CHAPTER 17: THE FIRST PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC
AND THE FILIPINO-AMERICAN WAR
FIRST PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC
– was the first independent republic in in Asia by Asians.
- It was born during a war for independence.
- Lived only for two years because the Filipinos lost the war against the United States. (From January 23,1899 to March 23, 1901).
- Ended on the day when Aguinaldo was captured by the Americans.
MALOLOS CONGRESS AND MALOLOS CONSTITUTION
85 Filipinos – met in a revolutionary congress at Barasoain Church, Malolos, Bulacan starting September 15, 1898. They were the most intelligent men in the country.
Dr. Pedro A. Paterno – the president of the Malolos Congress.
Malolos Congress – approved the independence of the Philippines. It also started the making of a new constitution for the Philippines.
Constitution – the basic law of the government.
THE FIRST PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC
January 23,1899 – the first Philippine Republic was inaugurated at Barasoain Church, Malolos, Bulacan. It was a solemn and happy time.
Women – wore long, beautiful ternos.
Men – dressed in top hats, white gloves, and black coat tails.
Emilio Aguinaldo – was sworn in as president of the First Republic at the church altar. “Great is the day, glorious this date, and forever memorable this moment in which our beloved people are raised to the joy of independence.”
El Heraldo de la Revolution – the official newspaper of the government.
La Independencia – an independent newspaper ran by General Antonio Luna and other Filipinos.
Felipe Agoncillo – the first Filipino diplomat sent to Paris and Washington to work for recognition of Philippine Independence.
Other diplomats in Japan, France, England and Australia.
THE AMERICANS STARTED THE WAR
Americans wanted the Philippines to become a colony of the United States.
Strategy: Americans pretended that the Filipinos had brutally attacked them.
February 4, 1899 – at 8pm, an American sharpshooter, Private Robert W. Grayson of First Nebraska Volunteers, shot and killed a Filipino soldier crossing the San Juan Bridge.
February 6, 1899 – the American Senate passed the Treaty of Paris, making the Philippines a colony of the United States. It was approved by only one vote majority.
THE FILIPINO-AMERICAN WAR
- Filipinos fought a war of independence again. This time, against the Americans, their former allies. It was the second fight for independence by the Filipinos.
February 5, 1899 – the American navy bombarded the Filipino positions in Manila.
March 31, 1899 – the Americans captured Malolos, which was then the Capital of the First Philippine Republic.
November 27, 1898 – Generals Aniceto Lacson and Juan Araneta organized the “Republic of Negros”.
December 19, 1899 – the famous hero of the American Civil War, General Henry C. Lawton was killed by the Filipino troops during the Battle in San Mateo, Rizal.