CGBD workshop 2012 May 29

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CGBD workshop 2012 May 29

  1. 1. Using Networks to Advance Environmental GoalsAnd Innovation Network for Communities Pete Plastrik and Julia Parzen June 2012 CGBD, Chattanooga 1
  2. 2. Overview Responding to CGBD Member Challenges Building Networks…• CHOOSING A NETWORK – What can a network accomplish that an organization can’t?• STARTING UP WELL – How can you tell if a network is starting up well?• LEARNING AND EVOLVING – How do you evaluate a network’s performance and impact? – How do you boost health and value?• HOLDING A NETWORK ACCCOUNTABLE – If a network has many organization or individual members, who do you hold accountable for the network’s use of funds and its performance?• FUNDING A NETWORK – What should it cost to operate a network? – How much should network members be contributing to the cost of operating the network? – When should the network be developing other sources of outside funding? 2
  3. 3. Workshop Proposed Structure & OutcomesParticipants will leave ready to raise their network game through:• Introduction to new tools, tips, and revealing stories based upon CGBD survey (90 min. presentation/exercises)• Interactive hands-on consultation sessions using CGBD member examples (45 minutes) • Scott Miller, Watershed Network Case • Leslie Harroun, Tar Sands Campaign Case• Wrap up session to address remaining burning questions (30-45 minutes) 3
  4. 4. … Using USDN as a Case ExampleUSDN is an active and engaged network of 115 North American city sustainabilitydirectors who exchange information, collaborate to enhance our practice, and worktogether to advance the field of urban sustainability. 4
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  7. 7. … Using USDN as a Case Example• USDN has created “small world” reach for its members.• USDN has experienced rapid growth.• USDN has produced rapid diffusion of ideas and feedback.• USDN has achieved a high level of resilience.• USDN has developed noticeable adaptive capacity.• USDN is becoming a force for innovation and professional and policy development in the sustainability field. 7
  8. 8. USDN Answers to CGBD Guiding Questions• CHOOSING A NETWORK – A network fit the stage of development of the sustainability field and need for rapid innovation and adaptation.• STARTING UP WELL – USDN started up well by adopting a clear purpose and value propositions, building on existing relationships, ensuring members drove all activity, and reinforcing continually the unique principles of networking.• LEARNING AND EVOLVING – USDN learns and evolves and ensures continuing value by completing network maps every year and getting member feedback after every meeting and from an annual survey. It dissolves all groups each year and asks members to decide what they want to accomplish the next year.• HOLDING A NETWORK ACCOUNTABLE – USDN holds every member accountable for contributing value to the network and ensuring a high return on investment.• FUNDING A NETWORK – USDN member dues started very small and grew to cover ¼ of core network costs with a goal of reaching 50%. The hope is the other 50% can come from foundations for high value projects. 8
  9. 9. Network Basics 9
  10. 10. A NETWORK is a continually evolving set of “nodes” connected by “links.” Nodes LinksReviewing the Basics INC/USDN 10
  11. 11. Social Networks– “Nodes” are people– “Links” are relationshipsReviewing the Basics INC/USDN 11
  12. 12. Social Networks • Other things being equal, it is easier to access ideas and information from people who are closely connected in network terms (from friends, and from friends of friends, for example) than from people who are three or more steps removed. • Outliers (nodes on the periphery of a network) often have access to ideas and information that people at the core do not. • Strong ties in closely knit networks are a source of valuable social capital • Weak ties - provide access to external assetsReviewing the Basics INC/USDN 12
  13. 13. Social Networks• Highly connected “hubs” are effective in spreading ideas and connections• “Dense clusters” are ideal for close collaboration and peer exchange• “Boundary spanners” bridge isolated network clusters• Multi-purpose social ties tend to be stronger, which means more can be leveraged through them.Reviewing the Basics INC/USDN 13
  14. 14. Networks are for Individual and Collective Ends– Individual Ends: individuals/organizations network to achieve individual goals Sharing value is good…– Collective Ends: individuals/organizations work together to achieve collective goals. … The ultimate goal is to build and strengthen connections that allow people to achieve collective ends.Reviewing the Basics INC/USDN 14
  15. 15. Network Building is about Creating Ties Within Core and To Periphery• Who’s connected to whom? Who’s not connected but should be?• Where are the hubs and brokers? How can we assist them?• Where are the bottlenecks? Can we eliminate them?• Are new connections forming? Clusters emerging? Collaborations advancing ?• Where are the network’s resources? Are they effectively used?• How is the network evolving and what are the implications?Reviewing the Basics INC/USDN 15
  16. 16. USDN Built on Existing Relationships … “Networks that are formed as the result of external, especially donor-driven, impetuses are less sustainable in the long run than networks that evolve organically out of existing partnerships.” USDN 2009Reviewing the Basics INC/USDN 16
  17. 17. …While Responding to New Relationships Increasingly USDN Members Connecting Within Same Regionin RegionReviewing the Basics INC/USDN 17
  18. 18. Response: Creation and Alignment with Regional Networks Cascadia Michael Armstrong Michigan New England Matt Naud Christine Eppstein Western Tang & Susanne Rasmussen Adaptation Heartland Vicki Bennett Dennis Murphey California South East Shannon Parry Maggie Ullman & Texas Susanna Kevin Lefebvre SutherlandReviewing the Basics INC/USDN 18
  19. 19. Choosing a Network 19
  20. 20. Networks Are Different! Networks Organizations Other Are informal, organic, Are formal, fixed and Coalitions: Can be more or mutual, voluntary, centralized with less formal, but are formed distributed, open- delegated chains of at particular historical ended, reciprocal, with command and moments focused on relationships built on accountability to owners specific objectives. Often trust. Members are directors, and bosses. dissolve when the job is deliberate about over (win or loss). building, strengthening, and maintaining ties so Franchises: Are formal, that they can be with a central hub activated again and establishing standards for again. “local” entities to use; some local flexibility… A Network is a base for many different types permitted.of activities over time.Choosing a Network INC/USDN 20
  21. 21. Advantages of Networks “Small World” Reach – By bringing together novel combinations of people and reaching across bridges to other 501 470 266 091 networks. 216 133 205 126 172 279 471 374 261 256 289 449 208 More Rapid Growth – Networks can 331 375 049 520 145 033 371 223 543 204 330 146 053 134 307 379 050 313 066 163 190 583 429 556 005 105 574 253 472 122 235 523 326 070 068 109 036 578 351 quickly add relationships and bridges to 478 442 164 149 518 173 455 554 555 344 388 505 249 347 303 550 221 348 244 198 548 295 304 077 343 423 288 572 391 337 352 462 498 other networks. 476 345 502 052 495 380 101 359 377 039 023 004 219 334 137 338 406 220 019 506 531 257 088 366 084 282 130 420 035 245 489 569 265 060 034 547 044 188 422 046 155 140 229 128 180 376 113 016 108 479 093100 210 512 268 541 010 513 020 381 526 069 535 018 287 516 403 030 390 458 008 096 353 329 277 270 196 340 129 362 327 358 297 199 397 097 165 300 561 525 444 More Rapid Diffusion – Through these 110 029 530 262 519 315 318 349 545 132 350 319 370 271 209 552 365 183 047 085 316 217 538 385 546 500 012 116 201 083 336 465 532 461 003 346 368 141 162 027 152 285 342 150 264 477 312 437 224 487 514 515 473 206 102 160 354 045 082 378 014 042 509 124 071 relationships and bridges. 228 054 425 521 167 232 158 484 043 492 138 022 490 320 557 233 230 067 112 412 499 384 450 212 467 251 065 333 537 169 446 443 493 576 213 428 031 207 231179 468 272 426 177 170 117 115 485 195 432 563 383 559 111 339 396 533 176 299 148 570 236 328 246 041 363 293 087 174 127 411 291 438 094 568 092 222 184 Greater Resilience – Nodes quickly 399 226 508 292 294 241 413 431 322 564 580 234 587 369 308 317 240 286 488 355 079 135 577 021 120 539 258 252 191 356 187 392 464 250 273 325 389 051 551 451 301 417 534 276 405 453 194 072 581 309 536 181 075 247 408 142 507 398 448 037 239 211 reorganize around disruptions or 306 517 542 081 419 402 218 168 410 311 106 156 382 524 263 321 267 032 269 076 386 430 418 571 192 007 024 584 048 427 409 324 558 463 457 284 136 482 086 503 259 361 103 549 387 015 440 089 059 104 bottlenecks. 238 025 098 582 275 193 416 480 243 452 040 481 161 401 511 254 278 280 575 121 323 562 544 290 494 579 373 028 009 395 153 585 529 447 058 055 436 281 131 475 274 560 123 001 078 Greater Adaptability – Networks 522 305 335 421 006 017 415 491 125 439 474 197 433 469 332 214 evolve and regroup with relative ease.Choosing a Network INC/USDN 21
  22. 22. Summary: Making the Choice An Organization A Network A Coalition Is Best If… Is Best If… Is Best If… • The work is relatively • The work is likely to • The work is focused, predictable change rapidly specific (e.g., a time- • It requires concentrated • You need access to a limited campaign) expertise over time very broad range of • You need access to • Producing value diverse relationships broad range of requires highly stable • The work that is being relationships relationships between done can be conducted • Producing value players by “episodic” requires stable • Work involves a lot of interactions relationships and work proprietary information • Much information can plan • Resources allow you to be shared freely • Information can be pay full time for all of • The resources you need shared freely your talent cannot be purchased on • Resources are limited a full time basisChoosing a Network INC/USDN 22
  23. 23. USDN Rational for Forming Network Stage 1: Stage 2: Stage 3: Stage 4: FRAMING NETWORKING MATURATION STANDARDIZATIONConceptual Networking of Maturation of Practices becomeframing and innovators and practices; highly standardized,isolated proliferation of convergence and incorporatedpractice practices. Practices around common into formal training;examples. are fragmented and methods and credentialing and often considered tools; integration certification “proprietary.” of previously systems. Practices differentiated are considered practices; “commodities.” development of a Reward systems professional reinforce desired implementation behaviors. Urban support network. Sustainability in Stage 2 Choosing a Network INC/USDN 23
  24. 24. EXERCISE #1Based on your experience, what are the primary advantages of organizing as a network to advance common goals?• Elect someone at your table to take notes and report back• Everyone: Take a moment and think of an important network experience that you’ve had as a funder• Pick a partner and together list as many advantages of this network as you can, drawing on your experience(s).• Share your thoughts with other members at your table.• Get ready to report out your combined list of advantages. Choosing a Network INC/USDN 24
  25. 25. Starting Up Well 25 25
  26. 26. What Makes a Network Tick Clarity of Purpose Value Exchange Trust Complementary Capacities Diversity Bonds and Bridges Stewardship Enabling InfrastructureStarting Up Well INC/USDN 26
  27. 27. PURPOSE 3 Different Network Functions Lower Commitment, Trust Higher Commitment, Trust CONNECTING ALIGNING PRODUCING Information Identity InitiativeConnects people to Aligns people in ways Fosters joint action byallow easy flow of and that help them form people or organizationsaccess to information more collective —has a specific purposeand transactions transactions than a connectivity network will do •Policy action •Advocacy Individuals come to •Learning share a set of ideas, •Knowledge production language, or standards and disseminationStarting Up Well -- Purpose INC/USDN 27
  28. 28. PURPOSE 4 Different Network Outcomes• Learning – Create and spread new knowledge• Advocacy – Advocate for particular policies• Innovation – Innovate to solve social problems• Branding – Marketing, communications and shared branding Starting Up Well -- Outcomes INC/USDN 28
  29. 29. PURPOSE USDN Began With Connecting; Evolved to Innovation/Production Foster joint action for specialized outcomes Ex: Innovation Grants Develop and spread a shared point of view Ex: Create Professional Development Toolkit Allow easy flow of information and relationships Ex. Information-Sharing WebsiteStarting Up Well -- Purpose INC/USDN 29
  30. 30. USDN Began to Pursue Learning Outcomes (Begun 2009) 2011 Annual Meeting Learning Experiences Were:Starting Up Well -- Outcomes INC/USDN 30
  31. 31. USDN Later Pursued Innovation Outcomes (Begun 2010) • Food Systems • Urban Agriculture and Food Systems Policy Scan - Kansas City, Columbia, and St. Louis with U Mo Extension • Sustainable Urban Food Infrastructure Guide and Food Policy Director Network - Baltimore, Boston, Los Angeles, Louisville, Minneapolis, San Francisco, Vancouver, Seattle, Portland (under development) • Food Systems Economic Development Scan of Tools, Metrics, and Strategies Minneapolis, San Francisco, Vancouver, Seattle, Portland (under development) • Sustainability Performance Measurement/Management • Triple Bottom Line Investment Calculator - Atlanta, Boston, Calgary • Benchmarking Study on Sustainability Performance Management - Ann Arbor, Portland, NYC, Corvallis, Berkeley, Vancouver, Chicago, Minneapolis with McKinsey • EV Adoption Northeast Regional Electric Vehicle Partnership and Tools Development - Boston, New York, Philadelphia • Climate Change Adaptation Inter-Mountain Regional Climate Adaptation Planning Alliance and Regional Adaptation Prototype - Denver, Flagstaff, Ft. Collins, Las Vegas, Salt Lake City, Tucson, Boulder County, Park CityStarting Up Well -- Outcomes INC/USDN 31
  32. 32. USDN Innovation Outcomes (cont.) • Fostering Sustainable Behavior • Community Social Engagement Guidebook and Case Studies - Albany and Richmond • Pilot and Turnkey Project for Employee Computer Power Down - Santa Clara County CA, Frederick County MD, Baltimore MD, Columbia MO (under development) • Pilot and Turnkey Project for Community Cold Wash-Line Dry Behavior - San Francisco, Tucson, Berkeley, Asheville (under development) • Tool and Strategy for Prioritizing Behaviors and Develop Strategies for Fostering Behavior Change - Denver, Baltimore, Berkeley (under development) • Building Energy Efficiency • Commercial Building Energy Disclosure Advancement Process - San Francisco, New York, Seattle, Austin, Washington, D.C., Eugene, Cambridge, Minneapolis, and other cities with IMT • Strategy for Commercial Bank Buy-in to PACE Washington, Los Angeles, San Francisco with PACENow • EcoDistricts North American EcoDistricts Program Design - San Francisco, Austin, Bloomington, Boston, Denver, Minneapolis, New York, Portland, Vancouver, Washington with Portland Sustainability Institute • Professional Development • Self Assessment Tool for Sustainability Directors • Urban Sustainability Leadership Academy (trained 90+ sustainability directors) with ISC 32Starting Up Well -- Outcomes INC/USDN
  33. 33. USDN Innovation Outcomes (cont.) • Regional Networks • Sustainability Network Building Guidebook with INC • Regional Network Coordinating Committee • Regional Network TA Program with INC • Innovation System • Urban Sustainability Innovation Fund • Funder’s Network’s Local Sustainability Matching Fund • Prototype for best practice case studies and sector scans • Asheville Prototype LED Street Lighting Case Study • Food System Prototype Sector ScanStarting Up Well -- Outcomes INC/USDN 33
  34. 34. VALUE USDN Members Believe the Network Is Delivering on Their Top Value Propositions USDN Member Survey July-August 2011Starting Up Well –Value INC/USDN 34
  35. 35. VALUEUSDN Members Have Come to Believe the Network Also Spurs Collaboration & Joint Stakes All USDN members strongly agree or agree that they feel very proud of what they have built together at USDN, and feel part of something big and important by participating in USDN. Starting Up Well –Value INC/USDN 35
  36. 36. VALUE USDN Members Walk the Talk USDN Groups: • Bike Sharing User Group • Climate Change Adaptation User Group • Eco-Districts User Group • Food Systems User Group • Net Zero Buildings User Group • Policy Working Group • Policy Communications Working Group • Regional Network Coordinating Committee • Rental Housing User Group • Sustainability Indicators User Group • Sustainable Behavior Pilot Projects Group • Sustainable Behavior User Group • Sustainable Economic Development User GroupStarting Up Well -- Value INC/USDN • USDN Communications Committee 36
  37. 37. TRUST Built Through BandwidthYear Avg # Ties2009 82010 192011 26 2011 2010 2009 Starting Up Well -- Trust INC/USDN 37
  38. 38. TRUST Built Through ReciprocityUSDN members commit to actively learn from, assist, and collaborate withtheir peers and regularly contribute time and effort to the Network.Starting Up Well -- Trust INC/USDN 38
  39. 39. Similarity and Diversity 39
  40. 40. STEWARDSHIP Bandwidth Built Through Stewardship • Organizers establish purpose and value proposition; connect first nodes; attract initial resources. • Financial stewards provide initial resources. • Coordinators/Enablers help establish shared value proposition; negotiate action plans for production; coordinate production. • Weavers increase connections among nodes; connect to new nodes. • Evaluators of network development and performance • Coaches advise organizers, weavers, facilitators and coordinators.Starting Up Well --Stewardship INC/USDN 40
  41. 41. STEWARDSHIP Stewardship Art “No one runs USDN. It has a coordinator, but no board of directors, no executive director or CEO, no legal entity to receive funder’s checks, no employees. All it really has are members—volunteers—who direct and adapt the network through their dialogue and actions. How else to get scores of independent cities to collaborate and amass to address common problems?” --- Guidebook for Building Regional Networks for Urban Sustainability 2.0Starting Up Well --Stewardship INC/USDN 41
  42. 42. STEWARDSHIP Stewardship Art Generating opportunities and “Aha!” moments, but letting the network do the work Balancing between the needs of the “parts” and the “whole.” Balancing autonomy with collective control. Balancing stability and change. Ensuring effective communications. “Policing” the network.Starting Up Well --Stewardship INC/USDN 42
  43. 43. Factors in Success in Making the Case for Sustainability (N = 102)Starting Up Well -- Stewardship 43
  44. 44. … Yet Few Members Have Methods to CalculateEconomic Development or Equity BenefitsStarting Up Well -- Infrastructure INC/USDN 44
  45. 45. Enabling Infrastructure by Type of Network Outcome Type of Network Connecting Aligning Innovating/Producing • Members-only Web site • Collaborative work • Capacity to negotiate production with networking tools processes + Web site agreements among members • Meeting planning & • Capacity to analyze, • Project management and project facilitation compare, and budgeting capacity synthesize frameworks, • Shared calendaring definitions, etc. • Formal governance of all producers • “Opt In” learning • Formal decision-making processes processes to “endorse” • Performance accountability alignment mechanisms mechanisms • Member input systems (e.g., standards) • Pricing and marketing capacity • Sales, fulfillment, & financial managementStarting Up Well -- Infrastructure INC/USDN 45
  46. 46. USDN Enabling Infrastructure Information Sharing ToolsUSDN fosters peer exchange and learning through: •Weekly E-News •USDN Members Only Website (usdn.org) •Monthly USDN Idea Sharing Conference Calls •Small Group Discussion MarketPlace •Peer to Peer User Groups •Annual Meeting •Member SurveysStarting Up Well -- Infrastructure INC/USDN 46
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  50. 50. USDN Enabling Infrastructure Network Building System• USDN tracks network health and evolution and pursues continuousimprovement.• USDN helps build and aligns with structured multistate networks ofsustainability directors as a way to grow networking opportunities andcollaborative action.• USDN has supported the creation of regional networks in New England,Western States, Southern States, Heartland, Midwest, Cascadia, and Texas.• The Regional Networks Coordinating Committee coordinates regionalnetwork development, capacity building, and exchange.• USDN raised funds with partner Innovation Network for Communities tooffer partner regional networks seed funding and training.Starting Up Well -- Infrastructure INC/USDN 50
  51. 51. USDN Enabling Infrastructure Innovation System (Came Later)USDN supports collaboration across member jurisdictions on theidentification, development and distribution of key urbansustainability innovations for products, policies and/or projects by: • Helping members to Identify priorities for innovation • Helping members come together to craft innovation proposals that address these priorities and identify key partners • Funding collaborative grants for the best projects through an Urban Sustainability Innovation (USI) Fund • Disseminating results through USDN, regional networks, key partners, and the Funders’ Network Local Sustainability Matching FundStarting Up Well -- Infrastructure INC/USDN 51
  52. 52. Urban Sustainability Innovation Fund • Led by the USDN Sustainability Innovation Fund Steering Committee. • Has as a Fund Manager: Innovation Network for Communities (INC). • Supports 7 annual member priorities for innovation. • Reviewed 13 proposals in the first 3 rounds and awarded $230,000 to eight projects. • For 4th round, in February 2012, received requests for upwards of $700,000 for 16 proposals from a total of 45 cities. • Have launched capital-raising to increase investments to $3 million over three years.Starting Up Well -- Infrastructure INC/USDN 52
  53. 53. Local Sustainability Matching Fund • Partnership of the Funders’ Network for Smart Growth and Livable Communities, USDN, and national foundations • Catalyzes partnerships between municipal or county-level sustainability directors and local, place-based foundations to advance important community-based sustainability initiatives • Initial national pool will match funds for approximately 9-10 partnership projects of $25,000 to $75,000 in the first year • Launched in January 2012 • 50% of grants go to USDN Core and Associate Members • A pathway for dissemination of sustainability innovations because it priorities USDN member innovation prioritiesStarting Up Well -- Infrastructure INC/USDN 53
  54. 54. EXERCISE #2 How could you ensure that your networks get a good start?• Elect someone at your table to take notes and report back• Everyone: Take a moment and think of an important network you have been a part of• Pick a partner and make a list of ways you could help/could have helped this network have its best possible start.• Share your thoughts with other members at your table.• Get ready to report out your combined list of ways to help your networks have the best possible start. Starting Up Well -- Infrastructure INC/USDN 54
  55. 55. Learning and Evolving 55 55
  56. 56. Learning and Evolving• Make the network do the work. – Minimize “delegation” opportunities• Let connections flow to value.• Let variation create unplanned opportunities.• Watch closely/Seek frequent feedback/Continually re- evaluate.• Keep plans flexible.Learning and Evolving INC/USDN 56
  57. 57. Network Evaluation• Assess for multiple dimensions: – Connectivity (What flows? Between whom? How well?) – Network health (Membership, Involvement, Diversity, Unplanned benefits, Financial health) – Outcomes (what was produced? At what quality levels? At what cost)• Focus on member value – avoid being funder-centric• Build in the assessment design early• Use network mapping for visual display Learning and Evolving INC/USDN 57
  58. 58. USDN Network Evaluation • Annual Network Connectivity Mapping o Density of network connections o Depth of the connections (i.e. sharing or collaborating?) • Score Card for Member Participation in Network Activities and Contribution to Network Value Creation • Annual survey of members on: o New contacts and relationships with sustainability directors o Ideas and practices adopted because of USDN participation o Progress made in addressing key challenges o Satisfaction with USDN o Effectiveness of USDN activitiesLearning and Evolving INC/USDN 58
  59. 59. Evaluation Through Network MappingYear Avg # Ties2009 82010 192011 26 2011 2010 2009 Learning and Evolving INC/USDN 59
  60. 60. Who Is Accountable for Network Performance?• All Members• All Groups• Group Chairs• Steering Comm.• Coordinator Learning and Evolving INC/USDN 60
  61. 61. EXERCISE #3For one network you are a part of, how do you know it is effective? • Elect someone at your table to take notes and report back • Everyone: Take a moment and think of an important network you have been a part of • Pick a partner and together list as many ways that you know it is/was successful • Share your thoughts with other members at your table. • Get ready to report out your combined list of ways to know a network is successful. Learning and Evolving INC/USDN 61
  62. 62. Network Funding 62
  63. 63. Network Costs and Funding• Network costs are determined by network purpose.• Network resources can come from in-kind “sweat equity”; grants; selling services; and member funding.• Network resources must be allocated through an open and equitable process. “The allocation of funds, once raised, can be potentially contentious, if the relationships among members have not been well formed, and if agreements for the division of resources have not been reached in an open and transparent fashion.” (Heather Creech, “Form Follows Function”)Funding INC/USDN 63
  64. 64. EXERCISE #4 Group Discussion about How to Manage Foundation Network Involvement• How much should a funder be involved in designingand managing a network?• How can a funder be knowledgeable about theactivities of a network and helpful to it, but not drive itsformation and activities?• Are there certain elements of a network thatfoundations should fund, and certain elements theyshouldn’t fund?Funding INC/USDN 64
  65. 65. Case Discussions• Scott Miller, Watershed Network: We have just launched a place-based initiative in a watershed near Seattle...and are in the early stages of identifying existing networks and developing strategies for weaving them together. We are new at this game and are anxious to learn the tools that make this work more efficient and effective. How do we identify nascent networks? How do we weave these networks together to improve their effectiveness?• Leslie Harroun, Tar Sands Campaign: How do we keep the broader goals and objectives on the radar of all participants in the Tar Sands Campaign, a group of about 50 North American NGOs working collaboratively to slow the growth of the tar sands and to clean them up. The funder wants to improve communications among members without incurring much cost. The TSC is primarily funded by 4 foundations who pool their grants. Grant decisions are made by three TSC staff. The campaign issues are broad and diverse, and there are active mini-campaigns focused around individual pipelines throughout North America. 65
  66. 66. Additional Cases• A funder wants to support a network of 5 local universities in a consortium to use the expertise and skills from each university to collaboratively address environmental issues, but the administrations from each university slightly unwilling to collaborate with their competition. How do we build collaboration between these institutions that are not used to sharing such information and expertise?• A network of university scientists, working on 4 different campuses, has pioneered new methods and created new findings by integrating their findings and methods to a very unusual degree. With constraints on federal and state funding, and the departure of a major private donor, however, the network is faltering--and we are unable to carry the full load of keeping them going. What are the funding options to keep this network going?• The U.S. Government has created 20+ Conservation Trust Funds overseas through debt treatment programs. Many of these CTFs are networked through the Regional Network of Latin American and Caribbean Environmental Funds (RedLAC). RedLAC has not been successful at networking well with its counterparts in the North (e.g. CGBD). Why and what can be done? 66

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