Once formal hostilities began in 1739 between the Spanish and English over the land between South Carolina and Florida, shipping on the Atlantic Ocean suffered frequent interruption from acts of piracy by both sides. These skirmishes escalated into the War of Jenkins' Ear and the Battle of Bloody Marsh. In the 1742 Battle of Bloody Marsh on St. Simons Island, General Oglethorpe's soldiers defeated Spanish forces in what was the only Spanish invasion of Georgia during the War of Jenkins' Ear. The battle earned its name from its location rather than from the number of casualties, which were minimal. Once formal hostilities began in 1739 between the Spanish and English over the land between South Carolina and Florida, shipping on the Atlantic Ocean suffered frequent interruption from acts of piracy by both sides. These skirmishes escalated into the War of Jenkins' Ear and the Battle of Bloody Marsh. In the 1742 Battle of Bloody Marsh on St. Simons Island, General Oglethorpe's soldiers defeated Spanish forces in what was the only Spanish invasion of Georgia during the War of Jenkins' Ear. The battle earned its name from its location rather than from the number of casualties, which were minimal.
THE FOUNDING OF
SIR ROBERT MONTGOMERY’S PLAN
MAGRAVATE OF AZILIA, 1717
THE COLONY OF GEORGIA’S 3
PURPOSES ACCORDING TO ITS
CHARTER OF 1732
1. Charity: relieve unemployment in Britain
2. Economics: To provide England goods to protect
in the system of mercantilism
3. Defense: buffer between Carolinas & Spanish
4. Religion: provide a home for persecuted British
PROTESTANTS vs. CATHOLICS
Anglican Church Catholic Church
21 in all
Trustee: man placed in a position of trust on
behalf of other people; Georgia’s 21 trustees did
not benefit personally (income, land, or
government office) from their position
Thomas Causton: Keeper of the Trustees’ Store:
Manager of the “Colonial Wal-Mart”; maintained a
huge warehouse in Savannah where colonists
purchased food, clothing, supplies and guarantted
amounts of meat and flour. (Powerful man: made $
by degen. the food)
William Stephens: Secretary of Trustees: sent
detailed reports of Savannah’s happenings back to
JAMES E. OGLETHORPE
James Edward Oglethorpe is credited with founding Georgia. The first group of British settlers landed at the site of the
planned town, then known as Yamacraw Bluff, on the Savannah River, and Oglethorpe led them sixteen miles inland
from the Atlantic Ocean on February 12, 1733.
UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. “DOCUMENTING THE
G (ACCESSED JANUARY 23, 2009).
Northern Boundary: Savannah River
Southern Boundary: Altamaha River
Area also claimed by Spain & France!!
GEORGIA AS TRUSTEE COLONY:
Everyone coming to the colony was
expected to work.
Colonists were expected to live and work
under the rules and supervision of the
Georgia’s native peoples were shown as
being friends of the English colonists.
Boats were shown carrying goods for
trade, possibly with the Indians.
Success in bringing European civilization
to the wilderness can be seen.
“NON SIBI SED ALILIS” : “Not for ourselves but
Sermons, pamphlets, speeches & newspapers
appeal for monetary contributions & colonists
Application process for potential colonists
Trustees looked for hardworking, down-on-their luck people to
send on charity
Colonists sent on charity received: land, seed, tools, weapons
and food to support them until the 1st
Carpenters, tailors, bankers, merchants & other
COLONISTS SAIL TO
November 1732 on the ship Anne
57 day journey
Landed in Charles Town
Oglethorpe scouts for a settlement site & finds a
place nearby a village of Yamacraw Indians
JOHN & MARY MUSGROVE:
TRADERS & TRANSLATORS
Mary Musgrove (pictured with her third husband, the Reverend
Thomas Bosomworth) served as a cultural liaison between colonial
Georgia and her Native American community in the mid-eighteenth
century. She took advantage of her biculturalism to protect Creek
interests, maintain peace on the frontier, and expand her business as
Due to the Musgrove’s help – Tomochichi and the Yamacraw Indians
welcomed the new British settlement near their village. The colonists
arrived at Yamacraw Bluff on February 12, 1733.
As the principal mediator between the native population and the new English
settlers during the first years of Georgia's settlement, Tomochichi (left)
contributed much to the establishment of peaceful relations between the two
groups and to the ultimate success of Georgia. His nephew, Toonahowi, is seated
on the right in this engraving, circa 1734-35, by John Faber Jr.
A large granite boulder with a decorative copper plate was installed in Savannah's
Wright Square, southeast of the original grave marker, on April 21, 1899. The
plate is inscribed to "the mico of the Yamacraws, the companion of Oglethorpe,
and the ally of the colony of Georgia."
THE SETTLEMENT OF SAVANNAH
The colonists lived in tents while they cleared and tamed the
Open public squares to serve as neighborhood centers
4 lots facing each square set aside for public bldgs.
40 60 X 90 house lots around each square, organized into
4 groups of 10.
Dysentery & Disease: water-borne (river water)
¼ Colonists died, including the town doctor.
Remedy: a town well was dug.
Other colonists soon arrive: Lutheran
Salzburgers, Germans, Italians, Swiss
By the end of the 1st
year there were over 50
houses in Savannah and many public buildings.
The main 3 regulations of the Trustees, which
Georgia colonists oppose:
1. Restrictions on Land Ownership
2. Ban on Slavery
3. Prohibitions on Rum & Hard Liquors
RESTRICTIONS ON LAND
OWNERSHIP & INHERITANCE
Trustees’ Goal: Prevent the development of a rich
Each Male Adult on Charity received:
50 acres of land (5 city acres, 45 country acres)
Each Male Adult who paid his own way received:
50 acres of land for themselves
+ 50 additional acres for each servant
500 acres maximum
Land was not redistributed if land was unsuitable for
Colonists could not re-sell land.
Inheritance: Each land grant had to have an adult male to
protect it. If a landowner died without a male heir, land
was returned to the Trustees’.
Prohibition on Slavery:
All of the surrounding colonies allowed slavery.
Prohibition on Rum:
English beer was allowed.
Thomas Causon, Keeper of the Trustees Store is
known for watering-down beer before selling it to
1734: Oglethorpe returned to England to brief
Parliament. Tomochichi and his nephew
Tooanahowi, and a delegation of Creek Indians
Requests for additional government funding for the
“Sells” the need for Georgia as a buffer colony
between the Spanish and the French (not haven for
Parliament agreed to fund the construction of
forts along the GA coast.
GEORGIA’S FIRST FORT
North of the mouth of the Altamaha River at
Georgia’s southern boundary. (Darien)
Constructed by 150 Scottish Highlanders
Dec. 1735: Oglethorpe and 257 colonists sail from
England to build Frederica at St.Simon’s Island
While the Spanish were frightened at the
increasing number of British forts under
construction, a peace treaty was reached between
Oglethorpe and the Spanish Governor of Florida,
Moral de Sanchez.
Designed to defend the southern frontier from the continued
presence of Spanish colonials in the American Southeast, Fort
Frederica on St. Simons Island served as the British military
headquarters in colonial America.
The tabby ruins of Fort Frederica, which was established by
James Oglethorpe in 1736 on St. Simons Island, are among the
oldest architectural remnants left from the colonial period in the
“Daily Life in Georgia:
“Expectation vs. Reality”
Relations with Spain continue to worsen
1736 : Oglethorpe returns to England to appeal to
Parliament for additional funding and military
Rumor of an envoy of Spanish militia sent to Cuba
Continental relations in Europe between Spain and
England continue to decline.
October1737: Oglethorpe is promoted to colonel
in the British army
Raises a regiment of 600 soldiers; Ready to sail to
Fort Frederica in Spring 1738
In charge of all British forces in GA and SC
WAR WITH SPAIN
1739: Britain declares war on
Oglethorpe prepares British forces to
invade Florida and destroy St.
1740 Oglethorpe leads an invasion force
and captures Fort Diego, then moves on
to Fort Mose.
Fort Mose’s defenders fell back to
Oglethorpe marches toward St.
Augustine and British forces staying
behind are attacked at Fort. Mose
68 British dead, 34 taken prisoner =
Oglethorpe turns back to St. Simons
June 1742: Spanish ships appear on the
horizon off the Georgia coast; British
defenders fall back to Fort Frederica.
July 7, 1742:
Spanish forces come within 1 mile of Fort
Oglethorpe’s rangers surprise the enemy
open fire from the woods and the Spanish
Oglethorpe pursues the Spanish = Battle of
Spanish attempt to capture Fort Frederica
Spanish withdraw to St. Augustine
Oglethorpe is promoted to general in the
1743: Oglethorpe returns to England
Personal funds repaid by British Parliament
Met and married Elizabeth Wright
Continues for one decade as a member of Parliament
Activity on the Board of Trustees declines.
THE COLONY DECLINES
Colonists begin to give up & return to England or
move to other communities
Discord between colonists
Oglethorpe’s return to England
1750: Ban on Slavery is dropped
1752: Trustees give control of the colony to the
1752 GEORGIA BECOMES A ROYAL
Under direct control of the British Government
1754: Royal Governor John Reynolds
Georgia was to have it’s own bicameral
Advise the governor
Suffrage: only white males owning 500+ acres of land
Lower House (Commons House of Assembly):
Gave colonists an opportunity at self-government
Members were elected
Suffrage: white males owning 50+ acres of land
Laws of the Commons House of Assembly could be vetoed
by the Royal Governor or the King
1754-1756: John Reynolds: popular & non-
1756-1759: Governor Henry Ellis replaces
Ellis is unhappy in Georgia, particularly with the
1759: Sir James Wright replaces Ellis as Royal
Georgia’s ablest and most concerned governor
1758: THE ANGLICAN CHURCH IS
DECLARED AS THE OFFICIAL
CHURCH OF GEORGIA
Decision made by the royal Assembly
Colony is divided into 8 parishes (districts)
Residents voted for church wardens
Residents paid taxes to support the church and help the
FRENCH & INDIAN WAR
THE SEVEN YEARS WAR
1754: Great Britain & France engage in war
Began in North America
(many) Indians & French vs. British = Colonists on
the side of Britain called the war the “French &
War spreads to Europe, then to India
Spain is not involved until later
1762: Spain & France ask Britain for peace
Treaty of Paris 1763
Spain loses Florida
France loses land east of the Mississippi River (Except New
Britain loses lad west of the Mississippi River (MS River
becomes Georgia’s western boundary)
THE PROCLAMATION OF 1763
What should Britain do with her holdings in
How should Britain handle Indian uprisings
(because of the increasing number of white
How could the British government shift the cost
of operating the colony to the colonists?
King George III announces the Proclamation of
Britain creates 4 new colonies: Quebec, Grenada,
East Florida & West Florida
Georgia’s Southern Boundary: St. Mary’s River
All lands West of the Appalachian Mts. Reserved for
1764: Georgia’s boundary changed to include
land north of West and East Florida, Alabama,
and Mississippi that were once part of Georgia.
THE COLONY PROSPERS
Spanish & French no longer pose a threat to GA.
Creek Indians cede 2 million acres of land to
Georgia surveys new land and adopts the
New settlers arrive from Europe and other
New land in the south (land west of the Appalachians
belonged to Indians)
10,000 white inhabitants 50,000 white inhabitants
8,000 black inhabitants 25,000 black inhabitants
A plan developed after the French & Indian War
to distribute newly acquired land open for
The “Head” of each family was given 100 acres +
50 acres for each additional family member,
indentured servant or slave.
Costs to each family: land survey & recording
In December 1778, British troops under Lieutenant Colonel Archibald
Campbell captured Savannah as part of their campaign to restore the
colony of Georgia to British rule. This drawing details the town of
Savannah at the time of the British invasion.