Title of Article: Para educators in Art Classrooms: Issues of Culture, Leadership, and Special
Author : Doris M.Guay
To : Dr. Johan @ Eddy Luaran
Submit by : Nor Nadia binti Abdul Razak
Matrix num : 2013168885
This article is about the Para-educators in education system and especially in art classrooms.
This situation is not familiar in our education system because in our class everything will be
done by a teacher. But, in this study was shown that the Para-educator is quit needful at United
States. The author is tried to come out a research about the functional Para-educator in art
classrooms according to their culture, leadership and diverse of special needs students.
Based on experienced, not only in art classroom but for all kind of subject studies
actually need some Para-educators especially for disability or special needs students. Para
educator is a person who works in a school in an instructional capacity alongside school
professionals and is supervised by the certificated or licensed professionals who hold ultimate
responsibility for the student and programmatic concerns.
According to author, hire Para-educators to help teachers fulfil their responsibilities is the
trend at there. Author was argue for the need to address classroom leadership and supervisory
skills in pre-service and in-service teacher education programs and for the learning of best
practices to provide opportunities for students with even the most severe disabilities to
communicate through visual means their being, their chosen ideas, and their understanding. In
this article, it describes approaches to art instruction for students with disabilities in the classes of
12 art teachers, each of whom relied on the services of a Para-educator. According to author, it
lends understanding of how disability is defined and perpetuated by classroom interaction.
2. DESCRIPTION OF METHODOLOGY
The author was used qualitative research methods to collect data during a total of 68 site
visits, many of them for two or three class periods. The author was observed, interviewed,
wrote field and reflective notes, and photographed the artwork of students. Audio taping
preserved an accurate and detailed record of classroom instruction, formal and informal
interviews, and conversations initiated by the subjects. Many informal conversations with
teachers and Para-educators triangulated, verified, and clarified observation. All field notes
and interviews involving art teachers with Para-educators assistance were transcribed. after
that, the author was divided the notes into 288 separate instructional or service actions or
The qualitative data coding and retrieval software enabled me to analyze plain text
records and automatically copy and paste information in deductive categories. The author
was analysed resulted in seven major themes which is necessary and helpful help, patterns of
communication and collaboration, learning and expectation, assimilation, disempowerment
and learned helpless, relinquished leadership and segregation and isolation.
The author was succeed in revealed by interview that training outside of the
classroom for their Para-educator position was minimal or non-existence. Some of
the participant of the Para-educators in this research was worked for a segregated
special needs school and attended yearly workshops offered by staff at the
assigning school. Other Para-educator learned solely from the regular classroom
teachers they worked with and watched.
Para-educators in very importance aids in handling disabilities art classrooms.
Without Para-educator’s assistance, many of the observed teachers would have
been overwhelmed by the demands of large, diverse groups of learners. Para-
educator is like provide the outer directed component needed, they work with
students to accomplish what the teacher suggests.
According the research by the author was founded that teacher and Para-educators
spoke minimally in their classroom. Some of Para-educator explained knew what
to do after go to art room and just follow what art teacher told them. They were
said that, they need more communication actually to make a quality teaching time.
Interaction between art teachers and students with disabilities under direct
supervision of Para-educators was minimal. Most art teachers relinquished the
roles of teacher and manager for students with more severe disabilities to the
Para-educator accompanying them. Sole teacher to engage students directly under
the supervision of a Para-educator in any extended conversation about their
artwork or about art, and to consistently ask substantive question of students with
severe and multiple disabilities.
4. DISCUSSION OF IMPLICATION
According the author, in many art classrooms the use of Para-educators continues to
marginalize students with disabilities, creating the antithesis of inclusion. In additionally,
well meaning but untrained and unsupervised Para-educators usurp opportunities for
students with disabilities to interact, work with cooperative others, and in the end, learn
I also agree to Pre-service art teacher education and in-service art teacher education must
address the issue of:
How to train Para-educators to participate in the learning focus of art classrooms.
How to use Para-educators in ways that allow more art teacher and peer
interaction and more independence for students with disabilities.
How to adapt instruction and assignments in ways that maintain the primary
objectives for learning in art.
According to author, art teachers are the classroom leaders. Without their
acceptance of this multifaceted, visionary, communicative role, Para-educators
must set the limit for own roles and for the task they perform. In this study was
found that teachers and Para-educators was same action of the other less than
ideal, each hesitated to intervene or question the actions, motives, and task
orientation of the other or to question their own roles.
Based on the situation on education in Malaysia we still don’t have the
importance in practically in used Para-educator in class especially art classroom.
For my opinions, before we start in using Para-educator in art-classroom the
government should have the exposure and training to Para-educator and bring it to
higher level before it become issue between teacher and Para-educator status. By
the way, yes I totally agreed that Para-educator is important in art classrooms
especially to disabilities student approaches.