Chapters 13 & !4 study guide


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Chapters 13 & !4 study guide

  1. 1. Chapters 13 and 14 Study Guide<br />World War II<br />
  2. 2. Axis and Allied Powers<br />Axis Powers <br />Countries<br />Germany<br />Italy<br />Japan<br />Goals<br />Conquest and control of Europe<br />Control of Mediterranean area<br />Control of the Pacific and Northern China<br />Allied Powers<br />Countries<br />United States<br />France<br />Great Britain<br />USSR<br />Goals<br />Defeat the Axis powers<br />Liberate France and western Europe<br />Rebuild European economy<br />
  3. 3. Terminology<br />Appeasement----Allies gave in to Hitler’s demands for territory in order to prevent war.<br />Blitzkrieg---- Lightening War, Germany strategy of striking quickly with overwhelming force <br />Holocaust---Killing of 6 million Jews by the Nazis<br />Island hopping---Japanese strategy in the Pacific of conquering small island to use as air bases then “hopping” to the next.<br />Kamikaze---Japanese suicide pilots <br />Bushido---Code of honor practiced by Japanese soldiers. Made them disciplined and willing to fight to the death.<br />
  4. 4. People of World War II<br />Fascist leader of Italy<br />Fascist leader of Nazi Germany<br />Leader of Japan<br />Prime Minister of England<br />Premier of Soviet Union<br />U.S. President 1933-1945<br />Symbol of women factory workers during the war<br />U.S. President 1945-1953 became President following FDR’s death in 1945<br />Supreme Allied Commander<br />Commander of U.S. forces in the Pacific<br /> Benito Mussolini<br />Adolph Hitler<br />Emperor Hirohito<br /> Winston Churchill<br /> Joseph Stalin<br />Franklin Roosevelt<br />Rosie the Riveter<br />Harry S. Truman<br />Dwight Eisenhower<br />Douglas MacArthur<br />
  5. 5. Benito Adolph Emperor Winston Joseph<br />Mussolini Hitler Hirohito Churchill Stalin<br />Franklin Rosie the Harry S. Dwight Douglas<br />Roosevelt Riveter Truman Eisenhower MacArthur<br />
  6. 6. Beginning of the War: Major Events<br />Munich Pact: British and French representatives meet with Hitler and allow him to take over Czechoslovakia; 9/29-9/30/1938<br /><ul><li>Nazi-Soviet Pact: 8/24/1939 peace agreement between Germany and USSR preventing Russia from entering the war.
  7. 7. Start of the war: Nazi invasion of Poland September, 1939
  8. 8. Neutrality Acts: Passed by Congress in the 1930’s aimed at keeping the U.S. out of a European war
  9. 9. Lend-Lease Acts: Series of laws passed by Congress allowing the U.S. to sell war materials to the Allies
  10. 10. U.S. entry into the war: Bombing of Pearl Harbor, Hawaii December 7, 1941</li></li></ul><li>War on the Home front<br />WASPs: Women Air force Service Pilots flew cargo missions to free men for bombing missions<br />Women in the workforce: Women took jobs in factories building war materials as men served in the armed forces<br /><ul><li> Women in the military (WASPs)
  11. 11. Women in the workforce
  12. 12. Japanese interment
  13. 13. Reasons created
  14. 14. Conditions
  15. 15. Effects of Japanese Internment</li></li></ul><li>Japanese Internment<br />Internment or forced removal of Japanese Americans was enacted by the government for security reasons. Japanese Americans were viewed as spies and potential threats<br />Conditions: Interment camps were designed to resemble cities with block numbers, schools, post office and other facilities. Lacked indoor plumbing and other amenities<br />Effects: Not until the 1980’s that Japanese Americans received an official apology and reparations for interment.<br />
  16. 16. Battle of the Atlantic<br /><ul><li> Name given to the campaign fought between Allied navies and German U-boats throughout Atlantic shipping lanes from U.S. to Britain</li></li></ul><li>Battle of Britain<br /><ul><li> Largely an air war between Germany and England
  17. 17. England experienced 57 consecutive nights of air raids
  18. 18. British air force prevailed, preventing Hitler from controlling all of Europe</li></li></ul><li>Campaign for North Africa<br /><ul><li> Began 10 June, 1940 with the Italian invasion of Egypt
  19. 19. Erwin Rommel commander of German forces
  20. 20. Bernard Montgomery and George Patton led the Allied forces
  21. 21. Ended 16 May, 1943 when the Allies captured Tunis</li></li></ul><li>Campaign for Italy<br /><ul><li> Following victory in Africa, Allies launched an invasion of Italy
  22. 22. Advance was slowed by fierce fighting and crossing the Italian Alps
  23. 23. Allies captured Rome 4 June, 1944
  24. 24. Italians surrendered and Mussolini was hanged</li></li></ul><li>Battle of Stalingrad<br /><ul><li> Part of Operation Barbarossa (German invasion of USSR)
  25. 25. 17 July, 1942- 2 February, 1943
  26. 26. Germans were slowed and defeated by the Russian winter and lack of supplies</li></li></ul><li>D-Day <br /><ul><li> Code named Operation Overlord
  27. 27. Allied invasion of France 6 June, 1944
  28. 28. Largest military operation in history
  29. 29. Led to the liberation of France</li></li></ul><li>Battle of the Bulge<br /><ul><li> Last major offensive by the Nazi
  30. 30. Aimed at retaking the Belgium port of Antwerp
  31. 31. Allies prevailed and opened the path to Berlin</li></li></ul><li>
  32. 32. Holocaust<br />Selection process: Jews, Gypsies, and other undesirable groups were selected<br />Conditions: Camps lacked sufficient food, shelter, and prisoners were forced into hours of meaningless labor each day<br />Killing centers: Auschwitz, Bergen-Belsen and others where mass executions took place<br />Final Solution: Nazi plan for mass extermination of European Jews<br />Nazi leaders justified the Holocaust by claiming they were merely following orders<br />Holocaust ended in 1945 as Allied forces liberated the camps on their march to Berlin<br />
  33. 33.
  34. 34. War in the Pacific<br />Battles <br />Pearl Harbor: 7 December, 1941 Japanese attack the U.S. naval base in Hawaii<br />Philippines: Allied forces were defeated by the Japanese and forced into the Bataan Death March. Later reconquered by the Allies<br />Doolittle Raid: U.S. air raids against Japan. Largely ineffective, but proved the U.S. was willing to go on the offensive<br />Battles continued<br />Battle of Midway: Allied victory and turning point in the Pacific campaign<br />Guadalcanal: fierce battle between the U.S. and Japanese forces<br />Iwo Jima: famous for flag raising photo. Last step before Allies reached Japan<br />
  35. 35. Battle of the Pacific Continued<br />Okinawa: One of the final battles before the planned Allied invasion of Japan<br />Tokyo: Last naval battle of the war<br />
  36. 36.
  37. 37. Atomic Bomb<br />Controversy: Atomic weapons had never before been used and many feared their power.<br />Manhattan Project: Secret U.S. program to develop the atomic bomb<br />Hiroshima/Nagasaki: Japanese cities destroyed by the atomic bomb; Led to Japanese surrender<br />President Truman decided to use the atomic bomb to avoid millions of U.S. casualties in a proposed invasion of Japan<br />