The British war with America 1 The British government always sent their convicts to America. England owned America so the only way that America could be its own country was war. 2 England couldn’t send their convicts to America any more. Their gaols filled up and they also had to use hulks as gaols. 3 England lost the war to America so they had to find a new place where they could send their convicts. 4 They found a place. Luckily Sir Joseph Banks said there was a beautiful place where there were rich soil, fresh water and a safe place to land ships and where a colony could survive.
All aboard 1 The horrid convicts were heavily guarded as they filled the 11 ships one by one, with chains still attached to their battered ankles. 2 As they left the river Thames, heading towards a new land. New Holland (Australia) they were told was their new home. 3 The 11 ships carried 1467 people aboard. 769 were convicts. The ships travelled over 24,000 kilometres by ships. It took 8 months. Their Captain was Arthur Phillip.
The Penal colony 1 They were told Botany Bay was an ideal place for an colony but they were wrong. There was no fresh water or rich soil but instead there was poor soil and no safe place for ships to land. 2 The colony moved up to Port Jackson harbour. When they found this place they immediately put up the British flag and claimed the land for England. 3 They put up tents but they were no match against the up coming winter.
Harsh labour 1 Convicts had really harsh labour they wrote songs about it. Convicts had to work to make public development. Making houses, court houses, e.t.c. Men worked to clear land and when they finished clearing land they worked to farm it. Though some convicts were not educated some were, and they had to work at convict administration 2 Women on the other hand worked in factories at Rouse Hill (Parramatta), when the land was cleared and when they finished making the factory. 3 Some men were put into chain gangs where they had to work together in heavy chains.
Punishment 1 Convicts were sent to New Holland for stealing, murder, pick pocketing and many others things. Those who stole more than a shilling would get them hanged but children were never hanged but they were flogged. 2 Punishment ranged from being flogged by a cat o’ nine tail or by a hard stick or you could get hanged or be headed. 3 Men, women and children were flogged. Once a man stole a biscuits and he got flogged over 1000 times. Food was very precious
Food supply 1 Convicts were always given less food by the government in New Holland at the time. Then Governor Arthur Phillip changed this law the colony was in dire need of food. 2 Starvation was the biggest killer in the penal colony. 3 Most convicts were lazy and didn’t know how to farm and grow gardens so they starved or stole from others.
Population 1 Colonies all around Australia stood at about 1 million people by 1821. 2 Most convicts were British. 70% were British, 24% Irish, 5% Scottish. 3 A lot of free settlers came to Australia. But so did convicts. Convicts had to build more buildings to house all these new free settlers. Convicts also had to build The Government house which the Governor and his family lived
Getting Out 1 Convicts without life sentences were allowed to be given a pardon and they no longer become convicts or were given a shorter sentence. 2 Convicts who finished their life sentence were allowed to buy a ticket of leave (if they could afford it). 3 Only the governor at the time could give a pardon if you behaved.
Bibliography <ul><li>Sites: www.cultureandrecreation.gov.au </li></ul><ul><li>http://folkstream.com/songs.html </li></ul><ul><li>www.google.com </li></ul><ul><li>Books: Bound for Botany Bay, The first fleet and convict years By: Geoff Hocking </li></ul><ul><li>Grim crims and convicts By: Jackie French </li></ul>