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  2. 2. CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH Definition  The relationships among two or more variables are studied without any attempt to influence them.  Investigate the possibility of relationships between only two variables, although investigations of more than two variables are common.  A form of descriptive research because it describes an existing relationship between variables.
  3. 3. PURPOSES OF CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH  To help explain important human behaviors or to predict likely outcomes.
  4. 4. Is done when there is already a hypothesis as to why something is happening. Questions and tests are designed to support that hypotheses, and prove if it is correct or not. It usually performed in relation to marketing or when studying social phenomenon. For example, the current belief that smoking causes lung cancer, although based in part on experimental studies of animals, rests heavily on correlational evidence of the relationship between frequency of smoking and incidence of lung cancer. PREDICTION STUDIES  If a relationship of sufficient magnitude exists between the two variables, it becomes possible to predict a score on one variable if a score on the other variable is known. For example, high school grades are highly related to college grades. We would predict that a person with a high GPA in high school would be likely to have a high GPA in college.
  5. 5. PROBLEM SELECTION  Correlational study should be based on a sound rationale growing out of experience or theory.  Clarity in defining variables will avoid many problems later. In general, three major types of problems are the focus of correlational studies and one of the example is, “what are the relationships among a large number of variables, and what predictions can be made that are based on them?”
  6. 6. SAMPLE AND INSTRUMENTS  The minimum acceptable sample size for a correlational study is considered by most researchers to be no less than 30. Samples larger than 30 are much more likely to provide meaningful results. Instruments used to measure the two or more variables involved in a correlational study may take any one of a number of form, but they must yield quantitative data.  Most correlational studies involve the administration of some type of instrument and that is tests, questionnaires and so on, and sometimes observation.
  7. 7. DESIGN AND PROCEDURES  Two or more scores are obtained from each individual in the sample, one score for each variable of interest.  The pairs of scores are then correlated, and the resulting correlation coefficient indicates the degree of relationship between the variables.
  8. 8. Basic Steps in Correlational Research 1. Problem Selection There are 3 major types of problems:  Is variable X related to variable Y?  How well does variable P predict variable C?  What are the relationship among a large number of variables and what predictions can be made? 2. Sample  Should be selected carefully and if possible, randomly  Not less than 30
  9. 9. BASIC STEPS IN CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH 3.  Instruments Most correlational studies involve the administration of some types of instruments (tests, questionnaire and so on) 4.  Design and Procedures Design used quite straightforward 5.   Data Collection Data on both variables will usually be collected in a short time Instruments used are administered in a single session or two sessions 6. Data Analysis and Interpretation
  10. 10. THREATS TO INTERNAL VALIDITY IN CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH There are some threats identified in conducting correlational research: 1.  2.   3.   Subject Characteristics Individual or groups have two or more characteristics; might be a cause of variation in the other two variables. Location Location is different for different subject One location may be more comfortable compared to others Instrumentation Instrument decay; care must be taken to ensure the observers don’t become tired, bored or inattentive Data collector characteristics; different gender, age or ethnicity may affect specific response
  11. 11. THREATS TO INTERNAL VALIDITY IN CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH 4. Testing  Experience of responding to the first instrument may influence subject responses to the second instrument 5. Mortality  Loss of subjects may make a relationship more (or less) likely in the remaining data
  12. 12. EVALUATING THREATS TO INTERNAL VALIDITY Follows a procedure similar to the experimental research: 1. Subject Characteristics  Four of many possible characteristics i. severity of disability ii. socioeconomic level of parents iii. physical strength and coordination iv. physical appearance 2. Mortality  Loss of subjects can be expected to reduce magnitude of correlation
  13. 13. EVALUATING THREATS TO INTERNAL VALIDITY 3. Location  Threats could be controlled by independently assessing the job-site environments 4. Instrumentation  Instrument decay; observations should scheduled  Data collector characteristics; interaction of data collectors and supervisors is a necessary parts  Data collector bias; observers should have no knowledge of job ratings
  14. 14. HOW DO WE EVALUATE A CORRELATIONAL STUDY? To evaluate correlational study, we might follow the criteria given below:  Adequacy of sampling for hypothesis testing  Display the results in matrices and graphs  Assessment of the magnitude of the relationship based on the coefficient of determination, values, effect size  Form of relationships and appropriate statistics  Identify predictor and criterion variables  Predicted the direction of relationship among variables based on observed data  Statistical procedures
  15. 15. WHAT IS A SURVEY? Survey research is one of the most important areas of measurement in applied social research. The broad area of survey research encompasses any measurement procedures that involve asking questions of respondents. SURVEY RESEARCH involves collecting data to test hypotheses /to Answer Q about people’s opinions on some topics or issue. A SURVEY : instrument to collect data that describe one or more characteristics of a specific population. A SURVEY : consists of a predetermined set of questions that is given to a sample.
  16. 16. Types of survey Cross-Sectional survey Longitudinal survey Trend study Cohort study Panel study
  17. 17. Cross-Sectional survey A cross-sectional study describes characteristics of that population at one time, but cannot give any insight as to the causes of population characteristics because it is a predictive, correlational design. Data are collected from selected individuals at a single point in time. Effective for providing a snapshot of a current behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs in a populations.
  18. 18. Longitudinal Surveys Information is collected at different point in time in order to study change over time. Require an extended commitment by the researcher and participants. Three longitudinal design are commonly employed in survey research : trend studies, cohort studies and panel studies. Trend study • Examines changes over time in a particular population defined by some particular trait/traits. • Researcher can analyze changes in attitudes, beliefs, behaviours within that particular population over time.
  19. 19. Cohort Survey • is a form of longitudinal study (a type of observational study) •Involves one population selected at a particular time period but multiple samples taken and surveyed at different points of time •Cohort studies are largely about the life histories of segments of populations, and the individual people who constitute these segments. Panel Survey • The same individuals are studies over time. • The researcher survey the same sample of individuals at different time during the courses of the survey.
  20. 20. Conducting Survey Research Aim: collection of standardized, quantifiable information from all members of a population or a sample. To describe the characteristic of a population For example : • age •Ethnicity •Religious preference and others Methods of survey research: • Mail surveys •In-person interviews •Telephone interviews •Internet survey
  21. 21. SURVEY RESEARCH & CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH  Examine relationship of responses to one question in a survey to another or of score base on one set of survey questions to a score based on another set  Questionnaire of the variables are prepared, then the relationship determined by calculating correlation coefficients.
  22. 22. STEP IN SURVEY RESEARCH 1. Defining the Problem 2. Indentifying the Target Population 3. Choosing the Mode of Data Collection 4. Selecting Sample 5. Preparing Instrument 6. Preparing Cover Letter 7. Training Interviews 8. Using an Interview to Measure Ability
  23. 23. 1. Defining the Problem  Should be interesting and important to motivate individuals to respond.  Define clearly the objective, each question relate to survey’s objective.  Using Hierarchical approach : identify large categories of issues ending with more specific issues within each category.
  24. 24. 2. Identifying the Target Population  The focus of the study in a survey is called Unit of analysis.  in other types of research, the focus of study is called target population.  Unit of analysis can be objects, companies, classroom, school, government agencies etc.
  25. 25. 3. Choosing the Mode of Data Collection  Direct Administration to a Group  Web-Based Survey  Mail Survey  Telephone Survey  Personal Interview
  26. 26. 4. Selecting The sample  The researcher must know the right sample to answer the questionnaire.  And the researcher know the sample have the information about the question.
  27. 27. 5. Preparing The Instrument  Questionnaire - Self administered by respondent - Attractive, not too long, easy to answer  Interview Schedule - Ministered verbally by researcher  Avoid unusual words  Same Q must be asked of all respondent
  28. 28. Types of Question  Closed- Ended Q  Open-Ended Q Improving Closed Ended Q - Unambiguous, simple, short, common language, avoid terms that might bias responses, leading Q and double Negative.
  29. 29. •Pretesting The Q’naire  Overall Format - How the Q look is very important in encouraging the respondent to respond.  Follow up Q - Called as contingency Q
  30. 30. 6. Preparing Cover Letter  For mail survey  Purpose of CV: Explain the purpose of the survey  Content of CV: Brief, emphasize the importance of topic, willing to share the result, Their respondent name will be kept confidential, specific date to returned, signed, enclosing a stamped n self addressed envelope…
  31. 31. 7. Training Interviews  Need to be trained 1st - Telephone How to engage their interviewees, explain and ask Q -Face to Face How to establish rapport, move on a new Q and previous, when n how to follow up, Training in gestures, manner, facial expression and dress.
  32. 32. Training interview should include the general topic to be covered such as: - Procedures for contacting respondent, introducing study, how to design the Q’naire, recording answer, rules n guidelines for handling the interpersonal aspects.
  33. 33. 8. Using an Interview To Measure Ability Ex:
  34. 34. THANK YOU