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5 Key Chart Project Management (TM) Methodology

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5 Key Chart Project Management (TM) Methodology

  1. 1. Project Management in Real Life How to balance creative chaos and control
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Be able to implement at least one new project management tool tomorrow </li></ul><ul><li>Be able to eventually set up your own PMO </li></ul>
  3. 3. Agenda <ul><li>Why bother? </li></ul><ul><li>Project Management principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scoping & Estimating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Agile techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manifesto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scrum, RUP, XP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test-driven development </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Intros <ul><li>Take 10 seconds to tell us </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Your name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What you do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your workshop goals </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Preview - The 5 Key Charts Estimated Finish Final Cost People QPI Quality
  6. 6. Preview - The 5 Key documents Scope Change Form Issues Log Project Plan Status Report Quality Checklists
  7. 7. Why Bother? <ul><li>Your projects are late, over-budget, low margin, shipping with bugs </li></ul><ul><li>You & your team are pulling heroics to keep things under control </li></ul><ul><li>You & your team are burned out. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Why Bother? <ul><li>% of projects with large schedule slips </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Software Engineering Institute </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. What is a project? <ul><li>Achieve objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Produce deliverables </li></ul><ul><li>Start and end date </li></ul><ul><li>Consume resources (people, $) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Methodology <ul><li>Methodology: codified, repeatable set of methods & tools </li></ul><ul><li>PM methodology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set of standard PM processes & deliverables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project Methodology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IT project: Propose, Define, Design, Develop, Test, Go-Live, Support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction: Feasibility, Planning & Design, Production, Turnover & Startup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RUP: Inception, Elaboration, Construction, Transition </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. PM & Project Methodologies Propose Define Develop Conclude Design Test Structure & Plan Conclude Assess, Report, Control <ul><li>Proposal </li></ul><ul><li>Proposal </li></ul><ul><li>Charter </li></ul><ul><li>Workplan </li></ul><ul><li>Milestones </li></ul><ul><li>Requiremts </li></ul><ul><li>Site map </li></ul><ul><li>Wireframes </li></ul><ul><li>Use cases </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic design </li></ul><ul><li>Technical architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Logical design </li></ul><ul><li>Physical design </li></ul><ul><li>System components </li></ul><ul><li>Unit </li></ul><ul><li>System </li></ul><ul><li>User acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>Documen-tation </li></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>Code control </li></ul><ul><li>Scope Change Log </li></ul><ul><li>Issues Management Log </li></ul><ul><li>Risk Management Log </li></ul><ul><li>Weekly status reports </li></ul><ul><li>5 Key charts </li></ul><ul><li>Customer feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Admin. closure </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Scope Triangle Good Cheap Fast
  13. 13. The Triangle, again Scope Specifications/ Quality Time/ Schedule Budget/ Cost
  14. 14. Scoping <ul><li>Proposal/Charter/Statement of Work/Contract </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives: Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Reach (realistic), Time-bound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deliverables: Include PM & standard project deliverables from methodology! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functionality In scope & Out of scope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team (Roles & Responsibilities) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process: Include PM! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Requirements/Design/Specs </li></ul>
  15. 15. Estimating <ul><li>Decomposition (microscopic/bottom-up) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have at least 2 levels of abstraction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analogy (micro or macro) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delphi with feedback: get experts to go away & estimate, bring group together & show estimates, then re-estimate. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Macro </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modeling (heuristic, phenomenological). Derived from basic “physics” about how projects work. Observe key project variables (time, money, scope, quality, people) and make an equation. Use Excel to get a regression. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design to cost or duration. Here’s what we can do with what’s available. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PERT t e =(best case + worst case + 4*most likely)/6 </li></ul>
  16. 16. Planning the work <ul><li>ODW </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives --> Deliverables --> Workplan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WBS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Break down by phase, by product, activity, location… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uniqueness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OAK: One Arse to Kick. Exactly one person’s name per task, or no-one’s responsible. (No organizations.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One task for a given person & date combo </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grammar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tasks verb-noun, “Complete design document” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Milestones noun-verb, “Design Complete” </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Planning the work, 2 <ul><li>Effort versus Duration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effort (work) is the number of person-hours expended to do the task. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration is how long it takes from beginning to end. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration = work/resource allocation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tips </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tasks, dependencies, durations, resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use F-S relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask the people doing the tasks for estimates!! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tasks 0.5 to 10 days, ideal 2-5 days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Milestones & summary tasks - no person names </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beware the Mythical Man-Month (Fred Brooks)! </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Planning Tools <ul><li>Stickies, index cards, string, whiteboard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Great for brainstorming, communicating! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Word & Excel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple to-do list, no dependencies, little tracking. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task, Due, Responsible, Status </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Groupware” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Track & communicates to-do’s, milestones, files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BaseCamp, SharePoint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bugzilla, Mantis, Trac - issue tracking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Desktop tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MSProject - de facto standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OmniPlan, Merlin, some web-based </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Portfolio Management (Enterprise) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MSProject Sever,, Primavera, Clarity </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Views - Gantt chart
  20. 20. Views - Network Diagram (PERT chart)
  21. 21. Working the plan <ul><li>Baselining </li></ul><ul><li>Tracking Gantt </li></ul><ul><li>Binary statusing </li></ul><ul><li>“ Plan at level 3, manage at level 2” </li></ul><ul><li>Action Items versus updating plan </li></ul><ul><li>When does it go on the plan (versus in someone’s to-do list?) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When it’s required to complete a deliverable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When someone else is dependent on the output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When it’s longer than x hours (4) in effort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When it’s important enough for the team to know about </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Working the plan 2 <ul><li>Meetings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative plan development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First use Gantt to walk everyone through the plan (1+ hours) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then can use personal to-do lists from PM tool </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Critical Path Management <ul><li>Critical Path is the longest path through the project plan. If any task on the critical path slips, the end date slips. Zero float. </li></ul><ul><li>Must have successors to each task (dependencies) to calculate </li></ul><ul><li>Possible to have multiple critical branches. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Float” = duration until critical, =LF-EF </li></ul><ul><li>“ Manage The Critical Path” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>And then know what’s likely to become critical. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you’re strapped for time, make sure you at least know what’s going on with your critical path. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Views - Tracking Gantt
  25. 25. Resource Leveling <ul><li>MSProject or other PM tool </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Resource Usage view, adjust hours in daily yellow blocks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Move start date, stretch duration of non-critical tasks, reassign. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Otherwise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spreadsheet: People on one axis, days/weeks on other, hours in cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Look out for micro-managing </li></ul>
  26. 26. Views - Resource Graph
  27. 27. Views - Resource Usage
  28. 28. Scope Management <ul><li>Scope Change Request Form </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Client fills out form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimator estimates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Client approves/denies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work begins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scope Change Log </li></ul><ul><li>Note well: ANY Change Request takes resources to process, even if it’s a zero-dollar, zero-time change. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Scope change request form
  30. 30. Schedule Management (“crashing the schedule”) <ul><li>If there’s a schedule issue, your levers are </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule . Check critical path for date constraints, task dependencies, durations, task drivers, serial vs. parallel </li></ul><ul><li>Scope . Toss out the lowest-priority items first. It’s much easier for clients to remember it was late than it was missing their least favorite function points. </li></ul><ul><li>Quality . Look for perfectionism that can be downgraded to “good enough”. </li></ul><ul><li>Cost . Put more people on it (Fred Brooks: “Adding manpower to a late project makes it later”). </li></ul><ul><li>People . Burn out your people. Heroics often works, but not reliable or sustainable. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Estimated Finish Chart
  32. 32. Quality Management <ul><li>Ensure product meets customer needs </li></ul><ul><li>Early = cheap </li></ul><ul><ul><li>QA the proposal, the requirements & the design </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standards & Guidelines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Checklists: proposal, reqmts, design, test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn as you go! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process Documentation & Improvement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TQM/6-sigma. Document, measure, manage. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Management or peer review </li></ul><ul><li>Testing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traceability. From reqmts to design to test cases. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Agile & iterative techniques </li></ul>
  33. 33. Quality Measurement Tests passed
  34. 34. Example regression test checklist
  35. 35. Budget Management <ul><li>Final project cost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimate weekly & chart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forces PM to know how much has been spent, how much is estimated to be spent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>QPI = Quick Performance Index </li></ul><ul><ul><li>% spent / % done </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Like earned value (get $ credit for tasks completed), but easier to compute & more sensitive to decisions - watch the trend. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.0 = “ideal” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>>1 = spending too fast or investing or making advance payments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li><1 = usually not fully resourced, going to miss date. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Final project cost
  37. 37. Quick Performance Index
  38. 38. Issues Management <ul><li>Issue = an item which potentially impacts scope, quality, cost, schedule, or people. </li></ul><ul><li>Issue reporting process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anyone can report an issue. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First to PM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Escalate if necessary through management. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PM owns the “logging & dogging” of all project issues. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All issues reported on weekly status report. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Issue log or tracking system </li></ul>
  39. 39. Issue log
  40. 40. Status report
  41. 41. Risk Management <ul><li>Description - what can we videotape going wrong? </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidance - get to not happen </li></ul><ul><li>Contingency - what we do if it does happen </li></ul><ul><li>Probability - how likely to happen (H/M/L or numeric or percentage) </li></ul><ul><li>Severity - damage caused if it happened (H/M/L or numeric or $$) </li></ul>
  42. 42. Program management <ul><li>Status </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Path </li></ul><ul><li>Issues Management </li></ul><ul><li>Dashboard </li></ul><ul><li>KPI’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 key charts and/or other measures </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Program dashboard <ul><li>Green = on track </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow = issues, may not make it </li></ul><ul><li>Red = not going to make it, or didn’t </li></ul>
  44. 44. People <ul><li>The soft part is the hard part </li></ul><ul><li>People are the most complex & least understood driver of success. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy level, skills, focus, personality, values, experiences, feelings, culture. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overwork, multitasking, clear objectives, clear role, trust, communication. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use the “People Chart”! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Names: Mood, Morale, Project Confidence Chart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look for scatter and for trends. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The process itself is healthy & expressive. </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. People Chart
  46. 46. People - Appreciative inquiry <ul><li>Effective Questions, building on strengths </li></ul><ul><li>Team meetings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What worked well? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What did we do to make it work? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What’s the objective? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the benefits of achieving the objective? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do we need to do next? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Issues log </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideal outcome </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Putting it all together - The 5 Key Charts Estimated Finish Final Cost People QPI Quality
  48. 48. Putting it all together - The 5 Key documents Scope Change Form Issues Log Project Plan Status Report Quality Checklists
  49. 49. Key agile principles <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Early and continuous delivery of valuable software. </li></ul><ul><li>Welcome changing requirements, even late in development. </li></ul><ul><li>Trust team </li></ul><ul><li>Face-to-face conversation. </li></ul><ul><li>Working software is the primary measure of progress. </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable development. </li></ul><ul><li>Simplicity--the art of maximizing the amount of work not done--is essential. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-organizing teams. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Scrum <ul><li>One month timeboxes - working tested software at end. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t add to iteration </li></ul><ul><li>Self-organizing teams </li></ul><ul><li>Daily build </li></ul><ul><li>Daily Scrum meetings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10-15 minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What have you done since last time, what plans till next time, what are your blocks? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blocks gone in 1 day, decisions in 1 hour </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Product & Release Backlog </li></ul><ul><li>Sprint “burndown” </li></ul><ul><li>Scrum master firewall </li></ul>
  51. 51. Example Burndown
  52. 52. Extreme Programming (XP) <ul><li>Planning Game (story cards) </li></ul><ul><li>Small, frequent releases </li></ul><ul><li>System metaphors </li></ul><ul><li>Simple design </li></ul><ul><li>Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent refactoring </li></ul><ul><li>Pair programming </li></ul><ul><li>Team code ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous integration </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable pace </li></ul><ul><li>Whole team together </li></ul><ul><li>Coding standards </li></ul>
  53. 53. RUP (Unified Process) <ul><li>Short timeboxed iterations - peeling the onion. </li></ul><ul><li>Phased approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inception - Establish a common vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elaboration - Build & test risky core </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction - Build & test the rest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transition - Deploy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Develop high-risk & high-value elements first </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodate change early </li></ul><ul><li>50 optional “artifacts”, models </li></ul><ul><li>Manage requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Visual modeling (UML) </li></ul><ul><li>Continuously verify quality </li></ul>
  54. 54. Resources <ul><li>PMI - Project Management Institute: </li></ul><ul><li>PMBOK - Project Management Body of Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>, </li></ul><ul><li>Craig Larman Agile & Iterative Development </li></ul>