Developing Policy in the 21st Century: Working Smarter, not Harder


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ExplainsDescribes how KM can support policy development by:
* increasing productivity
* retaining corporate memory
* leveraging value
* increasing capacity
* engaging diversity

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  • How many times have you heard the speech about doing more with less? Or my favorite question: What can you do without a budget? And how did you respond? Probably the same way I did. Yeah, Right. This presentation isn’t about that. It’s not about heroics. It’s about using whatever you have as efficiently and effectively as possible. It’s about spending less time on things that machines or others do better and more time on things that you do best like interpreting, creating, and innovating.
  • The public, private, and academic sectors of Canada are facing many challenges at the dawn of the 21 st century. A few of the more important global drivers are shown here. Fundamental socioeconomic revolution; societies, economies and organizations must adapt to succeed in the 21 st century. What are the cultural consequences of a global nervous system? How does the shift from an information desert to an information jungle affect the information marketplace? There are increasingly complex issues, such as sustainable development, coupled with finite resources. How will governments and businesses respond to Increasing expectations of citizens and customers? How does the world share information after Sept 11 th ?
  • This is an organizational infrastructure that includes pretty much everything that is needed to run CSS. This applies to KM as well as anything else that we do. Simply put, people use tools and process within a governance structure to increase the value of content and services. It isn’t a matter of focussing on one or more parts of the infrastructure. All parts must be reflected in a task, project, or program if it is to succeed.
  • The primary purpose of DOES is to enable searching by expertise. Here, the word knowledge leads to a list of people across the CFS who have included it in any field. Clicking on Jeff Karau leads to the profile for the project leader who led the development of DOES. Checking various combinations of boxes provides considerable flexibility for specific searches.
  • Problem : Knowledge has not been traditionally viewed as an asset. It is difficult to locate knowledge assets in the CFS. Solution : Develop a process to inventory CFS’s knowledge assets. Develop a searchable database to enable anyone to find these assets by searching any field. This shows the web-based data entry page. Key attributes of this database are: Anyone can enter information about a knowledge asset. Once entered, only the author can modify or edit an asset. There is no management overview of the contributions. The quality of an asset is determined by the user.
  • Knowledge preservation begins by capturing knowledge – a 1 st generation KM activity. Let’s put that in a business context. The Canadian Forest Service had a problem of not being able to find previously written briefing notes (sound familiar?). An Intranet database was developed to capture and share approved briefing notes. (1 st image) Approved briefing notes are entered by an administrative assistant through their desktop browser. This is a cut-and-paste process, with the addition of metadata, such as author, keywords, and document identifiers. It takes about 5 minutes to enter a document (2 nd image) Once entered, anyone can search the database, using a dozen categories, such as subject, date, location, or author. This results in a list of briefing notes that match the search criteria. (3 rd image) Clicking on any note results in a PDF copy on letterhead or a text document that can be copied into a new document. This saves a lot of time when preparing updates. The database archives all approved briefing notes in one place. It is used to quickly get up to speed on a new subject, determine the department’s position on an issue, and provide reports on work accomplishments. The bottom line is that to succeed, knowledge isn’t captured because it’s a good thing to do; it’s captured because there’s a business need.
  • Here are some examples of explicit knowledge.
  • These are some examples of tacit knowledge. Tacit knowledge is difficult to quantify, capture, and preserve. Tacit knowledge is critical to an organization, however, because people must use what they know to create and use knowledge and the ability to create and use knowledge may be the only sustainable competitive advantage.
  • There are many ways to organize knowledge, each with strengths and weaknesses. Librarians have been classifying knowledge since ancient times; departments do this through subject classification indexes. Every scientist is also familiar with discipline-specific thesauri for organizing terminology. These are, naturally, incompatible with departmental subject-based classification systems. Computers brought on automated keyword systems. Except that terms used by an author often don’t match those used by someone else. More recently, artificial intelligence has been used to developed “concept maps” of ideas rather than words. With Web 2.0 we are seeing “folksonomies,” where knowledge is organized by participants in social networks, based on popularity of usage. These are the bane of librarians and records managers. All of these methods are faced with interdisciplinary issues. For example, terms such as risk analysis have very specific meanings in the CFIA which differ from their meanings in other disciplines. And then there are familiar linguistic issues where terms don’t really have a counterpart in another language. The only solution is to provide multiple criteria for organizing and searching, so that regardless of a user’s perspective, they will find what they are looking for quickly and efficiently. Ultimately, if it isn’t easy, simple, and fast for people to organize their knowledge, the way they work , they won’t do it.
  • Similarly, accessing archived knowledge requires a set of user-friendly tools. Summarize the list. I cannot overemphasize the importance of user-friendliness (initially) and user-centricity (eventually) for retrieving knowledge if the CFIA wants people to actually use the system.
  • Preserving knowledge isn’t a one-time operation. It must also be maintained. This list is essentially based on information management best practices. Summarize the list. The notion of life cycle management is well-defined for records, but not for data and knowledge management. Advent of a digital world also ushered in an information “dark age,” in which information is being lost at a faster rate than at any time in human history. For example…
  • Here are four examples of companies that have been successful with global-scale social networks. Describe the four. Although all of these are in the private sector, I believe that, with adjustments for a government context, similar successes can be achieved by government agencies.
  • The key question is: if a department participates in a social network, how does it “capture value” from commonly held external intellectual property? The answer, in a few words, is to bring it inside the organization. The common property has to be stabilized. A report, policy, or regulation cannot change once it is formalized. Internal value has to be added by ensuring that it works. For example, in policy, all stakeholder concerns must be addressed; in business, an innovation must be producible and marketable. A key implication is that a department must retain enough internal core capacity to be able to add value to commonly-held IP.
  • Developing Policy in the 21st Century: Working Smarter, not Harder

    1. 1. Developing Policy in the 21 st Century Working Smarter, Not Harder Albert Simard Knowledge Manager Defence R & D Canada INFONEX: Developing Policy in Times of Fiscal Restraint November 15-16, Ottawa, Ontario
    2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Retaining corporate memory </li></ul><ul><li>Leveraging value </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Engaging diversity </li></ul>
    3. 3. Challenges in the 21 st century US National Science Foundation (2001) Overview Knowledge Economy Diverse Workforce Information Society Sustainable Development Finite Resources International Partnerships Globalization Accelerating Change Life- Long Learning Complex Technologies Citizen Engagement Safety & Security
    4. 4. Working Smarter, Not harder: Transforming Overview an organization of smart people into a smart organization.
    5. 5. <ul><li>Knowledgeable and competent in core areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Alert and responsive to environmental stimuli. </li></ul><ul><li>Astute in perceiving and interpreting its environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Capable of quickly learning and adapting to change. </li></ul><ul><li>Proficient at recalling past experience from memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Clever in finding innovative solutions to old problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Imaginative at relating seemingly disparate things. </li></ul><ul><li>Skilled at analysis, synthesis, and reasoning. </li></ul><ul><li>Resourceful at accomplishing objectives. </li></ul>A Smart Organization is: Overview
    6. 6. Policy Development Cycle Australian Policy Handbook Overview Issue Identification Policy Analysis Policy Development Consultation Coordination Decision Implementation Evaluation Organization
    7. 7. Policy Development Infrastructure Overview People <ul><ul><li>learning, motivation, creativity, innovation, skills, staffing </li></ul></ul>Governance roles, responsibilities, authorities, resources Processes work methods process flow, best practices Policies politics, management, operations , finance , administration Systems tools to capture, store, share, and process content
    8. 8. Policy Development Is Knowledge Work A policy is explicit knowledge that has been embedded and authorized in rules. Overview Knowledge Transfer Knowledge Assets Knowledge Sharing Knowledge Work Knowledge Infrastructure Increase Productivity Retain Memory Leverage value Increase Capacity Engage Diversity
    9. 9. Business Case <ul><li>Implementing knowledge management yields an average 5:1 return on investment. </li></ul><ul><li>Adapting and reusing existing knowledge reduces production costs by two-thirds or more. </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent assignments requires effective knowledge transfer between incumbents and replacements to maintain productivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise and domain-wide collaboration are essential to mobilize the best expertise to solve complex problems. </li></ul>Overview
    10. 10. Value Proposition <ul><li>Knowledge is the most valuable resource in a policy organization. It should be managed accordingly. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge workers spend one-third of their time looking for information . Imagine the savings if search time were reduced by half. </li></ul><ul><li>Most employees don’t know what already exists across their organization. Imagine the value of reusing knowledge rather than recreating it. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a wealth of expertise dispersed across an organization. Imagine the total knowledge that could be brought to bear on an issue. </li></ul><ul><li>You can’t solve today’s problems with the same thinking that created them. Imagine the diversity of views available in global networks. </li></ul>Overview
    11. 11. Outline <ul><li>Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Retaining corporate memory </li></ul><ul><li>Leveraging value </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Engaging diversity </li></ul>
    12. 12. Productivity of Knowledge Work <ul><li>Knowledge Flow: Knowledge moves from its source to its end use through a complex network of interactions. </li></ul><ul><li>Interactions: Every interaction in the network involves people, governance, processes, and/or systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Simplification: Interactions become easier, faster, more useful, and higher quality because knowledge is easier and faster to provide, find, and use. </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity: People spend more time on interpretation, creation, and innovation and they produce higher-quality outputs. </li></ul>Productivity
    13. 13. Interactions Between People (Directory of Expertise) Productivity
    14. 14. People and Systems (Knowledge Asset Inventory) Productivity
    15. 15. People and Governance (Briefing Notes Database) Productivity
    16. 16. People and Process (Frequently Asked Questions) Productivity
    17. 17. Outline <ul><li>Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Retaining corporate memory </li></ul><ul><li>Leveraging value </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Engaging diversity </li></ul>
    18. 18. Most Organizational Memory is not Managed Memory Publications Documents Presentations Lost Duplicated Data Expertise Tacit Innate Community Misplaced
    19. 19. Explicit Knowledge <ul><li>databases, statistics, collections </li></ul><ul><li>documents, reports, books </li></ul><ul><li>photos, diagrams, illustrations </li></ul><ul><li>computer code, expert systems, </li></ul><ul><li>presentations, speeches, lectures </li></ul><ul><li>recorded experiences, stories </li></ul><ul><li>education, teaching, and training materials </li></ul><ul><li>laws, regulations, procedures, rules, policies </li></ul><ul><li>embedded into products </li></ul>Memory Knowledge that has been formally expressed and transferred in a tangible form.
    20. 20. Tacit Knowledge <ul><li>Awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Mental models </li></ul><ul><li>Wisdom </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate memory </li></ul>Memory Intangible personal knowledge gained through experience and self-learning; influenced by beliefs, perspectives, and values. The Thinker - Rodin
    21. 21. Capturing Tacit Knowledge <ul><li>Conversations, discussions, dialogue (colleagues, peers) </li></ul><ul><li>Questions & answers, problems & solutions (novice/expert) </li></ul><ul><li>After-action reviews, lessons learned (event/group) </li></ul><ul><li>Capture, document, interview, record (expert/facilitator) </li></ul><ul><li>Extraction, identify, codify, organize (expert/know engineer) </li></ul><ul><li>Advising, briefing, recommending (subordinate/superior) </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching, educating, training (teacher/student) </li></ul><ul><li>Storytelling, narratives, anecdotes (teller/listener) </li></ul><ul><li>Explaining, demonstrating, describing (technician/user) </li></ul><ul><li>Presentations, lectures, speeches (speaker/audience) </li></ul>Memory
    22. 22. Organizing Knowledge <ul><li>Classification systems </li></ul><ul><li>Indexes, Catalogues </li></ul><ul><li>Thesauri, Taxonomies </li></ul><ul><li>Ontologies, Mind maps </li></ul><ul><li>Folksonomies </li></ul><ul><li>Automated methods </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Interdisciplinary issues </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic issues </li></ul>Memory
    23. 23. Storing, Finding, and Retrieving Knowledge <ul><li>IT infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Repository </li></ul><ul><li>Interfaces (3) </li></ul><ul><li>Access control </li></ul><ul><li>Search engine </li></ul><ul><li>Extraction tools </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieval system </li></ul>Memory
    24. 24. Maintaining Knowledge Assets <ul><li>Content integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Content security </li></ul><ul><li>Access to content </li></ul><ul><li>Service standards </li></ul><ul><li>Life cycle management </li></ul><ul><li>Technology migration </li></ul>Memory
    25. 25. Outline <ul><li>Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Retaining corporate memory </li></ul><ul><li>Leveraging value </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Engaging diversity </li></ul>
    26. 26. Sharing Leverages Value <ul><li>Produce once and use many times </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid duplication and redundancy </li></ul><ul><li>Accelerate teaching and learning </li></ul><ul><li>Spread experience and best practices </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance and speed problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Implement organizational capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance trust and build relationships </li></ul>Leveraging The more people who know something, The more valuable the knowledge.
    27. 27. Sharing Barriers <ul><li>Trust and safety </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational culture </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives and motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty of explaining </li></ul><ul><li>Different expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Security and privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Control and hoarding </li></ul><ul><li>Large distances </li></ul><ul><li>Different languages </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate technology </li></ul>Leveraging
    28. 28. Motivating Sharing <ul><li>Communicate sharing goals </li></ul><ul><li>Train employees on using tools </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate sharing benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Highlight sharing successes </li></ul><ul><li>Practice good sharing behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Reward good sharing behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Discourage poor sharing behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage communities </li></ul>Stan Garfield (2010) Leveraging
    29. 29. Sharing Knowledge Leveraging
    30. 30. Outline <ul><li>Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Retaining corporate memory </li></ul><ul><li>Leveraging value </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Engaging diversity </li></ul>
    31. 31. Community of Practice <ul><li>Government, department </li></ul><ul><li>Sector, branch, division </li></ul><ul><li>Policy analysts, regulators </li></ul><ul><li>Finance, purchasing, HR </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists, lawyers </li></ul><ul><li>Information technologists </li></ul>People who share common expertise, skill, or profession (position, work, colleagues) Capacity
    32. 32. Communities and Knowledge <ul><li>Knowledge exists in the minds of people. Experience is as important as formal knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is tacit as well as explicit. Transferring tacit knowledge is more effective through human interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is social as well as individual. Today’s knowledge is the result of centuries of collective research. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is changing at an accelerating rate. It takes a community of people to keep up with new concepts, practices, and technology. </li></ul>Capacity
    33. 33. Communities Increase Capacity Participants - Help with their work - Solve problems - Find experts - Receive feedback - Place to learn - Latest information - Enhance reputation Management - Connect isolated experts - Coordinate activities - Fast problem solving - Reduce development time - Quickly answer questions - Standardize processes - Develop & retain talent <ul><li>Outputs </li></ul><ul><li>- Tangible : documents, reports, manuals, recommendations, reduced innovation time and cost </li></ul><ul><li>- Intangible : increased skills, sense of trust, diverse perspectives, cross-pollinate ideas, capacity to innovate, relationships, spirit of enquiry </li></ul>Capacity
    34. 34. Community Characteristics <ul><li>Self-governed: norms and guidelines govern practices. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-organized: purpose, direction, and management. </li></ul><ul><li>Practical dialogue: answer questions based on practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborate: synchronous and asynchronous channels. </li></ul><ul><li>Generate knowledge: new knowledge is created. </li></ul><ul><li>Support members: provides a forum for mutual support. </li></ul>Saint-Onge & Wallace (2003) Capacity
    35. 35. Community Behaviors <ul><li>Positive </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Trust </li></ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Meritocracy </li></ul><ul><li>Equality </li></ul><ul><li>Outliers </li></ul><ul><li>Negative </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Debating </li></ul><ul><li>Arguing </li></ul><ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Assuming </li></ul><ul><li>Majority </li></ul><ul><li>Consensus </li></ul><ul><li>Groupthink </li></ul>Capacity
    36. 36. Outline <ul><li>Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Retaining corporate memory </li></ul><ul><li>Leveraging knowledge value </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Engaging diversity </li></ul>
    37. 37. Social Networks <ul><li>Large numbers of people who share a common interest or passion (enjoyment, hobbies, friends) </li></ul>Diversity
    38. 38. Social Networks add Diversity <ul><li>Linux – open-source operating system developed by thousands of programmers around the world </li></ul><ul><li>GoldCorp – released geological data in an open contest to find gold; increased reserves by factor of 4. </li></ul><ul><li>Procter & Gamble – uses network of 90,000 external scientists to leverage internal research capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>Leggo – uses imagination and creativity of worldwide toy owners to create new products. </li></ul><ul><li>GCPedia – Government of Canada collaboration site has 25,000 registered users and 13,500 articles. </li></ul>Diversity
    39. 39. Network Attributes <ul><li>Networks are much bigger than communities (100s to 1,000,000s of members). </li></ul><ul><li>Participants don’t know most other participants, limiting trust and security. </li></ul><ul><li>Large numbers of nodes leads to complex behavior. </li></ul>Diversity
    40. 40. Network Behavior <ul><li>Positive feedback - The bigger the network, the bigger it gets. </li></ul><ul><li>Biological growth - Crossing a “threshold” yields self-sustaining, exponential growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Synergy & emergence – Networks can yield more than any individual can accomplish. </li></ul><ul><li>Winner take most – There is a tendency for one member to dominate. </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme leveraging – A small effort can trigger network domination. </li></ul>Kevin Kelly (1998) Diversity
    41. 41. Network Value <ul><li>Value is proportional to the number of participants squared. </li></ul><ul><li>Value is created by all; not by an individual or organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Value is external to member organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Value is shared by all; capturing value is often uneven. </li></ul>Kevin Kelly (1998) Diversity
    42. 42. Capturing Network Value Network members bring it into the organization. Communities validate it; the organization structures it. Diversity
    43. 43. <ul><li>Increases productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Retains corporate memory </li></ul><ul><li>Leverages knowledge value </li></ul><ul><li>Increases policy capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Engages diverse views </li></ul>Work Smarter, Not Harder Managing Your Knowledge