phase project. (analyze data separately) • Collecting QUAN data first followed by collecting QUAL data second • Greater emphasis is placed on the QUAN data in the study • Example: You first conduct a survey and then follow up with a few individuals who answered positively to the questions through interviews.
  13. 13. SEQUENTIAL OF EXPLORATORY DESIGN QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE QUAL DATA COLLECTION QUAL DATA ANALYSIS QUAN DATA COLLECTION QUAN DATA ANALYSIS INTERPRETATION
  14. 14. 3) THE TRIANGULATION DESIGN • Collecting both QUAN and QUAL data • Collecting these data at the same time in the research procedure • Analyzing the QUAN and QUAL data separately • Comparing or combining the results of the QUAN and QUAL analysis • Example: collect survey data (quantitative) and collect individual interviews (qualitative) and then compare the results
  15. 15. SEQUENTIAL OF TRIANGULATION DESIGN QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE QUAN DATA COLLECTION QUAL DATA COLLECTION QUAN DATA ANALYZE QUAL DATA ANALYZE DATA RESULTS ARE COMPARED/COMBINED
  16. 16. Advocacy lenses • Presence or absence of an ‘advocacy lens’ – a factor used to categorized the mixed-method designs. • Occurs when – the researcher’s worldview implies that the purpose of the research is to recommend the improved treatment to participants in the world outside the research. • ‘Worldview’ is a comprehensive view of the world and human life. – (including everything) • Example of worldview that involve advocacy lens are: – feminist theory, race-based theory and critical theory
  17. 17.  Example of research:  A research wanted to triangulating(dividing) quantitative and qualitative methods.  A research on the student academic performance.  Between white suburban school with primarily black inner-city (poorer central section of city) school.  Purposes of research might be: Improve condition and academic school black inner-city student
  18. 18. SAMPLING • Qualitative researchers - use purposive sampling. – Researchers select participants who have experience with central concept being investigate. – Small sample size (to get considerable amount of details) • Quantitative researchers - choose individual who are representative of a larger population. – to get generalize result • Generally random sampling strategies are preferred, however, it is often not suitable in educational research. • Thus, convenience, systematic or purposive sampling must be used. • Sample sizes are much larger than qualitative studies.
  19. 19. • Example of the research • A researcher might randomly select two high schools for the study on drug. (suburban schools) • Survey the 800 graduating. • Then conduct six focus group using purposive sample of students. • Finally conclude by randomly selecting 40 students as subjects. • *researcher must make a number of decisions with regard to sampling before beginning a mixed-methods study.
  20. 20. MIXED MODEL STUDIES  Tashakkori and Teddlie (1998) defined  Mixed model studies as those that ‘combine qualitative and quantitative aproches within several different phases of the research proses.  Single study- involve an experimental study, then qualitative data collection after it has been converted to numbers. Mixed-model study- qualitative and quantitative study ma be addressed in three phases. (refer book page 563) Complicated system for classifying research design.  Because the three phases occur very rarely in practice.
  21. 21. STEPS IN CONDUCTING A MIXED-METHODS STUDY
  22. 22. EVALUATING A MIXED-METHODS STUDY
  23. 23. EVALUATING A MIXED-METHODS STUDY
  24. 24. ETHICS IN MIXED-METHODS RESEARCH Three ethical concern Protecting participant identity privacy Treating participants with respect sensitivity Protecting participants from both physical and psychological harm Injury and pressure
  25. 25. SUMMARY • Mixed method studies becoming popular and common in educational research. • The values lies in combining qualitative and quantitative methods (complement each other) • Requires time, energy and resources in both quantitative and qualitative methods.
  26. 26. Thank You For your attention..
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