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Chapter 17: The First Philippine Republic and the Filipino-American War

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CHAPTER 17: THE FIRST PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC
AND THE FILIPINO-AMERICAN WAR

FIRST PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC
– was the first independent republic in in Asia by Asians.
- It was born during a war for independence.
- Lived only for two years because the Filipinos lost the war against the United States. (From January 23,1899 to March 23, 1901).
- Ended on the day when Aguinaldo was captured by the Americans.

MALOLOS CONGRESS AND MALOLOS CONSTITUTION
85 Filipinos – met in a revolutionary congress at Barasoain Church, Malolos, Bulacan starting September 15, 1898. They were the most intelligent men in the country.
Dr. Pedro A. Paterno – the president of the Malolos Congress.
Malolos Congress – approved the independence of the Philippines. It also started the making of a new constitution for the Philippines.
Constitution – the basic law of the government.

THE FIRST PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC
January 23,1899 – the first Philippine Republic was inaugurated at Barasoain Church, Malolos, Bulacan. It was a solemn and happy time.

Women – wore long, beautiful ternos.
Men – dressed in top hats, white gloves, and black coat tails.

Emilio Aguinaldo – was sworn in as president of the First Republic at the church altar. “Great is the day, glorious this date, and forever memorable this moment in which our beloved people are raised to the joy of independence.”

El Heraldo de la Revolution – the official newspaper of the government.

La Independencia – an independent newspaper ran by General Antonio Luna and other Filipinos.

Felipe Agoncillo – the first Filipino diplomat sent to Paris and Washington to work for recognition of Philippine Independence.
Other diplomats in Japan, France, England and Australia.

THE AMERICANS STARTED THE WAR
Americans wanted the Philippines to become a colony of the United States.
Strategy: Americans pretended that the Filipinos had brutally attacked them.

February 4, 1899 – at 8pm, an American sharpshooter, Private Robert W. Grayson of First Nebraska Volunteers, shot and killed a Filipino soldier crossing the San Juan Bridge.
February 6, 1899 – the American Senate passed the Treaty of Paris, making the Philippines a colony of the United States. It was approved by only one vote majority.

THE FILIPINO-AMERICAN WAR
- Filipinos fought a war of independence again. This time, against the Americans, their former allies. It was the second fight for independence by the Filipinos.

February 5, 1899 – the American navy bombarded the Filipino positions in Manila.

March 31, 1899 – the Americans captured Malolos, which was then the Capital of the First Philippine Republic.

November 27, 1898 – Generals Aniceto Lacson and Juan Araneta organized the “Republic of Negros”.

December 19, 1899 – the famous hero of the American Civil War, General Henry C. Lawton was killed by the Filipino troops during the Battle in San Mateo, Rizal.

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Chapter 17: The First Philippine Republic and the Filipino-American War

  1. 1. FIRST PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC in Asia by Asians Born during a war for independence. © Jamaica C. Olazo
  2. 2. 85 FILIPINOS MET IN A REVOLUTIONARY CONGRESS (September 15, 1898) BARASOAIN CHURCH @ MALOLOS, BULACAN CONGRESS & CONSTITUTION Pedro Paterno President of the MALOLOS CONGRESS © Jamaica C. Olazo
  3. 3. MALOLOS CONGRESS Approved the independence of the Philippines. Started the making of a new constitution. CONSTITUTION Basic law of the Government MALOLOS CONSTITUTION  The constitution of the First Philippine Republic.  Written in Malolos, Bulacan. © Jamaica C. Olazo
  4. 4. THE MALOLOS CONSTITUTION Basic law of the Government FELIPE CALDERON © Jamaica C. Olazo
  5. 5. THE FIRST PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC “Great is the day, glorious this date, and forever memorable this moment in which our beloved people are raised to the joy of independence.” INAGURATION - Emilio Aguinaldo (President of the First Republic) © Jamaica C. Olazo
  6. 6. - the official newspaper of the government. - an independent newspaper ran by General Antonio Luna and other Filipinos. FELIPE AGONCILLO the first Filipino diplomat sent to Paris and Washington to work for recognition of Philippine Independence. Other diplomats in Japan, France, England and Australia. © Jamaica C. Olazo
  7. 7. © Jamaica C. Olazo
  8. 8. Americans pretended that the Filipinos had brutally attacked them. February 4, 1899 at 8pm, an American sharpshooter, Private William W. Grayson of First Nebraska Volunteers, shot and killed a Filipino soldier crossing the San Juan Bridge. February 6, 1899 the American Senate passed the Treaty of Paris, making the Philippines a colony of the United States. It was approved by only one vote majority. © Jamaica C. Olazo
  9. 9. The US paid Spain the amount of twenty million dollars ($20,000,000.00) © Jamaica C. Olazo
  10. 10. THE FILIPINO-AMERICAN WAR It was the second fight for independence by the Filipinos. © Jamaica C. Olazo
  11. 11. March 31, 1899 The Americans captured Malolos, which was then the Capital of the First Philippine Republic. February 5, 1899 The American navy bombarded the Filipino positions in Manila February 5, 1899 Generals Aniceto Lacson and Juan Araneta organized the “Republic of Negros”. December 19, 1899 General Henry C. Lawton was killed by the Filipino troops during the Battle in San Mateo, Rizal. © Jamaica C. Olazo
  12. 12. THE FILIPINO-AMERICAN WAR Major General Henry Lawton The conqueror of the American- Indian chief Geronimo. o He was conquered by the Filipino “Geronimo” General Licerio Geronimo and his men. © Jamaica C. Olazo
  13. 13. GUERILLA WARFARE fought with old rifles and guns, bamboo spears fought with cannons, machine guns, automatic rifles, and plenty of ammunition and supplies Filipinos VS Americans © Jamaica C. Olazo
  14. 14. AGUINALDO’S GUERILLA WARFARE IN 1899 was EARLIER than Mao Zedong’s Chinese guerillas in the 1940s and Ho Chi Minh’s Vietnamese guerillas in the 1970s. MAO ZEDONG 1893 -1976 © Jamaica C. Olazo
  15. 15. FILIPINOS LOSE THE WAR APOLINARIO MABINI ANTONIO LUNA Defended the Tirad Pass GREGORIO DEL PILAR killed by Aguinaldo’s bodyguards on June 5, 1899 Aguinaldo’s prime minister who was arrested and deported to Guam. © Jamaica C. Olazo
  16. 16. Luzon – Antonio Luna, Paciano Rizal, Pantaleon Garcia, and Artemio Ricarte Central Luzon – Tomas Mascardo, Maximo Hizon, and Sevillano Aquino Batangas – Miguel Malvar, foungt until April 16, 1902. Laguna – Juan Caillas Cavite – Mariano Frias Iloilo – Martin Delgado, Teresa and Magbanua brothers Bicol – Vito Belarmino and Jose Papua Samar – Vicente Lucban Simeon Ola – the last Filipino General to surrender to the Americans. © Jamaica C. Olazo
  17. 17. of the First President Emilio Aguinaldo Cordillera Mountains – the place where Aguinaldo and his staff fled. Palanan, Isabela – the place of his headquarters which was unknown to the Americans. AMERICAN EXPEDITION - Consists of 5 American officers and 85 Filipinos (who were on the side of the Americans). - The Americans pretended to be prisoners of war of the Filipinos so that they could enter the secret camp on March 23, 1901. - As soon as they entered the camp, they attacked the guards and captured Aguinaldo. - Aguinaldo was taken to Manila. - He was greeted by General Arthur McArthur, the American military governor, at Malacanang Palace. - On April 19, 1901, Aguinaldo took the oath of Allegiance to the United States. © Jamaica C. Olazo
  18. 18. HISTORICAL VALUES Filipinos should be proud that the first independent republic in Asia by Asians was established by Aguinaldo in the Philippines from 1989 to 1901. Filipinos are brave and sturdy people who will fight for their rights and independence, even if they lose. Filipinos lost the Filipino-American war because they were not united and they had inferior weapons. Like all wars, the Filipino-American war was very bloody and expensive. • The Americans sent 126,248 troops, of whom 4,234 died. • They have spent a vast sum of $16,000. • 200,000 civilian died of starvation and/or diseases. • Property worth of billions of pesos was damaged. We should remember and honor president Aguinaldo and other heroes of this era because they fought with courage and honor. These veterans of the revolution were the real founding father of our independence. © Jamaica C. Olazo
  19. 19. THANK YOU! © Jamaica C. Olazo  Download a copy @ www.slideshare.net/jam18

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