Developmental Supervision


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Developmental Supervision

  1. 1. Developmental Supervision Amber Forehand-Hughes Vicki Holden Alicia Ramey
  2. 2. Developmental Models of SupervisionPrimary focus: Change and growth experienced by supervisees as they gain clinical experience and competence while being supervised through various stages of developmentDevelopmental Models typically have one of three designs: Models with linear stages of development Models with step-by-step process for conflict resolution Life-span developmental models(Bernard & Goodyear, 2009)
  3. 3. Determinants of Supervisor Behavior Assumptive World Theoretical Orientation Theoretical Orientation Style-Role Strategy-Focus Format TechniqueDevelopment and Validation of the Supervisory Styles Inventory (Friedlander &Ward, 1984)
  4. 4. Assumptive World
  5. 5. ASSUMPTIVE WORLD Developmental Models of SupervisionSupervision is a developmental process: Supervisees have individual needs, learn differently, and advance at their own pace from less to more competent as they go through stages in their professional development.Conception of supervision is rooted in developmental psychology which describes and explains changes in individual behavior across the lifespan.Focus on developmental and educative function: Supervisors must be confident in their skill base and ability to impart information for the purposes of learning. Supervisors will adjust to supervisee’s level—moving from supportive, directive coach/teacher to supportive mentor.(Lambie & Sias, 2009)(Everett, Miehls, DuBois & Garran, 2011)
  6. 6. ASSUMPTIVE WORLD Developmental Models of SupervisionSupervisees: Face developmental issues including: Competence, Identity, Self-Awareness Need different supervisory environments at each stageSupervisors: Need ability to identify Supervisee’s current stage and apply corrective feedback and support Need ability to identify Supervisee’s prior learned skills and knowledge to activate new learningInterventions: Differ at each stage of development(Carlson & Lambie, 2012)(Chagon & Russell, 1995)
  7. 7. Theoretical Orientation
  8. 8. THEORETICAL ORIENTATION Developmental Models of SupervisionI. Cognitive Behavioral Orientation Cognitive Developmental Theory Earlier stages of Supervisee development More task-oriented supervisionII. Psychoanalytic Orientation Psychosocial Developmental Theory Later stages of Supervisee development More interpersonally sensitive supervision(Friedlander & Ward, 1984)
  9. 9. THEORETICAL ORIENTATION Developmental Models of SupervisionIII. Theoretical Eclecticism Uses combination of different theories (Humanistic and others) Allows for use of different techniques and interventions at different stages of the supervision process: More cognitive at earlier stages of supervisee development More psychoanalytic at later stages of supervisee development(Friedlander & Ward, 1984)
  10. 10. Style-Role
  11. 11. STYLE-ROLE Developmental Models of SupervisionExamples of interventions (in IDM):- Facilitative interventions(enable the supervisee to retain some control in the relationship) - Cathartic: those that elicit affective reactions - Catalytic: open-ended questions intended to encourage self-exploration or problem-solving - Supportive: those that validate the supervisee- Authoritative interventions(provide more relational control to the supervisor) - Prescriptive: giving advice and making suggestions - Informative: providing information - Confronting: pointing out discrepancies the supervisor observes between or among supervisee (a) feelings, (b) attitudes, and/or (c) behaviors- Conceptual interventions (help the supervisee link theory to practice) - Watch for the supervisee’s use of a particular strategy, then help him or her develop a conceptual from for what was just done - Present the model, then suggest an intervention based on it(Bernard & Goodyear, 2009)
  12. 12. STYLE-ROLE Developmental Models of SupervisionWatch audio- or videotape of session > when trigger occurs,supervisee stops tape > supervisor’s role is to ask questions toguide supervisee’s reflections about the experienceSupervisor role is to assess supervisee on main issues (ex.competence, emotional awareness, autonomy, theoreticalidentity, etc.) and attempt to move supervisee to the next stageof development (The Loganbill, Hardy, and Delworth Model)(Bernard & Goodyear, 2009)
  13. 13. Strategy-Focus
  14. 14. STRATEGY-FOCUS Developmental Models of SupervisionStage developmental models VS Process development models(supervisee moves through (supervisee goes throughstages) processes that occur within a fairly limited, discrete period)(Bernard & Goodyear, 2009)
  15. 15. STRATEGY-FOCUS Developmental Models of SupervisionReflective models = trigger event > critical review of situation >new, deeper understanding > employed understanding in futuresituationsEvent-based supervision = like reflective models, but eithersupervisee or supervisor can identify a significant eventReflection provokes self-monitoring, which the supervisorreinforces(Bernard & Goodyear, 2009)
  16. 16. STRATEGY-FOCUS Developmental Models of SupervisionSupervision should be individualized based on supervisee development and needs Beginner Characteristics Experienced Characteristics Dependent More confidence Vulnerable Authentic approach Anxious Know when supervision is Fragile self-confidence necessary Establishingautonomy Risk-taking Beginner Needs Experienced Needs Directive Less structure Structure Nondirective Support More focus on theory and Instruction counter-transference (Bernard & Goodyear, 2009) (Falender &Shafranske, 2004) (Stoltenberg, 1981)
  17. 17. Format and Techniques
  18. 18. FORMAT AND TECHNIQUES Developmental Models of Supervision Format and techniques are based on supervisee’s current stage of development and supervisee learning style A supervisor can appropriately provide feedback while simultaneously facilitating the supervisee’s progress to the next stage Based on notion that supervisees’ competence and needs change over time(Bernard and Goodyear, 2009)
  19. 19. FORMAT AND TECHNIQUES Developmental Models of SupervisionDevelopmental models consist of: -Stage Models -Process Models -Life Span Models
  20. 20. FORMAT AND TECHNIQUES Developmental Models of Supervision Stage Model:• Level 1 – Supervisees • Entry-level students • Highly motivated • Filled with anxiety and pressure • Fearful of evaluation• Level 2 – Supervisees • Mid-level and some experience • Fluctuating confidence and motivation • Critical self-awareness• Level 3 – Supervisees • Basically secure • Stable in motivation • Accurate level empathy • Using therapeutic self in interventions
  21. 21. FORMAT AND TECHNIQUES Developmental Models of SupervisionProcess Model:Reflective Model Practice– Use of reflective process through selection of therapeutic orientation– Work-related reflections • Self-monitored– Discovery Learning − Trigger Event – Skills and strategy − Critical reevaluation – Personhood Issues − Achieve new perspective – Conceptualization
  22. 22. FORMAT AND TECHNIQUES Developmental Models of SupervisionProcess Model:The Loganbill, Hardy, and Delworth Model– Stagnation Stage • Unawareness deficiencies • Black and white thinking • Dependent on supervisor/idealization of supervisor • Lack of motivation– Confusion Stage • Liberated from rigid perceptions • More cognitively aware • Frustrated with supervisor– Integration Stage • More secure based on accurate self-awareness • Cognitively aware of skills • Realistic view of supervisor • Takes more responsibility for actions
  23. 23. FORMAT AND TECHNIQUES Developmental Models of Supervision Lifespan Model:• First three phases correspond with the IDM Model – Phase I – Helper Phase • Novice level • Boundary issues • Confusion of sympathy and empathy – Phase II – The Beginning Student • Dependent • Vulnerable • Anxious • Fragile • A display of unsuccessful perfectionism tendencies – Phase III – The Advance Student Phase • Internship stage • Basic professionalism established • More cautious and conservative• The next three stages are considered post-graduate and are not as structured. These phases are the professional establishment phases. – The Novice Professional Phase, – The Experienced Professional Phase – The Senior Professional Phase
  24. 24. FORMAT AND TECHNIQUES Developmental Models of SupervisionIntegrative Development Model (IDM):– Stagnation Stage/Phase I • Format – Observation (video or live) – Technique » Skills training » Role-playing » Interpret dynamics (limited, client, or trainee) » Readings • Format – Group Supervision – Technique » Appropriate balance of ambiguity/conflict » Address strengths, then weaknesses » Closely monitor clients– Confusion Stage/Phase II • Format – Observation (video or live) – Technique » Role playing (though less important now) » Interpret dynamics and parallel process • Format – Group Supervision – Technique » Broader clientele » Address strengths, then weaknesses » Monitor clients
  25. 25. FORMAT AND TECHNIQUES Developmental Models of Supervision Integrative Development Model (IDM) continued: – Integration/Phase iii • Format – Peer supervision (Triadic) – Technique » Address strengths, then weaknesses » Dialogues of feedback • Group Supervision – Technique » Strive for integration » Dialogues of feedback(Stoltenberg, McNeill,&Delworth, 1998)
  26. 26. References
  27. 27. REFERENCESBernard, J. M., & Goodyear, R. K. (2009). Fundamentals of Clinical Supervision. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.Carlson, R.G., Lambie, G.W., Developmental supervision: Clinical supervisory approach for family counseling student interns. Family Journal (20)1, 29-36.Chagon, J., & Russell, R. K. (1995). Assessment of supervisee developmental level and supervision environment across supervisor experience. Journal of Counseling and Development. (73), 553-558.Everett, J.E., Miehls, D. , DuBois, C. & Garran, A.M. (2011) The developmental model of supervision as reflected in the experiences of field supervisors and graduate students. Journal of Teaching in Social Work(31)3, 250-264.Falender, C. A., &Shafranske, E. P. (2004). What makes for good supervision? In Clinical supervision: A competency-based approach (pp. 37-58). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. doi: 10.1037/10806-002Friedlander, M.L., Ward, I. G. (1984) Development and validation of the Supervisory Styles Inventory. Journal of Counseling Psychology (31), 541-557.
  28. 28. REFERENCES (CONTINUED)Haynes, R., Corey, G., & Moulton, P. (2003). Clinical supervision in the helping professions: A practical guide. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.Lambie, G.W., Sias, S.M. (2009) An Integrative psychological developmental model of supervision for professional school counselors-in-training. Journal Of Counseling & Development, 87(3), 349-356.Ronnestad, M. H., &Skovolt, T. M. (1993). Supervision of beginning and advanced graduate students of counseling and psychotherapy. Journal of Counseling and Development, 71, 396-405.Stoltenberg, C. (1981). Approaching supervision from a developmental perspective: The counselor complexity model. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 28(1), 59-65. doi:10.1037/0022-0167.28.1.59Stoltenberg, C. D., McNeill, B. and Delworth, U. (1998) DM Supervision: An Integrated Developmental Model of Supervising Counselors and Therapists. The Counseling Psychologist 28 (5), 622-640.