In 1899, after the Malolos Constitution was ratified, the Universidad Literia de Filipinas
was established in Malolos, Bulacan. It offered Law as well as Medicine, Surgery and Notary Public;
Academia Militar which was established on October 25, 1898; and the Burgos Institute, an
exclusive school for boys.
The establishment of the Philippine Republic was the culmination of the Philippine
Revolution against Spanish rule. Independence was declared on June 12, 1898 and the dictatorial
government then in place was replaced by a revolutionary government headed by Emilio Aguinaldo as
president on June 23, 1898. The U.S. abolished the Philippine Republic in 1899 and continued its
annexation of the islands pursuant to the Treaty of Paris which ended the Spanish-American War. The
Philippines was under US sovereignty until 1946, when formal independence was granted by the
Treaty of Manila.
Temporary triumphal arch commemorating election of Aguinaldo, 1899
To identify the role of Katipunan in achieving Philippine independence
To share the values and advocacy of Katipunan
To recognize the officials and members of the Biak-na Bato Republic
Blood compact of the members of Katipunan
THE BIAK-NA BATO REPUBLIC
Pact of Biak-na Bato Filipino negotiators
Toward the end of October, 1897, during a lull of hostilities, President
Aguinaldo convened an assembly of revolutionary generals and leaders of Biak-na bato.
This assembly decided to continue the libertarian war at all cost and establish a Biak-na
On November 1, 1897, the Biaknabato republic was inaugurated under
constitution written by Isabelo Artacho and Felix Ferrer. This constitution was patterned
closely after the Cuban constitution of 1895. The officials of Biak-na bato Republic were:
President: Emilio Aguinaldo Vice President: Mariano Trias
Secretary of Interior: Isabelo Artacho Secretary of Treasury: Baldomero Aguinaldo
Secretary of War: Emiliano Riego de Dios
Secretary of Foreign Affairs:
To show the importance of having a constitution in one country
To discuss the making of Malolos Constitution
To draw from memory the events on the inauguration of Malolos Constitution
Opening of Malolos Congress at the Barasoain Church
Malolos , Bulacan on September 15,1898
THE MAKING OF MALOLOS CONSTITUTION
The committee of draft the constitution was composed of 19 members, namely:
Felipe G. Calderon
Felipe Buencamino Joaquin Gonzales
Jose Ma. De la Vina
Tomas G. del Rosario
Arsenio Cruz Herrera
El Verdadero Decalogo
To discuss different Independence Mission
To interpret the effect of World War 1 in the Philippines
To draw/illustrate Philippine Independence Missions
Filipino soldiers during World War 1
President Wilson, in his farewell address to Congress on December 2, 1920, recommended the granting
of Philippine independence. Unfortunately, the Republican Party then controlled Congress, so that the
recommendation of the outgoing Democratic president was not heeded.
a. President Woodrow Wilson
b. Ben Wright
c. Private Tomas Claudio
d. Declaration Purposes
e. President Manuel l. Quezon
f. Benigno Aquino Sr.
g. President Herbert Hoover
h. Hare Hawes Cutting Bill
i. OSROX Mission
j. Philippine National Guard.
To recall the existence of Military government in the Philippines
To differentiate Schurman Commission from Taft Commission
To show the importance of United States in the development of Military Government
Gen. Wesley Merritt
Owing the exigencies of war, a military government was established on August 14, 1898, the day following the
capture of Manila, with Gen Wesley Merritt as first Military Governor. The authority of Military Governor came from the
powers of President as Commander in Chief of the United States Armed Forces. During the Military rule(1898-1901), the
American military commander govern the Philippines for the President of the United States.
In order to make a survey of Philippine conditions and to achieve the peaceful extension of American
sovereignty over the archipelago, President McKinley appointed, on January 20, 1899.
Philippine Congress under United States
First Philippine Commission (1898)
The first Philippine commission otherwise known as the “Schurman Commission”. The
commission was composed of Dr. Jacob G. Schurman (chairman), president of Cornell University; Maj
Gen. Elwell Otis, Military Governor; rear Admiral George Dewey, commander of the American Asiatic
squadron; Charles Denby, former American Minister to China; Dr. Dean C. Worcester, professor at the
University of Michigan.
The Schurman mission arrived in Manila on March 4, 1899, a month after the outbreak of the
war. It failed to accomplish its mission owing to the exigencies of war. It conducted some hearings in
Manila, received the emissaries of General Aguinaldo, after which it returned to the United States. On
January 31, 1900, it submitted its report to President McKinley with the following recommendations:
(1) The establishment of a territorial form of government with the legislature of two houses-the lower
house to be elective and the upper house to be half-elective and half-appointive.
(2) Withdrawal of military rule in the pacified areas
(3) The conservation of the natural resources of the Philippines for the Filipinos
(4) The organization of autonomous local government
(5) Opening of the free elementary schools
(6) The appointment of man of high ability and good character to important government offices.
To discuss how the civil government was enacted
To analyze the provisions of Philippine Bill 1902
GENERAL MACARTHUR announces the establishment of the
Philippine Civil Government. Seen in the front row, left to right, are: Lt. Gen.
George C. Kenney, Vice Adm. Thomas C. Kinkaid, Lt. Gen. Walter Krueger, Lt.
Gen. Richard K.Sutherland, General MacArthur and President Sergio Osmeña.
The first government established by the Americans in the Philippines followed the surrender of
Manila in August 1898. It was a military government. During the duration of the war, the Philippines was
ruled by the president of the United States in his capacity as commander-in-chief of the United States
Armed Forces. In its brief existence, from 1898 to 1901, the military government established a supreme court
composed of six Filipinos and three Americans. The first chief justice was Cayetano Arellano.
To distinguish the differences of Philippine Constitution to American Constitution
To relate the first Election to present day Election
To formulate ideas regarding steps of the Philippines to be independent
SIGNING THE CONSTITUTION OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMONWEALTH, 23 MARCH 1935. Seated, left to right: George H.
Dern, Secretary of War; President Franklin D. Roosevelt, signing the Constitution of the Philippine Commonwealth; Manuel L.
Quezon, President, Philippine Senate; standing, left to right: Brig. Gen. Creed F. Cox, Chief, Bureau of Insular Affairs, War
Department; Frank Murphy, Governor General of the Philippine Islands; Cordell Hull, Secretary of State; Key Pittman, Chairman,
Foreign Relations Committee, U.S. Senate; Pedro Guevara, Philippine Resident Commissioner; Miguel Cuaderno, Vice President,
Philippine National Bank, Manila, P. I.; Manuel Roxas, Representative, Philippine Legislature, Delegate, Constitutional Assembly;
Francisco A. Delgado, Philippine Resident Commissioner.
The 1935 Constitution was one of the noblest documents written by the Filipinos. It embodied
the ideals of liberty and democracy which Filipinos had inspired for; an American type of government
which they have trained in. The Bill of Rights and the structure of the new government were modeled
after the American Constitution. In one respect, the Philippine Constitution was superior to the American
Constitution, because the preamble of the first invoked the aid of Divine Providence.
FIRST ELECTION UNDER 1935 CONSTITUTION
Manuel L. Quezon declares as the
President of the Philippines
As a respiratory step towards the establishment of the Commonwealth of the Philippines the
first national election under constitution was held on September 17, 1936. The party joined the election
was namely: (1) the Coalition Party, (2) the National Socialist Party, and (3) the Republican Party. The
candidates for President and Vice President were Manuel L. Quezon and Sergio Osmena (Coalition
Party); Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo and Raymundo Melliza (National Socialist Party); Bishop Gregorio Aglipay
and Norbeto Nabong (Republican Party).
By an overwhelming majority vote, the Filipino people elected Quezon and Osmenia of the Coalition
Party as President and Vice President respectively, of the Philippines. The majority of the elected
members of the National Assembly likewise belong to this party.
To recall the inauguration of the Philippine Commonwealth
To respond to the effect of the Commonwealth Government
Manuel L. Quezon on his oath taking as the
President of the Commonwealth government
On the beautiful morning of November 15, 1935, the Commonwealth of the Philippines was
inaugurated amidst colorful ceremonies held on the steps of the Legislative Building in Manila. The historic event
was witnessed by a crowd of around 300,000 people.
The invocation prayer was read by Archbishop Gabriel M. Reyes of Cebu. After the prayer,
Secretary of War George H. Dern, as the personal and official representative of President Roosevelt, delivered
an address in which he extolled the progress of democracy in the Philippines. He was followed by Governor-
General Murphy, who read the proclamation of the President of the United States. The oath of office was then
administered to President-elect Quezon, Vice-President-elect Osmena, and the Members-elect of the National
Assembly by Chief Justice Ramon Avancena of the Philippine Supreme Court. After the oath-taking ceremony,
Secretary of War Dern, on behalf of the President of the United States, proclaimed the termination of the
Government under the Jones Law and the birth of the Commonwealth of the Philippines. Thereupon President
Quezon delivered his inaugural address. A long parade ended the inaugural ceremonies.
US Products Use Not Use
D. Cosmetics/ Body
SECOND COMMONWEALTH IN THE PHILIPPINES
Japanese soldiers killing a Filipino
To show how the Japanese invasion begin
To rearrange the sequence of events during World War 2
The coming of Japanese troops in the Philippines
The Second World War was by far the greatest armed conflict in the history of
mankind. Basically, it was a life-and-death struggle between democracy and totalitarianism.
The Philippines joined it on December 8, 1941, immediately after the Japanese attack on
Pearl Harbor, because of the Filipino’s love of freedom and loyalty to America. The heroic
role played by the fighting Filipinos during the war won the esteem of the world and proved
their right to be ranked among the free nations of modern times.
Japanese plane used in the first air attacks
Planes and hangars burning at Wheeler Army
Air Field soon after it was attacked
Wold War II
1. Why did Japan declare war? Explain their reason.
2. Differentiate democracy from Totalitarian.
3. What are the preparations made by the Philippines before World War II?
4. Is it easy for the Japanese to invade the Philippines? Why?
To compare the patriotism of the Bataan heroes to the present day heroes
To share the experiences of Filipino prisoners on Death March
To asses the suffering of the Filipino during World War 2
Americans surrending on Bataan
Lt. Gen. Jonathan M. Wainwright succeeded McArthur as commander of Fil-
American troops, now changed from USSAFE( United States Armed Forces in the Far East)
to USIP (United States Forces in the Philippines). He occupied McArthur’s headquarters in
Corregidor, and from he directed the gallant defense of Bataan .The Brave Filipinos and
American defenders reeled before the smashing onslaught of the invaders, but they held
their ground and fought on with tenacious courage.
Civilian Emergency Administration (CEA) Pearl Harbor
Lt. Masaharu Homma 6000
United States Forces in the Philippines (USIP) Pacific Ocean
Lt. Gen. Douglas McArthur Capas, Tarlac
Sulu Sea Distinguished Service Cross
7000 President Roosevelt
To recall the 1943 Constitution
To positively interpret the laws written in 1943 Constitution
To define KALIBAPI
The 1943 Constitution was drafted by a committee appointed by the Philippine executive
Commission, the body established by the Japanese to administer the Philippines in lieu of the
Commonwealth of the Philippines which had established a government-in-exile. In mid-1942 Japanese
Prime Minister Hideki Tojo had promised the Filipinos “the honor of independence” which meant that the
commission would be supplanted by a formal republic.
The Preparatory Committee for Philippines Independence tasked with drafting a new
constitution was composed in large part, of members of the prewar National Assembly and of individuals
with experience with delegates to the convention that had drafted the 1935 Constitution. Their draft for
the republic to be established under the Japanese Occupation, however, would be limited in duration,
provide for indirect, legislative elections, and an even stronger executive branch.
Upon approval of the draft by the Committee, the new charter was ratified in 1943 by an
assembly of appointed, provincial representatives of the KALIBAPI, the organization established by the
Japanese to supplant all previous political parties. Upon ratification by the KALIBAPI assembly, the
Second Republic was formally proclaimed (1943-1945). Jose P. Laurel was appointed as by the National
Assembly and inaugurated into office in October 1943. Laurel was highly regarded by the Japanese for
having openly criticized the US for the way they ran the Philippines and because he had a degree from
Tokyo International University.
To know the different changes happened under the new republic
To explain the type of living of the Filipino when Japanese come
To give important opinion on the government changes
To appreciate the comeback of MacArthur and his liberation forces in the Philippines
Under the new republic, the Ministries were established, replacing the department of the
defunct Philippine Executive Commission. Each ministry was under a minister, assisted by a vice-Minister.
New bureaus, boards, and other offices were created.
Aside from the Supreme Court, five courts of Appeal were created, one for each of the five
Judicial Districts into which the country was divided. To assist the President of the Republic in the
administration of the whole country, seven Administrative Districts were established each under a
THE REPUBLIC IN CRISIS
By August 1944, the situation of the Japanese-made Philippine Republic became critical. Its
existence depended on the might of Japanese arms. In as much as the tide of war was definitely turning
against Japan, it was doomed. Mac Arthur was winning his battles in the Jungle islands of the Southwest
Pacific and was leap frogging his way towards the Philippines.
To describe the action of Commonwealth government of the Philippines to United States
To appreciate the role of MacArthur for the restoration of Commonwealth
To discuss the last commonwealth election
To draw from memory the impact and ending of World War II
From August to October 1944, the tide of war decidedly turned in favor of the United States,
as American planes began to bomb targets in the Philippines. On October 20, 1944, the main attack force
of 174,000 American troops, ferried by an armada of 700 warships, landed at Leyte. After the first wave of
Marine troops had made a beachhead, General MacArthur waded ashore, at Red Beach, near Palo,
Leyte, accompanied by President Osmena, General Carlos P. Romulo and General Basilio Valdez. “I
have returned,” MacArthur told the jubilant Filipino nation.
On October 23, the Commonwealth Government was declared restored, with Tacloban as
LAST COMMONWEALTH ELECTION
The last anniversary of the Commonwealth of the Philippines marking the 10th year of its
existence was celebrated with appropriate rejoicing throughout the country on November
15, 1945. At that time President Osmena was in Washington, D.C., where he was busy
trying to secure aid from the United States government for the relief and rehabilitation of the
To recognized the different Presidents under the 3rd Philippine Republic
To compare their contributions to the developments of the country
To write a reaction about their service in terms of governing the country
On the night of April 16, 1948, President Roxas died of heart attack at Clark Field, Pampanga.
In the morning of his fateful date, she delivered a stirring speech before the U.S. 13th Air Force, in which
he said: “If war should come, I am certain of one thing- probably the only thing of which I can be certain-
and it is this: That America and the Philippines will be found on the same side, and American and Filipino
soldiers will again fight side by side in the same trenches or in the air or at sea in defense of justice, of
freedom, and other principles which we both love and cherish.” After the speech, he felt dizzy and was
brought to the residence of Maj. Gen. e. L. Eubank, where he passed away that night.
On April 17, 1948, Vice President Quirino took his oath of office as second President of mourning
thoughtful the land for his predecessor.
President Elpidio Quirino
President Diosdado Macapagal
President Ferdinand E. Marcos
President Years of
Province Profession Laws
1. Manuel Roxas 1946-1948 Manila Lawyer Bell Trade Act,
2 . Elpidio Quirino
3. Ramon Magsaysay
4. Carlos Garcia
5. Diosdado Macapagal
6. Ferdinand Marcos
B. Who among the presidents you like most. Why? Justify your answer.
To compare the new constitution from 1943 Constitution
To develop ideas on how constitutions ratified
To appreciate the reasons why Pope John Paul VI visited the country
To formulate ideas on the roles of the church to our country
The Constitutional Convention met in inaugural session on June 1, 1971 at the Fiesta
Pavillion of the Manila Hotel, Manila. It was formally opened by Senate President Gil J. Puyat
and House Speaker Cornelio Villareal.
The highlight of the opening ceremonies was the address of President Marcos in
which in which he appealed to the delegates to frame a constitution which would cure the
polical and socio – economic ills of the nation. Several delegates walked out during the
President’s speech in protest against the Marcos administration.
The first convention president by the delegates was Carlos P. Garcia, former
President of the Philippine Republic. Unfortunately, he died on June 14, 1971 of heart attack,
and was succeeded by Diosdado Macapagal, another former President of the Philippine
To illustrate Plaza Miranda Massacre
To share reactions about the massacre
To explain why the Liberal Party said to be handicapped in the election of 1971
After the historical visit of Pope Paul VI, the conditions of Philippines worsened. The soaring
wave of lawlessness reached its crest in the so-called “Plaza Miranda Massacre” on the evening of August 21,
1971 during the proclamation rally of the LP candidates for the local; elections scheduled on November 8,
1971. Two fragmentations generate, hurled by unidentified persons on the platform, killed 8 persons and
injured 120. Among those wounded were senator Gerardo Roxas and his wife, Senator Jovito Salonga
(running for election), Senator Sergio Osmeña Jr., Congressman John Osmeña (LP Senatorial candidate),
Senator Eva Estrada Kalaw (guest candidate on LP Senatorial ticket) Congressman Ramon Mitra (LP
Senatorial candidate), Congressman Bagatsing (LP Candidate for mayoralty of Manila), and Laguna
Governor Felicisimo T. San Luis (master-of-ceremonies). The outrageous massacre stirred the indignation of
Plaza Miranda on and before the massacre
To recognized former Senator Benigno S. Aquino Jr.
To explain the scenario after the assassination of Ninoy Aquino
To write an article about the contributions of former Senator Ninoy Aquino
On August 21, 1983, former Senator Benigno S. Aquino Jr. (“Ninoy”), and the leading opposition
spokesman, returned from a three-year exile in the United States. He was shot dead at the Manila
International Airport while in the custody of guards from the Aviation Security Command. Conflicting reports of
the assassination and that of his alleged killer Rolando Galman were assigned to an investigation by a
presidential fact-finding board.
Meanwhile, Senator Aquino’s funeral from Santo Domingo Church in Quezon City to Manila
Memorial Park in Parañaque on August 31, 1983, turned out to be the longest and largest procession in the
Philippine history, attended by some two million people from all walks of life.
Life and death of Ninoy Aquino
Rodolfo Buerano Valdenarro Jr. is the youngest son of Mr. Rodolfo K. Valdenarro Sr. and
Mrs. Marilou B. Valdenarro. He was born on March 13, 1992 at Gen Cailles Memorial Hospital
Pakil, Laguna. He finished Elementary in Buhay Elementary School and finished his high
school in Siniloan National High School. He finished his tertiary level in 2012 at Laguna State
Polytechnic University with the Degree of Bachelor of Secondary Education major in Social
Glaiza Ruazol Cadapan. is the youngest daugther of Mr. Leandro C. Cadapan (+) and Mrs.
Loreta R. Cadapan. She was born on February 9, 1988 at Brgy. Matalatala, Mabitac, Laguna. She
finished Elementary in Matalatala Elementary School and finished his high school in Siniloan
National High School. She finished his tertiary level in 2012 at Laguna State Polytechnic
University with the Degree of Bachelor of Secondary Education major in Social Studies.