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Etienne slides

Comunidades de prática

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Etienne slides

  1. 1. The art of learning together ...................................... Communities of practice Etienne Wenger P.O. Box 810 North San Juan, CA 95960, U.S.A. Phone (530) 292-9222 Fax (530) 292-9229 E-mail [email_address]
  2. 2. The individual and the social "The positive development of a society in the absence of creative, independently thinking, critical individuals is as inconceivable as the development of an individual in the absence of the stimulus of the community." (Albert Einstein) a profound insight
  3. 3. <ul><li>… a group of “practitioners,” who </li></ul><ul><li>share similar challenges </li></ul><ul><li>interact regularly </li></ul><ul><li>learn from and with each other </li></ul><ul><li>improve their ability to address their challenges </li></ul>A community of practice is ... a familiar experience
  4. 4. <ul><li>Stories </li></ul><ul><li>Social learning theory </li></ul><ul><li>Community cultivation </li></ul><ul><li>Integration into organizations </li></ul><ul><li>The future of learning </li></ul>Domain Inquiry Five challenges
  5. 5. Resources: Models
  6. 6. A social perspective Learning in practice learning practice community meaning identity What are we doing? Where do we belong Who are we becoming? What is our experience?
  7. 7. Key dimensions Model 1: social discipline of learning Practice Community Domain Participation Sponsorship Nurturing Support Learning together
  8. 8. Community profiles as patterns of togetherness Community activities oriented to … … meetings … context … community cultivation … access to expertise … projects … open-ended conversation … content publishing … individual participation … relationships Model 2: orientations In collaboration with Nancy White and John Smith © 2006 Wenger, White, and Smith
  9. 9. Model 3: Learning activities Information Informal Formal With From Models of practice Project reviews Case clinics Document sharing Collections Learning projects Hot topic discussions Stories Formal practice transfer Visits Invited speaker Mutual benchmark External benchmark Broadcast inquiry Reading group Problem solving News Joint response Boundary collaboration Training and workshops Pointers to resources Systematic scan Guests Joint events Documenting practice Field trips Exploring ideas Each other 1 2 7 4 3 6 5 Tips Practice fairs Warranting Help desk Outside sources <ul><li>Exchanges </li></ul><ul><li>Productive inquiries </li></ul><ul><li>Building shared understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Producing assets </li></ul><ul><li>Creating standards </li></ul><ul><li>Formal access to knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Visits </li></ul>
  10. 10. Model 4: forms of participation occasional transactional peripheral active coordinator core group lurkers leaders sponsors experts beginners alumni outsiders
  11. 11. <ul><li>Community roles </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinator </li></ul><ul><li>Subgroup leader </li></ul><ul><li>Cybrarian </li></ul><ul><li>Technology steward </li></ul><ul><li>Assistant </li></ul><ul><li>Help desk attendant </li></ul><ul><li>Journalist </li></ul><ul><li>Member roles </li></ul><ul><li>Convener </li></ul><ul><li>Core group member </li></ul><ul><li>Subject matter expert </li></ul><ul><li>Broker </li></ul><ul><li>Outpost/scout </li></ul><ul><li>Networker/weaver </li></ul><ul><li>Questioner </li></ul>Model 5: ecology of leadership Elected Consensus Self-selected Volunteer Appointed Rotation Emergent
  12. 12. addressing inherent community tensions Group Individual Interacting Publishing asynchronous synchronous discussion boards teleconference chat instant messaging member directory wiki blog telephony/ VoIP individual profile page e-mail e-mail lists scratch pad RSS “ new” indicators subscription podcast content repository presence indicator buddy list security Q&A systems RSS aggregator newsletter calendar videoconference application sharing whiteboard site index participation statistics search subgroups personalization community public page version control document management UseNet content rating scheduling polling commenting networking tools tagging bookmarking shared filtering geomapping interest filter Model 6: Tools In collaboration with Nancy White and John Smith
  13. 13. A community is a living entity … not unlike a couple It takes hard work and careful nurturing It depends on renewed passion It becomes an entity in its own right It takes initiative It is voluntary It involves responsibilities It is fun It evolves private and public common ground ongoing legacy recognized stewardship communal identity long-term viability Transforming Sustaining Maturing Coalescing Potential Model 7: lifecycle
  14. 14. Domains Communities Practices Stewardship Shared knowledge Learning The donut model: strategic capabilities Strategy Performance
  15. 15. Where to start? Why focus on communities of practice? <ul><li>help with challenges </li></ul><ul><li>access to expertise </li></ul><ul><li>confidence </li></ul><ul><li>fun with colleagues </li></ul><ul><li>meaningful work </li></ul><ul><li>strategic capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>keeping abreast </li></ul><ul><li>innovation </li></ul><ul><li>retention of talents </li></ul><ul><li>new strategies </li></ul><ul><li>personal development </li></ul><ul><li>reputation </li></ul><ul><li>professional identity </li></ul><ul><li>network </li></ul><ul><li>marketability </li></ul><ul><li>problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>time saving </li></ul><ul><li>knowledge sharing </li></ul><ul><li>synergies across units </li></ul><ul><li>reuse of resources </li></ul>short-term value long-term value members organization What are some critical success factors? <ul><li>Domain that energizes a core group </li></ul><ul><li>Skillful and reputable coordinator </li></ul><ul><li>Involvement of experts </li></ul><ul><li>Address details of practice </li></ul><ul><li>Right rhythm and mix of activities </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic relevance of domain </li></ul><ul><li>Visible management sponsorship, but without micro-management </li></ul><ul><li>Dance of formal and informal structures </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate resources </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent attitude </li></ul>community organization What are communities of practice? Communities of practice are groups of people who share a passion for something that they know how to do and who interact regularly to learn how to do it better. What elements to develop? the definition of the area of shared inquiry and of the key issues the relationships among members and the sense of belonging the body of knowledge, methods, stories, cases, tools, documents Domain: Community: Practice: Cultivating communities of practice a quick start-up guide by Etienne Wenger Communities of practice are a familiar experience, but people need to understand how they fit in their work. <ul><li>Conduct workshops to educate management and potential members about the approach </li></ul><ul><li>Help people appreciate how communities of practice are inherently self-defined and self-managed </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a language to legitimize communities and establish their place in the organization </li></ul>A strategic context lets communities find a legitimate place in the organization Communities of practice can use some light-handed guidance and technology infrastructure. Practitioners usually see the value of working as a community but may feel the organization is not aligned with their understanding. The formal organization must have processes and structure to include these communities while honoring their root in personal passion and engagement. Starting to cultivate communities of practice as early as possible creates early examples that allow people to learn by doing. <ul><li>Provide some process support, coaching, and logistic assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Identify needs and define adequate infrastructure without undue emphasis on fancy technology </li></ul><ul><li>Have a few pilot communities going as soon as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Find communities to start with by identifying areas where there is potential and readiness </li></ul><ul><li>Interview some prospective members to understand issues, start discussing a community, and identify potential leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Gather a core group to prepare and initiate a launch process </li></ul><ul><li>Help members organize an initial series of value-adding activities </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage them to take increasing responsibility for stewarding their knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Find sponsors to encourage participation </li></ul><ul><li>Value the work of communities </li></ul><ul><li>Publicize successes </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate communities in the way the organization works </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and remove obvious barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Align key structural and cultural elements </li></ul><ul><li>Articulate a strategic value proposition </li></ul><ul><li>Identify critical business problems </li></ul><ul><li>Articulate need to leverage knowledge </li></ul>educate encourage support get going set strategic context integrate
  16. 16. The end For information, see Etienne Wenger P.O. Box 810 North San Juan, CA 95960, U.S.A. Phone (530) 292-9222 E-mail [email_address]