Lieutenant James Cook• In 1770, James Cook explored the east coast of Australia. He realized this area could support a settlement. He claimed Australia for the British Crown.
• Australia was portrayed as a remote and unattractive land for European settlement.• However, after the Revolutionary War, Great Britain lost the 13 colonies which were used to host prisoners. Prisons again became overcrowded.• James Cook’s findings proved to come at a perfect time. An island would be a great place to set up prison settlement in Australia.
• Britain moved quickly in 1783 and established its first settlement in Australia.• In 1787, eleven ships carrying 1,450 passengers began the voyage to colonize Australia. On January 21, 1788, they founded the first settlement and named it Sydney.
Prison Colonies• 1787 – British ships called the “First Fleet” left England with convicts to establish a prison colony at Port Jackson – convicts settled in 1788.
Founding of Port Jackson The History of Australia
Convicts Take Over Australia• The British experienced overcrowding in their prison system and sought to solve the problem by sentencing their prisoners to “transportation” -- Australia. The British made Australia into a penal (prison) colony.• The British believed the best form of punishment was manual labor. From 1810, convicts were seen as a source of labor to advance and develop the British colony. Here they founded a system of labor in which people, whatever their crime, were employed according to their skills.• Convict labor was used to develop the public facilities of the colonies - roads, bridges, courthouses, and hospitals. Convicts also worked for free settlers and small land holders.• Convicts had specialized jobs as carpenters, farmers, nurses, and masons.
This Land is My Land!• Free settlers began arriving in New South Wales colony in 1973.• Settlers were hoping to find wealth and land in the New World.• British settlers traveled through the outback and sailed around the island- many died at the hands of the aborigines or lack of water.• Those who survived realized the importance of befriending the aborigine people and following their knowledge of how to survive off the land.
• As new places were discovered, new colonies were formed.• The four main colonies: – Van Diemen’s Island (later Tasmania) was a penal colony. – Western Australia – South Australia – New South Wales• The growing number of British settlers and colonists began creating issues with the Aborigines.
Conflicts with the Aborigines• Once prisoners finished serving their sentences, Great Britain gave them Australian land to settle.• This policy of giving away land brought the Europeans into conflict with the Aborigines people.• Settlers claimed land once belonging to the Aborigines and many Aborigine were shot, killed, or imprisoned if they trespassed on white settler land.
•White settlers drove the Conflicts with Aborigines from their sacredthe Aborigines land. • White settlers usually took the best land that held valuable resources needed for survival. •The Aborigine were forced to survive on even smaller supplies of food, and were steadily reduced in number by starvation and the lack of water.
Effects of British Colonization British Weapons Diseases• The aborigines did try to • Diseases were more fight back, but their dangerous than guns. spears were no match for • British brought over small the guns of the British. pox, influenza, and• During the 1880s, the tuberculosis. Australian government • Disease spread rapidly made it legal for settlers killing the close to half the to use force against the population. aborigines• Many natives were brutally killed.
Assimilation• In 1901, the British made laws against the Aborigines – They limited where Aborigines could live and work. – The government took some Aboriginal children from their homes. Some of them were raised by European settlers. – The children lost contact with their parents and Aboriginal culture.• The goal was to end Aboriginal culture because the British feared the Aboriginal people.
Assimilation• Aborigine people left could choose to assimilate into the Australian culture.• Many times they were forced into poverty and mistreated by the colonists.• Many worked low-paying jobs as stock hands or laborers.• By the 1900s, only 2% of the population was Aborigines.• In 2008, the Prime Minister apologized to the Aborigines on behalf of all Australians.
Australia’s On Its Own (Well, sort of)• On January 1, 1901, the colonies were federated.• This was the birth of the Commonwealth of Australia, a Dominion of the British Empire.
Australia’s On Its Own (Well, sort of)• The Australian Capital Territory (ACT) was created from New South Wales in 1911 for the new capital of Canberra.
Australia’s On Its Own (Well, sort of)• Australia willingly participated in World War I as a member of the British Empire.• The Australian and New Zealand army was defeated in WWI and some believe that is the true freedom of the Nation.
Oceania in WWII• WWII was the first time that Australia’s security was threatened.• Japan invaded the territory of Australia.• This was the first time Australians fought and died repelling an invader on Australian soil without the support or presence of the United Kingdom.
Oceania in WWII• Oceania was the sight of the Pacific Campaign fought between American and Japanese forces, using a technique called island- hopping.• The most important battles of the Pacific Campaign included: – Midway (June 1942) – Iwo Jima (February - March 1945) – Manila (March 1945) – Okinawa (April - June 1945)
Australia Today• Prior to the 1970s, Australia promoted a policy called “White Australia.”• They would not allow non-Caucasians to immigrate to Australia.• That has since changed.
Australia Today• In 1986, all legal ties with the British Empire were severed with the passing of the Australia Act.• Today, Australia is a constitutional monarchy with Elizabeth II as queen.• In 1999, 55% of voters rejected the idea of becoming a republic (making Australia 100% independent)