Phil.history chapter13 (ArleneMata&CyreneMorato)


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Phil.history chapter13 (ArleneMata&CyreneMorato)

  1. 1. Submitted by: Arlene Mata Cyrene Joy Morato Submitted to: Andy Patricio Bonifacio
  2. 2. The circumstances surrounding the declaration of Philippine independence , Its constitution and form of government, were certainly not ideal. The Filipino forces could have chosen a better timing. The U.S. take-over of Intramuros on August 13, 1898, to the exclusion of the Filipino forces who had earlier laid siege to the city, muddled the issue of who were the real victors of the battle: was it the Americans or the Filipinos that were responsible for the Spaniards surrender? Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo, together with Apolinario Mabini, were faced with the difficult task of uniting the educated and rich with the majority who were poor and uneducated under a form of government worthy of international respect and recognition. This, they had o do in just a short time with the impending U.S. occupation of the country. Aguinaldo and Mabini, • despite their opposition, failed and in the end, found themselves behind the birth of a premature Republic of the Philippines that was controlled by the elite.
  3. 3. A government ruled by a dictator, who has unrestricted and supreme authority over citizens and all aspects of their lives  When Aguinaldo was in Hongkong, he asked Mariano Ponce to prepare a constitution that provided for a republic form of government.  When Aguinaldo returned to the Philippines, he realized that is was time to organize a government, as what Consul Wildman had earlier advised. “He was to establish a dictatorial form of government” Because such a government was very effective in a critical period such as what the country was experiencing. There were many problems that needed to be addressed like financing a new government.  Food for other people Reconstruction of destroyed buildings and houses, including roads and bridges.  And many others
  4. 4. Aguinaldo was convinced that a dictatorial form of government was efficient than a republic government in a time of crisis, he asked Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista, a lawyer of good standing, to prepare the machinery for the established of a dictatorial government. May 24,1898. Aguinaldo, upon the advice of Bautista, formally established the Dictatorial Government “to be administered by decrees promulgated under my [Aguinaldo’s] sole Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista responsibility.”
  5. 5. Before he left for the Philippines, Felipe Agoncillo, who had left the Philippines in 1895 because some friars were after him, gave him some good advice. Realizing that Aguinaldo would need the services of dedicated and patriotic men, Aguinaldo advised him to look for a certain Apolinario Mabini of Tanawan, Batangas. He was according to the informant, a bright young man who could be relied upon in times of crisis. And Aguinaldo remembered Agoncillo’s advice. He learned that Mabini was resting in Los Baños, Laguna. He ordered his men to fetch Mabini and bring him to Kawit, Cavite.
  6. 6. When Mabini was brought before Aguilando in his office, the General looked at the man before him. He was thin and obviously sick. He was paralyzed from the waist down to his lower limbs, a sickness which he must have contracted since birth. Then Aguinaldo noted that there was a strange light in Mabini’s eye that he could not explain. There was something in those eyes that captivated Aguinaldo. No one spoke, “there was a long silence”. Then Aguinaldo heard Mabini’s voice for the first time. It was firm. It had deep conviction. It had courage. All at once Aguinaldo’s doubts vanished. He smiled and reached for Mabini’s right hand . He held the latter’s hand tightly. This meeting was the beginning of a friendship that, unfortunately, lasted for only one year.
  7. 7. The Declaration of Independence • Aguinaldo thought that it would be best to declare the independence of the country. He believed the people would work hard to protect that independence and thus, contribute to the stability of the newly established government but Apolinario Mabini, who was not yet Aguinaldo’s official adviser at the time. He said that the more important thing to do was to reorganize the government first, to make it popularly based and thus more stable than a dictatorial government.
  8. 8. June 5, Aguinaldo ordered that June 12, be set aside for the proclamation of independence. To make event memorable, He asked Julian Felipe, a musician from Cavite. To compose a march which would be played during the independence day ceremonies. And it was entitled “Marcha Filipina Magdalo” upon hearing the music, Aguinaldo decided to make it the official march of the Philippines. June 12, between four and five in the afternoon, Aguinaldo proclaimed the independence of the Philippines from the window of his home Kawit.
  9. 9. Designed by Aguinaldo and sewn in Hongkong by Mrs. Marcela Agoncillo with the help of Delfina Herbosa and Lorenza Agoncillo was officially hoisted for the first time to the accopaniment of the “Marcha Filipina”
  10. 10. This was his last official ac. After June 12, he faded from the picture and Mabini stepped in as Aguinaldo’s topmost adviser. The Declaration of Independence was signed by ninety-eight persons. U.S. Admiral Dewey declined the invitation to the ceremonies Instead, an American army officer by the name of Colonel L. M. Johnson attended on his behalf. It was not until August 1 that many towns of Luzon Promulgated the proclamation of independence.
  11. 11.  Mabini have a very important role in the Filipino government after the declaration of independence on June 12, 1898. He set to work immediately by preparing a decree for Aguinaldo’s signature in which it was stated that “the first duty of the government is to interpret faithfully the will of the people” Mabini prepared the decree of June 18, which provided for the reorganization of the government in provinces that were already taken from the Spaniards. The town chief acted as president of the Assembly; the cabeza of the poblacion or town proper as the vice president; and the delegate for justice and civil registry as the secretary. Mabini thought that there should be a Revolutionary Congress to prepare for this, he included in the June 18, decree a provision starting that each province should elect its delegates to congress. The main function of the Congress was “to propose…measures concerning the preservation of internal order and external security of these islands…”
  12. 12. In a supplementary decree of June 20, Mabini provided for the administration of justice in areas under the Filipino government. For the time being, Spaniards penal Code was adopted expert for those provisions which were contrary to the decree of the Filipino government. The town chief was automatically assigned as the town judge. In criminal cases, this, in turn, would order the accused to appear before the provincial council to stand trial. In civil cases, the decisions were made by the popular council. All decisions were to be considered temporary and may be changed by a court of higher jurisdiction.
  13. 13. ♦ A government involved in great fundamental changes in system or reversal of existing condition. Aguinaldo changed the form of government from dictatorial to revolutionary. This took effect on June 23. The name of the government was Revolutionary Government. ◘ The decree prepared by Mabini, changed the title of the Chief of State from Dictator to “President”. To help the president on his duties, four department were created. They were the Department of Foreign Affairs, Navy and Commerce; The Department of War and Public Works; the Department of Police and Internal Order, Justice , Education, and Hygiene; and the Department of Finance, Agriculture, and Manufacturing Industry. The June 23, decree also provided for the creation of Congress. Provinces which could not hold any election for delegates to congress, because they were still under the Spaniards. Would be represented by appointive delegates to Congress.
  14. 14. The provisions of the decrees of June 18 and 23, Aguinaldo call the congress to meet at Barasoain church in Malolos,Bulacan. On September 4, Aguinaldo appointed 50 delegates to congress to represent provinces that were experiencing unstable condition because of fierce and order issues. The majority of this were educated and rich. Lawyers, physicians, and businessmen made up 59%. Non from the peasants, labor, muslims and other ethnoliguistic groups were represented. The basilica barasoain was filled with people on the morning of September 15, 1898. The banda pasig played the “Marcha Filipina,” at the church yard. The Marcha is now known as the National Anthem. Cries of Viva!” reverberated when Aguinaldo arrived with his aides. He entered the church and sat in one of the chairs designated for him. He acknowledged the applause and then stood up.
  15. 15. In the afternoon, the members of congress elected the following officers: President…………………….Pedro A. Paterno Vice President……………...Benito Legarda First secretary……………..Gregoria Araneta Second secretary…………..Pablo Ocampo In the meeting of September 29, Congress ratified the proclamation of independence in Kawit on June 12. This was the first significant act of congress. That the united states was for the Americans: and I say the Philippines is for the Filipinos.” The statement, apparently, was intended for U.S government, whose Representative Admiral Dewey continued to be uncommitted to the idea of an Independent Philippines.
  16. 16. What Mabini provided in the decrees of June 18 and 23 was for Congress to functions as advisory group to be president; he meant for it not to act as a lawmaking body. He believes that in times of emergency, as what was happening in those days, the Chief Executive should not be hampered by too many discussions in order to execute plans immediately. They believed that it was necessary to have a modern constitution where Congress functioned as an equal branch of the executive charged with legislative power. Mabini answered that the unstable times were not conductive for such a constitution. They needed more time to deliberate in order to decisively frame the provisions of the constitution. Mabini prepared a draft of the constitution called Constitutional Plan of the Philippines Republic and submitted it to Congress. Felipe G. Calderon, a descendant of a Franciscan friar of Santa Ana, Manila, prepared his version of the constitution with the advice of Cayetano Arellano, a brilliant lawyer. Calderon and Arellano borrowed from the constitutions of many countries, like Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico, Belgium, France, and Brazil. There was a strong opposition to the article providing for a state religion which was Catholicism. After long discussions and a tied decision, a second vote was taken. Other provision was modified because of Mabini’s objection. The final version of the constitution was promulgated by Aguinaldo on January 21, 1899.
  17. 17. The Malolos Constitution was the first important state document that the Filipino people, speaking through their representatives, had ever produced. According too this constitutions, the government that was established was “popular, representative, and responsible.” it was divided into three branches: the executive, the legislative and the judicial. Safeguards against abuses were provided for so that the people would not experience what they had experienced under Spain. The President was elected by the Assembly, which took the place of congress. The department secretaries-the secretary of foreign affairs, secretary of justice, among others-were responsible not to the President, but to the Assembly. The Malolos constitution is unique of three reasons: first, the Assembly or the legislative branch was more powerful than the executive or the judicial branch; second, it provided that when the Assembly was not in session, a Permanent Commission, composed of members of the Assembly, would sit as a legislative body; and lastly, the Constitution established a unicameral legislature. He said preferred the oligarchy of the intellect over the few rich, this excluded the many who were poor and uneducated. This also excluded many veterans of the 1896 Revolution, the soldiers and leaders of the Katipunan in the Provinces.
  18. 18. • In preparation for the inauguration of the Philippine Republic, Aguinaldo, as early as January 2, 1899, reorganized his Cabinet. The following were appointed: President of the Cabinet and Secretary of Foreign Affairs : Apolinario Mabini Secretary of Inter : Teodora Sandico Secretary of War : Baldomero Aguinaldo Secretary of Welfare, Public Instruction,Public works, Communications,Agriculture, Industry and Commerce : Gracio Gonzaga
  19. 19. This Cabinet was also called the Council of Government. Mabini, in a last effort to include the “ignorant masses” declared that the Cabinet “belongs to no party, nor does it desire to form one; it stands for nothing save interests of the fatherland.” At the inauguration of the Republic on January 23, Aguinaldo took his oath of office as President of the Republic. Then the Malolos Constitution was read article by article so that people would know what it was all about. To make the event memorable, Aguinaldo pardoned all prisoners of war who were not regular members of the Spanish Army. Also, Spaniards and aliens were granted the right to engage in business in the Philippines.
  20. 20. The armed struggle between the Spaniards and the Filipinos resulted in the destruction of schools and buildings. Consequently, all schools were closed. However, in the interest so Filipino children and adults, the Revolutionary Government ordered the provincial governors to reopen schools that had been abandoned during the revolution. Then a decree provided for the improved curriculum of the Burgos Institute. The curriculum included subjects such as Latin grammar, universal geography, English, French, history, mathematics, physics, chemistry, philosophy, and natural laws. In October 1898, a decree was issued creating the Literary University of the Philippines. Dr. Joaquin Gonzales was appointed as the first president of the university and was later succeeded by Dr. Leon Ma. Guerrero. Dr. Guerrero delivered the commencement address of the school on September 29, 1899. The Philippine American War broke out and led to the disbandment of the professors, who, in their own way, worked for their country in the fight against a new enemy.
  21. 21. A struggling nation like the Philippines, toward the end of the nineteenth century, needed propaganda media to make the feelings and ideas of the people known to the world. The Revolutionary Government founded its official organ, El Heraldo de la Revolution, which came out on Septenber29, 1898. Later, its name was changed to Heraldo Filipino, then to Indices Officials, and finally to Gaceta de Filipinas. The most famous of this newspaper was La Independencia. Its editor and part-owner was General Antonio Luna. The newspaper came out on September 3 ,1898 and great Filipino Ma. Guerrero, Jose Palma, Rafael Palma, Epifanio de los Santos, Jose Abreu, Mariano V. del Rosario, Salvador V. del Rosario, Rosa Sevilla and Florentina Arellano. Other nationalistic newspapers that were circulated were La Republica Filipina in Mandaluyong; La Libertad in Manila; Ang Kaibigan nang Bayan in Malolos; Columnas Volantes in Lipa, Batangas; La Federacion in Cabanatuan, Iloilo; La Revolution in Jaro, Iloilo; La Oportunidad in Tagbiliran, Bohol, and many others. Copies of these periodicals were no longer available and they did not last for long. The country and people as they inspired the Filipinos to fight till the end, in defense of human dignity, honor, and freedom.
  22. 22. These Filipino diplomats were Felipe Agoncillo for the United States; Mariano Ponce and Faustino Lichauci for japan; Antonio Ma. Regidor for England; Juan Luna and Pedro Roxas for France; and Eriberto Zacal for Australia. The assignment of Agoncillo was deemed most important. The United States by Sixto Lopez. Agoncillo’s efforts to seek official’s audience with President McKinley failed. Agoncillo again tried to submit a memorandum explaining why the Filipinos deserved to be organized as an independent people, but again he failed. The commissioners refused to have any official business with him. On December 10, 1898, the Spanish and American peace commissioners signed the Treaty of Paris. By this treaty, Spain turned over the improvements made by Spain in the Philippines. Agoncillo returned to Washington, D.C. to prevent the ratification of the treaty. Without Senate approval, the treaty would not become a law. In the Senate, many were against the treaty. He said that at the time the treaty was signed, Spain had already been ousted from the Philippines by the Filipinos. Many Americans were also against the treaty and even established the Anti-Imperialist League which was very vocal against the move of the United States to colonize the Philippines. When the PhilippineAmerican War started on February 4, 1899, the American newspapers said it was the Filipinos who started the war. On February 6, the Senate voted to pass the Treaty of Paris. The American imperialists, who propagated the falsehood that the Filipinos started the hostilities, won the day