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Philippines American Colony


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Philippines American Colony

  1. 1. Philippines under the American Colony Philippine History Lecture Third Quarter
  2. 2. American Colonial Policy They promised to train the Filipinos in Democracy and Self-Government. They want the Philippines to stand on its own as a free and independent nation They shared power with the Filipinos in the government. Human Rights were protected. They developed the economy, improved hygiene and sanitation, and introduced the public school system.
  3. 3. American Colonial Government Military Government (August 1898-July 1901) Gen. Wesley Merritt Gen. Elwell Otis Gen. Arthur MacArthur (Father of Douglas MacArthur) Civil Government (July 1901-August 1902) The Philippine Commission The American Gov. Gen. together with the Philippine Assembly or the Philippine Legislature The Commonwealth of the Philippines
  4. 4. Contributions of the Americans to the Philippines Economic Progress: Population Explosion New Land Policy Friars land were resold to Filipino farmers Homestead Act of 1924 allowed Filipinos to own up to 24 hectares of public land Torrens titles were given to the land owner
  5. 5. Contributions of the Americans to the Philippines Agriculture Increase In 1902, the Bureau of Agriculture became the first gov’t agency in the Philippines Free Trade America Business Flourished New Industries Improvement of Transportation and Communications Better Budget New Banks International Exhibitions and Meetings
  6. 6. Economic Problems We sold our raw materials cheap and bought expensive manufactured goods from America. Colonial Mentality Labor and peasant unrest spread in 1920s and 1930s American Capitalists and businessmen controlled the new companies
  7. 7. Other American contributions Religious Freedom Training in Democracy Free Education Better Health Service Introduction of the English Language Free Press Democratic Family Life and Social Classes Emancipation of Women Recreation, Movies, Theater, Arts and Science
  8. 8. QUIZ: They promised to train the Filipinos in Democracy and (1)_______________. They want the Philippines to stand on its own as a free and independent nation. In 1902, the (2) _________________ became the first gov’t agency in the Philippines. The two types of American Colonial government implemented in the Philippines were (3)__________________ and (4) ________________. (5) _________of 1924 allowed Filipinos to own up to 24 hectares of public land.
  9. 9. From Commonwealth to Republic Philippine History Lecture Third Quarter
  10. 10. The Commonwealth of the Philippines After the Filipinos lost the war to the Americans in 1901, they did not really stop fighting for independence. The Filipinos carried on the fight for freedom in three ways: Theater and Literature Peasant revolts and Communist Party of the Philippines Peaceful pressure by the Filipino politicians ending the establishment of the Commonwealth of the Philippines in 1935. (Political Campaign for Independence)
  11. 11. I. Freedom Theater and Literature Tagalog zaruelas became popular (1902-1905) Banned by the Americans examples: TanikalangGintoby Juan Abad and Kahapon, Ngayon and Bukas by Aurelio Tolentino Tagalog writers wrote about the sufferings of the people. Lope K.Santos wrote Banaag at Sikatin 1935 Amado V. Hernandez was both writer and labor leader 1907: freedom of the press and the elections
  12. 12. II. Peasant Revolts and Communist Party Peasant Revolts in Surigao, Nueva Ecija, Iloilo, Negros Occidental, Pangasinan, Laguna and Bulacan Sakdalitas: peasant revolt that took place in 1935 Benigno Ramos: a popular writer and orator who founded the newspaper and a political party named Sakdal The Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) Founded in Manila by Cristano Evangelista on August 1930 In 1931, they organized labor strikes throughout the country.
  13. 13. III. Political Campaign for Independence After World War I, Filipino politicians united to campaign for immediate Philippine Independence. Sent independent missions in the US from 1919-1935 in the hope of urging the American Congress to grant independence to the Philippines. In 1932, the US Congress passed the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Law. It was the first Philippine Independence law passed by the US. The law was passed after the 1931 OSROX mission of Sen. Sergio Osmeña and House Speaker Manuel Roxas.
  14. 14. III. Political Campaign for Independence But the . HHC law did not push through. Osmeña & Quezon quarreled over it in the Philippine Legislature. Political debate took place between the group of Senate President Manuel Quezon who were in favor of the HHC Law against the Anti-HHC Law headed by Osmeña & Roxas. This marked the split of the Nacionalista Party. The HHC Law was rejected by the Philippine Legislature in October 17, 1933.
  15. 15. III. Political Campaign for Independence In 1934, US Congress passed the Tydings-McDuffie Law. The law provided that the Philippines would be independent in ten years time. A transition government run by Filipinos would be established. This was the Commonwealth of the Philippines.
  16. 16. The 1935 Philippine Constitution On July 10, 1934, 202 delegates were elected to a constitutional convention. The delegates met for the first time on July 30, 1934. Claro M. Recto was elected as convention president. On February 08, 1935, the new constitution was approved by the majority of the delegates March 23, 1935, Pres. Franklin Roosevelt signed the constitution The 1935 Constitution was ratified by the Filipino people in a plebiscite on May 04, 1935 This constitution served as the Commonwealth in the Philippines (Third Republic)
  17. 17. The Commonwealth of the Philippines September 17, 1935: The first national election was held Manuel Quezon won as President and Sergio Osmeña as Vice President November 15, 1935, the Commonwealth was inaugurated in Luneta Manuel Quezon was re-elected for another term on November 1941 The Commonwealth of the Philippines existed from 1935-1946. It was semi-independent government of the Filipinos under the American colony. “I would rather have a government run like hell by Filipinos than a government run like heaven by Americans.”- President Quezon The experiment in this Democracy was interrupted by the Second World War The Commonwealth leaders went into exile in the US from 1942-1944.
  18. 18. QUIZ: JOKE!! Assignment Lang! Be Ready for a quiz next meeting. Read a book or article related to the Second World War What are causes and effects of WW II in the lives of the Filipinos? Explain the role played by Douglas MacArthur in this part of our history. Describe the “Death March” Describe the Philippines under the Japanese Rule. What is a “puppet government”?
  19. 19. Schedule for the Third Quarter December 05 Discussion: Americans in the Philippines December 07 Discussion: World War II December 10 Discussion: Japanese in the Philippines December 11 PT 1Activity and Deadline of all PPTs December 12 Review for the Long Test December 14 LONG TEST 3.2 and Deadline of the Group PT