New Zealand: The Contact Period Revision


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New Zealand: The Contact Period Revision

  1. 1. The Contact Period 1800 - 1840 REVISION
  2. 2. Maori before 1800: Mana <ul><li>Maori life was centered on Mana </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mana was measured in terms of birthright, achievements or knowledge. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important concepts included Utu(Reciprocity) and Tapu. (Forbidden) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both used to control relationships and behaviour. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Maori before 1800: Whanau <ul><li>Maori relationships were based on belonging: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whanau – Extended Family </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hapu – Whanau joined by marriage (sub-tribe) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iwi – Hapu joined by marriage (Tribe) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tribes maintained their Rangatiratanga over their Rohe. (Chieftainship over land) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Maori before 1800: War <ul><li>Warfare was endemic (Ballara) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hapu could fight Hapu and Iwi could fight Iwi. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alliances could be made and broken. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utu played a large role in most disputes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-musket most fighting was non-lethal. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Explorers <ul><li>Abel Tasman 1642 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Searching for Staten Landt. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Misunderstood Maori challenge. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 Crewmen killed and eaten. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reports discouraged further exploration </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Explorers 2 <ul><li>James Cook 1769 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Searching for Terra Incognita. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Had Tupaia as Interpreter. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relations with Maori generally good </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spent 6 months surveying country. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reported favourably on Maori. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reported on resources especially Timber and Flax. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Explorers 3 <ul><li>Jean-Francois Surville 1769 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrives 2 weeks after Cook. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes similar observations to Cook. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kidnaps Maori chief. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both die of scurvy on return voyage. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Explorers: Overview <ul><li>Cook had reported favourably on New Zealand. </li></ul><ul><li>It had significant natural resources especially flax and timber. </li></ul><ul><li>He considered Maori a noble race with a stratified society and a culture adapted to trade. </li></ul><ul><li>Later explorers generally supported his view. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Australia <ul><li>Britain needed a convict settlement. </li></ul><ul><li>Other places had been unsuitable (to close or too dangerous) </li></ul><ul><li>Cooks report on Australia made it more suitable than New Zealand. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1788 the First Fleet arrived. </li></ul><ul><li>Almost immediately trade with Maori began. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Sealers <ul><li>Seals skin were valued in Britain and China. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sydney merchants began to exploit Australian seals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1792 the first sealing gang arrived in Doubtful Sound. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gangs were usually former convicts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life was hard, Gangs were left with limited food for long periods. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Sealers 2 <ul><li>Gangs quickly killed off the Seals. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1812 the trade had emptied most seal colony’s on the mainland. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gangs could easily kill 5-20,00 gangs in a season. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One ships took 100,000 skins to Sydney in a single trip. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some gangs were marooned. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One gang was rescued after 4 years. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. Sealers 3 <ul><li>Sealing Gangs and Maori </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sealers were terrified of being attacked and eaten. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most sealers had little worth trading except their own tools/weapons. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because of this Maori often viewed them as thieves a source of iron and food. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>James Caddells gang were eaten and he became a Pakeha-Maori </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Another gang were forced to eat each other by their Maori captors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gangs around Southland did trade with Maori and provided them with muskets. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 16. Sealers Overview <ul><li>Sealers decimated Seals by 1812 </li></ul><ul><li>They helped in the exploration of NZ </li></ul><ul><li>Few made any real impact on Maori as they either had little contact or had nothing to trade. </li></ul><ul><li>Some were killed and eaten. </li></ul><ul><li>In Southland and Stewart island some relationships developed, </li></ul><ul><li>There Sealers acquired land traded and married into local Iwi. </li></ul>
  14. 17. Timber <ul><li>An extraction Industry: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Timber was major industry from the early 1800’s. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Zealand Timber was of a high quality. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It helped build Sydney and was useful cargo for returning Convict ships. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ships called into the Hokianga Harbour to cut or employ Maori to provide suitable lumber. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hokianga Ngapuhi benefited from this trade. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 18. Whaling <ul><li>Whale oil was valuable. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whale oil was used to lubricate machinery or in street lighting. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1790 Whales were harder to find in the Atlantic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1799 the first Whalers (American) arrived and reported large Whaling fields. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quickly more ships followed them into the Pacific. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 20. Whalers 2 <ul><li>Ocean Whaling ships needed supplies. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ships were at sea for 2-3 years. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They needed fresh food and water. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sydney did not allow American ships. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fees and taxes in Sydney were also high. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Whalers sought an alternative. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They began to call into the Bay of Islands. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 21. Whalers 3 <ul><li>Ocean Whalers and the Maori. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From 1806 Kororareka became a favourite port of call for Whalers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By the late 1820’s dozens of ships were using the port with crews of 20-50. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ngapuhi quickly realised the value of having access to European trade goods. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This gave them Mana and trading power with other tribes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They diversified their crops to include European foods. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They offered women for sex. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasingly the trade centred on Muskets. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 23. Whalers 4 <ul><li>The Hellhole of the Pacific. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Missionaries who arrived in 1814 deplored the effect that contact with Whalers had on Maori. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drunken brawls and prostitution were common. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After the mission at Paihia was set up they began to compare their Heaven to Kororarekas Hell. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ocean Whalers began to decline after 1840. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 25. Shore Whalers <ul><li>The Shore Whalers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From the late 1820’s Whaling Stations were established around the coast. (Jacky Guard) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This was cheaper than equipping a ship. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long term relationships developed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often Maori were employed and some marriages occurred. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased trade meant the supply of muskets was opened up to other tribes (Ngati Toa) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 26. Ocean Whalers Overview <ul><li>Ocean whalers increased contact with Maori. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Their impact was concentrated in just the Far North. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whalers introduced many new ideas to Maori including the cash economy, new foods and technology. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many Maori (Ruatara) travelled the world on Whalers and brought back stories of what they had seen. (incl. British Imperial power) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative effects include prostitution, disease, alcohol and the musket. (=> Musket Wars) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some Whalers also began to buy land (Jacky Guard) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 27. Shore Whalers Overview <ul><li>Shore Whalers increased contact with Maori from 1829. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They settled a wider area along the East Coast to the Cook Strait, often for years. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They cooperated with local Iwi, often marrying local women. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They employed Maori in their Stations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They diversified as traders and farmers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Their trade in muskets helped to end the Musket Wars. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 28. Missionaries <ul><li>Evangelical Imperialism. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As Britain expanded it took its religion with it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Anglican Church was represented by the Church Mission Service (CMS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Sydney this was led by Samuel Marsden. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1806 Marsden met Ruatara a Ngapuhi chief. (And leter Te Pahi) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He decided that Maori would make good converts. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 29. Missionaries 2 <ul><li>A Mission at Rangihoua. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marsdens plans were put on hold by the 1809 Boyd Incident. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About 1810 Ruatara returned to learn agricultural skills at his farm. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1814 Marsden received permission to establish a mission in New Zealand. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rutara accompanied him to Rangihoua. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marsden planned to civilise and convert Maori </li></ul></ul>
  24. 30. Missionaries 3 <ul><li>Civilise and Convert </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marsdens plan was to introduce Maori to British technology which would convince them of its superiority and lead them to accept Christianity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The first missionaries included Kendall Hall and King. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The were not a success. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They fought and Kendall was not a strong leader. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 32. Missionaries 4 <ul><li>Hongi Hika </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ruatara died shortly after the mission was established. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hongi Hika replaced him as protector of the Missionaries. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He had a low opinion of their religion but valued the trade their presence encouraged. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Without his support no conversions could take place. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 33. Missionaries 5 <ul><li>Kendalls Downfall. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kendall started a school but it failed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He lacked the mana to impress Maori. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hika went to London with Kendall in 1820 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hika took the chance to buy more muskets. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1822 Kendall was expelled for having an affair with a Maori student </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1823 he was replaced by Henry Williams. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 35. Missionaries 6 <ul><li>Henry Williams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Williams was a former naval officer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He was more forceful than Kendall and acquired more mana. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He changed the focus and began to actively evangelise. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He encouraged learning of Te Reo and built a schooner to spread the message. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Weslyans arrived in 1823. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He was joined by his brother and Colenso. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 36. Missionaries 7 <ul><li>Conversions Begin: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1827 the New Testament was published in Maori. (Wm. Colenso) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1829 Hika died. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Within a year local Maori began to convert. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They were weary of war, their confidence was undermined by disease and alcohol. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1838 Catholics under Pompallier arrived. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1840 30,000 converts had been achieved. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 38. Missionaries 8 <ul><li>Missionaries and the Treaty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Missionaries were central to the treaty discussions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They had translated Hobsons instructions, and assisted in translating the views of Maori on the first day. (Feb 5 th ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They stressed the “Covenant” between Maori and the Queen. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They took most of the copies around the country seeking more signatures. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 40. Missionary Overview <ul><li>Initially Maori only saw Missionaries as conduits for trade. </li></ul><ul><li>1814 -1829 there were no converts. </li></ul><ul><li>Kendall was a poor choice as leader. </li></ul><ul><li>Civilising did not lead to Conversion. </li></ul><ul><li>Williams changed to evangelising and improved status through encouraging Te Reo. </li></ul><ul><li>Conversions after 1830 led to major changes in Maori culture. </li></ul><ul><li>No cannibalism, slaves, tattooing or polygamy. </li></ul><ul><li>From 1833 many freed slaves spread Christianity ahead of the Pakeha Missionaries. (Ngati Porou) </li></ul>
  31. 41. Government Officials <ul><li>Humanitarianism and Imperialism. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonial Office officials (Stephen) were concerned about the welfare of Native peoples. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reports of poor behaviour (Kororareka) and violence (1809 Boyd & 1834 Harriet) concerned them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>European inlfuences appeared to be corrupting Maori </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The 1830 Elizabeth affair also highlighted a gap in their jurisdiction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Missionaries also warned of growing French interest in New Zealand. (Yates in 1830) </li></ul></ul>
  32. 42. Government Officials 2 <ul><li>Britain is dragged into New Zealand. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1814 Kendall was appointed as Magistrate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1830 the Petition to King William was accepted as recognition of some form of Government in New Zealand. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1833 Busby was appointed as Resident. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1834 he creates a Flag which is recognised by the Admiralty. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1835 he creates the Declaration of Independence which the Colonial Office also recognises. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 44. Contact Period: Government Officials 2 <ul><li>Britain seeks a Treaty. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Colonial Office became concerned that a more formal presence was needed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1837 Hobson arrived to review the situation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He called for Factories to be established. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wakefields “Systematic colonisation” promised thousands of migrants, seeking land. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Factories would not solve this issue. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continued concerns about French intentions. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 45. Contact Period: Government Officials 3 <ul><li>The Annexation of New Zealand. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Colonial Office could not simply invade New Zealand. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition in 1830,1834 and 1835 made this legally difficult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They gave orders that the Chiefs of New Zealand be asked to give their assent freely. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hobson returned with brief instructions for a Treaty. </li></ul></ul>
  35. 46. Contact Period: Government Officials 4 <ul><li>Drafting the Treaty. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hobson asked Wm. Williams to assist. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He had difficulty with the term Sovereignty and Governorship. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the Maori version he used Kawanatanga instead of Rangatiratanga or Mana. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He attempted to make the meaning clearer in the discussions on Feb 5 th . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>35 Chiefs signed the Treaty on Feb 6 th . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By September almost 500 had added their own marks to it. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 47. Contact Period: Government Officials
  37. 48. Maori by 1840 <ul><li>Maori were familiar with Europe & Europeans. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many were Christian. (Protestant or Catholic) and literate in Maori. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They had abandoned tattooing, slavery, cannibalism and polygamy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many had adopted European clothes, smoking and drinking. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maori travelers had seen the power of Gt. Britain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In many areas they were successful traders and agriculturalists. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many welcomed GB and the hope that this would ease both Race Relations and Land Sales disputes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land was already being traded especially in the North & increasingly in the South. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 49. Changes in NZ to 1850 <ul><li>Thousands of migrants began to arrive. (14,000 from NZ Co.) </li></ul><ul><li>Settlers wanted land and believed NZ was now wholly British. </li></ul><ul><li>Maori believed they still maintained their Rangatiratanga. </li></ul><ul><li>Initially Maori did accept some sales but disputed others (Nelson, New Plymouth). </li></ul><ul><li>Disputes arose at Wairau(1843) over land and in Bay of Islands (1845-6) over Authority. </li></ul><ul><li>Fitzroy sided with Maori in 1843 and Heke/Kawiti effectively made their point without loss of land or mana in 1846. </li></ul><ul><li>Grey established his authority in Cook Strait in 1846-7 by imprisoning Te Rauraparaha and defeating Rangihaeta. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1848 Te Atiawa returned to the Waitara. </li></ul>
  39. 50. Race Relations 1860 1 <ul><li>Grey and McLean acquired almost 3m of land during this period. </li></ul><ul><li>Some sold willingly to ensure safety and trading opportunities. </li></ul><ul><li>Some acquired through the Flour & Sugar policy or by exploiting Iwi/Hapu disunity. </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance to loss of land began to grow. </li></ul><ul><li>1852 Constitution disenfranchised Maori. </li></ul><ul><li>Te Rauaparaha and Te Whiwhi began to seek a unifying King to represent Maori in discussions with Pakeha. </li></ul>
  40. 51. Race Relations to 1860 2 <ul><li>Increasing numbers of migrants increased pressure to acquire Maori land. </li></ul><ul><li>Settlers viewed Kingitanga as a threat to acquiring land and Browne saw it as threat to British sovereignty and government income. </li></ul><ul><li>New Plymouth settlers resented Te Atiawa possession of Waitara. </li></ul><ul><li>1856-8 Inter-Iwi fighting between land holders and land sellers occurred around Waitara. </li></ul><ul><li>Te Teira offered 600 acres to Gore Browne to spite Wiremu Kingi who had offended him. </li></ul><ul><li>Browne believed Kingi was supported by Kingitanga. </li></ul>
  41. 52. Race Relations to 1860 3 <ul><li>Increasingly Waitara became an opportunity to prove the sovereignty of Britain over the King. </li></ul><ul><li>Browne knew Teira’s offer was invalid but chose to confront the ‘land league’. </li></ul><ul><li>Settlers believed Kingi was bullying Teira and using intimidation to stop the sale. </li></ul><ul><li>He sent in surveyors whose pegs were removed. </li></ul><ul><li>He supported the surveyor with troops. </li></ul><ul><li>Kingi responded with by building a pa at Te Kohia. </li></ul><ul><li>On March 17 th Browne attacked the Pa. </li></ul><ul><li>The NZ wars had started. </li></ul>
  42. 53. Te Kohia Pa 2010