• The U.S. take-over of Intramuros on
August 13, 1898, to the exclusion of the
Filipino forces who had earlier laid siege
to the city, muddled the issue of who
were the real victors of the battle: was
it the Americans or the Filipinos that
were responsible for the Spanish
The Dictatorial Government
• He was to establish a dictatorial form
of government because such a
government was very effective in a
critical period such as what the country
was experiencing. (May 24, 1898)
• Aguinaldo made it that this form of
government was temporary in nature and
that in the future the people may
Mabini Enters the Scene
• He was according to the informant, a
bright young man who could be relied upon
times of crisis.
• Mabini was brought before Aguinaldo in his
office. He was thin and obviously sick.
(paralyzed from the waist down to his
• When Aguinaldo heard Mabini’s voice, he
• Mabini’s voice was firm, had a deep
conviction and it had a courage.
The Declaration of Independence
• On June 5, Aguinaldo ordered that June 12
be set aside for the proclamation of
independence. He asked Julian Felipe to
compose a march which would be played
during the independence day ceremonies.
• It was entitled “Marcha Filipina Magdalo”
• June 12, The Philippine flag designed by
Aguinaldo and sewn in Hong Kong by Mrs.
Marcela Agoncillo was officially hoisted
for the first time to the accompaniment of
the “Marcha Filipina”.
• The Act of the Declaration of
Independence was prepared and read in
Spanish by Ambrosio Rianzares
• The Declaration of Independence was
signed by ninety-eight persons.
• Colonel L. M. Johnson attended the
ceremonies on Dewey’s behalf.
Local Government Reorganized
• Mabini prepared the decree of June 18
which provided for the reorganization of
the government in provinces that were
already taken from the Spaniards.
• The right to vote was given to men of high
moral character and good standing in his
• They bwere the ones who would elect the
town head, the cabeza of each barrio, and
the delegate for justice and civil registry,
and the delegate for taxes and property.
• The town chief acted as president of
the Assembly; the cabeza of the
poblacion or town proper as the vice
president; and the delegate for justice
and civil registry as the secretary.
• Mabini thought that there should be a
• The main function of the Congress was
“to propose…measures concerning the
preservation of internal order and
external security of these islands.”
The Administration of Justice
• In a supplementary decree of June 20,
Mabini provided for the administration
of justice in areas under the Filipino
• Under the setup, the town chief was
automatically assigned as the town
The Revolutionary Government
• The decree, prepared by Mabini,
changed the title of the Chief of State
from Dictator to President.
• The June 23 decree also provided for
the creation of Congress.
• Provinces which could not hold any
election for delegates to Congress,
because they were still under Spaniards,
would be represented by appointive
delegates to Congress.
The Malolos Congress
• The Basilica of Barasoain was filled with
people on the morning of Sept.15, 1898.
• In the afternoon, the members of
Congress elected the following officers:
• President: Pedro A. Paterno
• Vice President: Benito Legarda
• First Secretary: Gregorio Araneta
• Second Secretary: Pablo Ocampo
The Malolos Constitution
• Mabini prepared a draft of the
constitution called Constitutional Plan of
the Philippine Republic and submitted it
• Felipe G. Calderon prepared his version
of the constitution with the advice of
• The final version of the Constitution
was promulgated by Aguinaldo on
January 21, 1899.
The Constitution: it’s importance
• The government that was established
was “popular, representative, and
responsible”. It was divided into three
branches: the executive, the legislative,
and the judicial. The Constitution also
provided for national and individual
rights not only of Filipinos, but also for
• The Malolos Constitution is unique for
• 1. Assembly or the legislative branch
was more powerful than the executive
or the judicial branch.
• 2. It provided that when the Assembly
was not in session, a permanent
commission, composed of members of
the Assembly would sit as a legislative
• 3. The Constitution established a
The First Philippine Republic
• January 2, 1899 reorganized Aguinaldo’s
• President of the Cabinet and Secretary of
Foreign Affairs: Apolinario Mabini
• Secretary of the Interior: Teodoro
• Secretary of War: Baldomero Aguinaldo
• Secretary of Finance: Mariano Trias
• Secretary of Welfare, Public Instruction,
Public Works, Communications, Agriculture,
Industry and Commerce: Gracio Gonzaga
• Aguinaldo included an item for education
amounting to P35,000.
• The curriculum included subjects such as
Latin grammar, universal geography,
English, French, history, mathematics,
physics, chemistry, philosophy, and natural
• In October 1898, a decree was issued
creating the Literary University of the
• The subjects taught were medicine and
surgery, civil and criminal law, pharmacy,
• Dr. Joaquin Gonzales was appointed as
the first president of the university and
was later succeeded by Dr. Leon Ma.
• The university did not last very long.
The Philippine-American War broke out
and led to the disbandment of the
Periodicals of the Revolution
• The Revolutionary Government founded
it’s official organ, El Heraldo de la
Revolucion, which came out on Sept.29,
• Later, it’s name changed to Heraldo
Filipino then to Indice Official, and
finally to Gaceta de Filipinas.
• The most famous of these newspapers
was a La Independencia, it’s editor and
part-owner was Gen. Antonio Luna.
• Great Filipino writers in Spanish wrote in
it’s columns like Cecilio Apostol, Fernando
Ma. Guerrero, Jose Palma, Rafael, Epifanio
de los Santos, Jose Abreu, Mariano V. del
Rosario, Salvador V. del Rosario, Rosa
Sevilla, and Florentina Arellano.
• Other nationalistic newspapers that were
circulated were La Republica Filipina in
Mandaluyong, La Libertad in Manila, Ang
Kaibigan nang Bayan in Malolos, Columnas
Volantes in Lipa, Batangas. La Federacion in
Cabatuan, Iloilo, La Revolucion in Jaro,
Iloilo, La Oportunidad in Tagbilaran, Bohol
and many others.
The Treaty of Paris
• On December 10, 1898, the Spanish and
American peace commissioners signed the
Treaty of Paris. By this treaty, Spain
turned over the Philippines to the United
States for the sum of $20,000,000 as
payments for the improvements made by
Spain in the Philippines.
• U.S. agreed to permit Spaniards to ship
commodities to the Philippines for a period
of ten years on the same terms as those of
the United States.
• Many Americans were also against the
treaty and even established the Anti-
Imperialist League which was very vocal
against the move of the United States
to colonize the Philippines.
• On february 6, the Senate voted to
pass the Treaty of Paris. The American
imperialists who propagated the
falsehood that the Filipinos started the
hostilities won the day.