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Systems Management project management, planning and analysis tools BY ENG. AHMAD BASSIOUNY AIR CRAFT FACTORY
What we will cover today <ul><li>Project management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What does ...
Project Management <ul><li>What is Project Management? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is it important? </li></ul><ul><li>What does ...
Project Management <ul><li>“ A whole framework of logical and progressive management planning and decisions, perceptivenes...
What is Project Management? <ul><li>A way of exercising control </li></ul><ul><li>A way of preventing mistakes </li></ul><...
Types of project <ul><li>“ Practical” projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classic “industrial” subjects e.g. construction </li>...
Types of management <ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul>...
Project management in our contexts <ul><li>Large vs small scale projects </li></ul><ul><li>Relevance of “proper” technique...
PRINCE2 <ul><li>Projects in Controlled Environments </li></ul><ul><li>Complete project management philosophy </li></ul><ul...
PRINCE2 environment <ul><li>Key elements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plans </li></ul></...
PRINCE2 environment  <ul><li>Project manager </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ executive” manager - plans, monitors, co-ordinates ov...
Project definition <ul><li>Need for clear scope </li></ul><ul><li>User specification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User needs anal...
Cost estimation <ul><li>Estimating - an art on its own! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Price ...
Contracting <ul><li>Contracting out  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buying turnkey systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work packagin...
Planning & scheduling <ul><li>What’s the difference? </li></ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comes first </li></u...
Approaches to planning <ul><li>Free planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning with minimum constraint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Monitoring the plan <ul><li>The key questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where should we be? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where ...
Planning (& scheduling) tools <ul><li>Timetabling </li></ul><ul><li>Bar charting (Gannt charts) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simp...
Network analysis  <ul><li>Not as intuitive … </li></ul><ul><li>Inappropriate for resource scheduling BUT </li></ul><ul><li...
Network analysis <ul><li>Notation systems </li></ul><ul><li>Arrow systems (activity-on-arrow) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ADM, C...
Example of ADM
Example of PDM
ADM <ul><li>Logic diagram – not to “scale” </li></ul><ul><li>Activities (arrows)  </li></ul><ul><li>Events (nodes) </li></...
PDM <ul><li>Again, logic diagram </li></ul><ul><li>Activities are nodes </li></ul><ul><li>Other data in boxes within the n...
ADM in practice <ul><li>Brainstorm & rough out plan </li></ul><ul><li>Check logic (precedence) </li></ul><ul><li>Estimate ...
Resource scheduling <ul><li>Views of resource scheduling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilisation of actual resource </li></ul></...
Resource scheduling in practice <ul><li>What can be scheduled? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equ...
Gannt (linked bar) chart example
The seven steps of scheduling (after Lock) <ul><li>Define the objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Divide into manageable parts </...
Software for analysis and scheduling <ul><li>Why use a computer? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed and flexibility… </li></ul></...
Managing progress <ul><li>The need for review and updating </li></ul><ul><li>Collecting data </li></ul><ul><li>Role of goo...
Managing costs <ul><li>Cost reporting vs cost control </li></ul><ul><li>Cost management factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… ma...
Managing quality <ul><li>What is quality? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On time on budget? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fitness for ...
Closure <ul><li>When does a project end? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The end of a continuous process” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
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Project Management, Planning And Analysis Tools

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Project Management, Planning And Analysis Tools

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Project Management, Planning And Analysis Tools

  1. 1. Systems Management project management, planning and analysis tools BY ENG. AHMAD BASSIOUNY AIR CRAFT FACTORY
  2. 2. What we will cover today <ul><li>Project management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What does it involve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Planning and Analysis tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially Network Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Practical session - Network Analysis! </li></ul>
  3. 3. Project Management <ul><li>What is Project Management? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is it important? </li></ul><ul><li>What does it involve: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What practical techniques can we learn and apply? </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Project Management <ul><li>“ A whole framework of logical and progressive management planning and decisions, perceptiveness, the liberal application of common sense, proper organisation, effective commercial and financial management, painstaking attention to documentation, and a clear grasp of proven and long-established principles of management and leadership”. (Lock) </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is Project Management? <ul><li>A way of exercising control </li></ul><ul><li>A way of preventing mistakes </li></ul><ul><li>A way of maximizing efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Why is it important? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project success and failure... </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Types of project <ul><li>“ Practical” projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classic “industrial” subjects e.g. construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Projects with tangible “production” outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Management” projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisational projects e.g. Relocations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May not have such a tangible outcome </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Research” projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More difficult to fit in the mould </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outcomes may be undefined! </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Types of management <ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul><ul><li>The relationship between cost, time and performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance of objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The importance of good communication </li></ul>
  8. 8. Project management in our contexts <ul><li>Large vs small scale projects </li></ul><ul><li>Relevance of “proper” techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Formal considerations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional and line management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matrix organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authority and responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What’s the best approach? </li></ul>
  9. 9. PRINCE2 <ul><li>Projects in Controlled Environments </li></ul><ul><li>Complete project management philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Useful framework regardless of scale </li></ul><ul><li>Not suggesting direct use (in most cases) but approach can remind us of important considerations </li></ul>
  10. 10. PRINCE2 environment <ul><li>Key elements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project Board </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manages project overall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsibilities/Interests: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Executive, User, Technical </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. PRINCE2 environment <ul><li>Project manager </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ executive” manager - plans, monitors, co-ordinates overall project </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stage manager </li></ul><ul><ul><li>manages parts of projects, focus on schedule/quality/cost targets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project assurance team </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business, Technical & User coordinators </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Project definition <ul><li>Need for clear scope </li></ul><ul><li>User specification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User needs analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feasibility studies </li></ul><ul><li>Operational requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Whats and Hows </li></ul>
  13. 13. Cost estimation <ul><li>Estimating - an art on its own! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Price and profit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimism and pessimism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coding costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rigidity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Material </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Labour/time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Contracting <ul><li>Contracting out </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buying turnkey systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work packaging </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Making things clear </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contract terms and conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keep everything </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explicit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In writing </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Planning & scheduling <ul><li>What’s the difference? </li></ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comes first </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimating, sequencing, time analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of network analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scheduling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Follows on, and extends, the plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allocates resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The working details to implement the plan </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Approaches to planning <ul><li>Free planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning with minimum constraint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A certain solution? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Idealistic? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Target planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Practically focused </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unduly constrained? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dangers of undue compromise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Whichever, must be realistic and honest </li></ul>
  17. 17. Monitoring the plan <ul><li>The key questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where should we be? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where are we? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>And thus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do we need to do? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What can go wrong? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimating errors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Execution errors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of honesty (again) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key danger - the “knock-on”effect </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Planning (& scheduling) tools <ul><li>Timetabling </li></ul><ul><li>Bar charting (Gannt charts) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple bar charts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linked bar charts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complexity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rescheduling </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Network analysis <ul><li>Not as intuitive … </li></ul><ul><li>Inappropriate for resource scheduling BUT </li></ul><ul><li>Much more powerful notation </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent constraints being missed </li></ul><ul><li>Allow prioritisation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Criticality quantified by task duration and interdependence </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Network analysis <ul><li>Notation systems </li></ul><ul><li>Arrow systems (activity-on-arrow) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ADM, CPM/CPA, PERT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good for initial freehand planning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Node systems (activity-on-node) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PDM (Precedence Diagram Method) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good for checking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quite acceptable to use either – or both! </li></ul>
  21. 21. Example of ADM
  22. 22. Example of PDM
  23. 23. ADM <ul><li>Logic diagram – not to “scale” </li></ul><ul><li>Activities (arrows) </li></ul><ul><li>Events (nodes) </li></ul><ul><li>ID numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Dependencies </li></ul><ul><li>Durations </li></ul><ul><li>Dummy activities </li></ul>
  24. 24. PDM <ul><li>Again, logic diagram </li></ul><ul><li>Activities are nodes </li></ul><ul><li>Other data in boxes within the node </li></ul><ul><li>Extra data explicit </li></ul><ul><li>Concepts otherwise as for ADM </li></ul>
  25. 25. ADM in practice <ul><li>Brainstorm & rough out plan </li></ul><ul><li>Check logic (precedence) </li></ul><ul><li>Estimate durations </li></ul><ul><li>Perform analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forward pass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backward pass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish CPA and float </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Resource scheduling <ul><li>Views of resource scheduling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilisation of actual resource </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying what’s available </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How to deploy it as efficiently as possible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying what’s needed and what’s surplus? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishment of requirement for bought-in resource </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subcontracting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Purchasing </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Resource scheduling in practice <ul><li>What can be scheduled? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Money </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preferred vs constrained (target) scheduling </li></ul><ul><li>Relation to the CPA </li></ul><ul><li>Gannt charting </li></ul>
  28. 28. Gannt (linked bar) chart example
  29. 29. The seven steps of scheduling (after Lock) <ul><li>Define the objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Divide into manageable parts </li></ul><ul><li>Decide in detail what has to be done and in what sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Estimate durations </li></ul><ul><li>Calculate project lengths and assess significance </li></ul><ul><li>Reconcile programme with resources </li></ul><ul><li>Assign jobs </li></ul>
  30. 30. Software for analysis and scheduling <ul><li>Why use a computer? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed and flexibility… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… for large projects! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ease of review and distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Multiproject scheduling </li></ul><ul><li>Off-the-shelf products </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Serious” software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MS Project </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Managing progress <ul><li>The need for review and updating </li></ul><ul><li>Collecting data </li></ul><ul><li>Role of good communications </li></ul><ul><li>Dealing with real-world crises </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The importance of accuracy and honesty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corrective actions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What-ifs and risk analysis </li></ul>
  32. 32. Managing costs <ul><li>Cost reporting vs cost control </li></ul><ul><li>Cost management factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… many and varied! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Total Cost approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holistic, cooperative… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… Difficult? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Budget milestone monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires quantification of work done </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Importance of work breakdown in cost management </li></ul>
  33. 33. Managing quality <ul><li>What is quality? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On time on budget? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fitness for purpose? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer satisfaction? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contractual quality definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Quality systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality plans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The importance of commitment </li></ul>
  34. 34. Closure <ul><li>When does a project end? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The end of a continuous process” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifecycles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handover </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signoff </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Records </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Archives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retrievability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Post mortem? </li></ul>

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