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  2. 2. Geography Australia is the sixth largest country in the world. Geographic size: 7,617,930 sq km Population: 20 million (2005) Capital: Canberra Administrative Divisions: 6 states and 2 territories* Major cities: Brisbane, Sydney, Perth, Melbourne, and Adelaide.
  3. 3. Major Industries Australia's major industries are mining and farming, especially sheep farming. The grape vineyards help to support a growing wine industry. In addition, Australia's climate and dramatic scenery have made tourism a major industry.
  4. 4. History Ancient (Pre 1788) Aboriginals were the real founders of Australia because they came to this land thousands of years before white people discovered it. Aboriginals have been here for at least 40,000 years. When white people came to Australia, they invaded a land that already belonged to the Aboriginals. No one knows exactly where the Aboriginals lived before they came to Australia. It is known that Aboriginals came from somewhere in South- East Asia and that they left their homes and traveled to Australia in canoes or on rafts.
  5. 5. Discovery The first records of Europeans sailing into 'Australian' waters occur around 1606, and include their observations of the land known as Terra Australis Incognita (unknown southern land). Between 1606 and 1770, an estimated 54 European ships from a range of nations made contact. In 1770, Englishman Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast for the British Crown, naming eastern Australia 'New South Wales'.
  6. 6. Colonisation (1788-1900) The First Fleet and a British colony In the 1770’s there were about 9 million people in England and 1 million of them were very poor. This led to an increase in crimes. About one in every twenty persons was a criminal. The prison system was becoming overcrowded. In August 1786, the British government decided to start a convict settlement in New South Wales. Captain Arthur Phillip and the First Fleet, comprising 11 ships (six of them “convict ships”) and around 1,500 people, arrived at Botany Bay between 18 and 20 January 1788.
  7. 7. Initially, relations between the explorers and the Aboriginal inhabitants (around 300,000) were hospitable and based on trading for food, water, axes, cloth and artefacts, a relationship encouraged by Governor Phillip. These relations became hostile as Aborigines realised that the land and resources upon which they depended and the order of their life were seriously disrupted by the on-going presence of the colonisers. Between 1790 and 1810, clans people of the Eora group in the Sydney area undertook a campaign of resistance against the English colonisers in a series of attacks.
  8. 8. The question of land ownership by Indigenous people was not dealt with until the mid-1830s. In 1835, John Batman signed two 'treaties' with Kulin people to rent 600,000 acres of land. But the NSW Governor, Sir Richard Bourke issued a proclamation. It established the notion that the land belonged to no-one prior to the British crown taking possession.
  9. 9. A Gold Rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, and it brought many immigrants from Great Britain, Ireland, continental Europe, North America and China. In 1861, the NSW government opened up the free selection of Crown land. The Crown Lands Acts permitted any person to select up to 320 acres on the condition of paying a deposit and living on the land for three years. The Acts also limited the use of Crown lands by Aboriginal people as until this time, pastoral lands were still able to be legitimately used by them.
  10. 10. Establishment of other British colonies Separate colonies were created from parts of New South Wales: South Australia, New Zealand, … There were some rebellions for independence but they were defeated. On 1 January 1901,a federation of the colonies was achieved and the Commonwealth of Australia was born. In 1911, His Majesty King George V proclaimed Australia as a Dominion of the British Empire.
  11. 11. 20th Century Australia Australia sent its armed forces to fight alongside Britain during the 1st and 2nd World Wars. Following World War II, the Australian government instigated a massive program of European immigration. Two million immigrants arrived between 1948 and 1975. Australia is a multicultural society with its Indigenous people and immigrants from some 200 countries.
  12. 12. Australia Today Government type: democratic, federal-state system recognizing the British monarch as sovereign Executive branch: Chief of state: Queen of Australia ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Quentin Bryce Head of government: Prime Minister Julia Gillard Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Parliament consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives