Quantitative research methodologies


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Quantitative research methodologies

  1. 1. Quantitative Research Methodologies <br />
  2. 2. Experimental Research <br />This is a type of research that deliberately attempts to influence a particular variable and when properly applied is the best type of testing the cause and effect relationships<br />It involves two groups: the experimental group which receives a treatment of some sort and a control group which receives no such treatment<br />
  3. 3. Randomization <br />Subjects are randomly assigned to the various groups in the experimental study<br />Holding variables constant<br />Building the variable in to the design<br />Matching<br />Using subjects as their own controls<br />Using analysis of covariance<br />
  4. 4. Weak experimental design<br />One shot case study<br />One group pre-test, post test design<br />Static group comparison design<br />Static group pretest, post test design<br />
  5. 5. True experimental design<br />Random post test only control group design <br />
  6. 6. Parts of an Experimental Research<br />Purpose/Justification – explains the logic of the research<br />Definition – are the terms clearly defined?<br />Prior research – any previous work done?<br />Hypothesis – how is it stated?<br />Sample – what type of sample is used<br />Instrumentation – is it adquately described<br />Procedures/internal validity – what are the threats evident?<br />Data analysis – are data summarized and reported appropriately?<br />Results – how are they presented<br />Discussion/interpretation – do authors place the study in a broader context?<br />
  7. 7. Single Subject Research <br />This is a type of research in which data are collected and analyzed for only one subject at a time. <br />It is used to study children with handicaps. It would make little sense to form groups of three each in an instance.<br />Threats include: Condition length is arbitrary. The researcher must determine what time data is sufficient; number of variables change from one condition to another<br />
  8. 8. parts<br />Purpose<br />Definition<br />Literature review<br />Sample/subject<br />Method (reward analysis)<br />Experiments<br />General discussion<br />Conclusion <br />Implication <br />
  9. 9. Correlational Research <br />This type of research is carried out for one or two basic purposes. One is to help explain important human behavior or to predict likely outcomes.<br />Here the researcher collects different kinds of data from subjects that might be related to the problem<br />Methods: simple prediction equation (simple graph) <br />Multiple regression (venn diagram)<br />
  10. 10. Causal-Comparative Research<br />In causal-comparative research investigators attempt to determine the cause or consequences of differences that already exist between two groups or individuals. (ex post facto research)<br />Examples 1: Type 1 exploration of effects (dependent variable)<br />What are the differences caused by gender<br />Research hypothesis: females have a greater amount of linguistic abilities than men.<br />
  11. 11. Examples<br />Type 2: exploration of causes (independent variable)<br />Question: What causes individuals to join a gang?<br />Research hypothesis: individuals who are members of gangs have more aggressive personalities than those who are not members of gangs.<br />
  12. 12. Type No. 3 Exploration of the Consequences (dependent variable) of an intervention<br />Question: how do students taught by the inquiry method react to propaganda?<br />Research Hypothesis: stufdents who were taught by the inquiry method are more critical of propaganda than those taught by the lecture method.<br />
  13. 13. Survey Research<br />Survey is used to collect information to describe some aspects or characteristics such as abilities, attitudes, beliefs, and or knowledge of the population of which the group is a part.<br />It is the main way of information is collected by asking questions.<br />Information is collected from a sample rather than from every member of the population. <br />
  14. 14. Kinds of survey<br />Cross sectional survey – the researcher collects information from a sample drawn from a predetermined population. When the entire population is surveyed this is called a census.<br />Longitudinal survey – here information is collected in different points in time to study changes over time. Three designs are commonly used: the survey research, trend studies, cohort studies and panel studies<br />
  15. 15. Trend studies – different samples are taken from a population whose members may change in time. i.e. Attitudes of principals regarding flexible scheduling during certain parts of the year.<br />Cohort studies – samples in a particular population do not change over the course of the survey<br />Panel studies – the researcher surveys the same sample of individuals during the course of the survey. I.e. Status of history instruction; dimensions of effective school leadership<br />
  16. 16. Type of Questions<br />Open-ended questions allow individual responses<br />Closed ended questions – allows limited options. Multiple choice questions allow measurement of opinions and knowledge. <br />
  17. 17. Bad questions<br />Ambiguous – do you spend a lot of time studying?<br />Better: how much time do you spend studying? A) 2 hours b) 4 hours c) 6 hours d) more than 7 hours e) never<br />No focus: who do you think are more satisfied in teaching elementary and secondary schools, men or women<br />Keep the question short: what part of the English curriculum in your opinion is the most important in terms of the development of students in the program?<br />Improved: what part of the district’s English curriculum is the most important?<br />Use common language: what do you think is the principal reason that schools are experiencing absenteeism today?<br />Better: What are the causes why more students are absent this year than previously?<br />