DroughtSaving Lives thru’ Livelihoods: Critical gaps to response in the Greater Horn of Africa
Occurrence & SeverityYet again, drought has hit the Greater Horn of Africa.The UN estimates that at least 11 million people inEritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia are in crisis, makingthis the region’s worst drought in a decade.The impact has been most severe in pastoral areas, with reportsof malnutrition levels far beyond emergency thresholds:1. livestock losses of up to 70% and2. the mass migration of pastoralists in search of water, food, jobs and relief aid.
Timeline of Key Events 2011Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Early Warning Window of opportunity to take preventive action o GoK declaration of emergency Multi agency assessments Funding appeals Livelihoods interventions by agencies with longer term programming Emergency response reaches capacity
Drought Cycle • Drought cycle is the cyclic nature of drought in which the effects come and go in a predictable fashion • Drought management means all concerted actions by the local communities, government, donors, NGOs and other actors, to prepare for, respond to and help recover from drought
Indicators (Group work)Normal Alert Alarm Emergency Recovery • Fall in animal • People & animals • Irregular • Good rains birth rates gather @ high capacity mov’ts • First harvest • Reduction in milk water points, deep wells • HHs start to • People start • Animals browse and boreholes break up to return less palatable • Building alliances • Increased home grasses and shrubs • Migration mortality • Animals • Camps change • Epidemics start • Cereals very start breeding normal seasonal • Animal deaths difficult to but animal movement pattern • Animal sales /barter obtain prices remain • Camps fragment • Terms of trade index • Emergency high even into smaller more turns sharply against camps form when cereal mobile units. herders • Terms of prices fall • Visiting • Households diversify trade collapse neighbours their food intake regularly • number of meals per • Shifts in terms of day reduced. trade index
DC Interventions Drought and its adverse effects on livelihood of people is not a disaster on its own but the lack of preparedness for drought can heighten disaster Specific activities are planned for each warning stage. These are characterised as: 1. Drought preparedness in normal periods 2. Mitigation in alert/alarm situations 3. Relief’ in the emergency stage and 4. Reconstruction during recovery. This model is valid for ‘slow-onset’ hazards such as drought, but not for rapid onset disasters such as floods or earth quakes...
Drought Cycle Management System An appropriate drought management system should have 5 critical components, the first operating at national level the others at county level: i. A national drought management policy (law) ii. A drought early warning system (EWS) iii. A set of pre-determined warning stages triggered by the early warning information iv. A set of district level contingency (‘shelf’) plans for rapid reaction to early warning and changes in the warning stages v. A drought contingency (response) fund, enabling rapid implementation of the contingency plans. Many important measures should, and in some cases can only, be taken during the normal stage as a part of preparation planning.
Early Warning Systems• It is widely accepted that the earlier the warning and the faster the reaction, the more effective and lower cost the response. Elements of EWSThe following criteria must be kept in mind when indicators are chosen. (I) Risk knowledge. Risks arise from hazards and the vulnerabilities that are present: what are the patterns and trends in these factors? (ii) Monitoring & Warning Services. Is there a sound scientific basis for predicting the risks faced? Are the right parameters being monitored? (iii) Disseminate & Communication. Do the warnings get to those at risk? Do people understand them? Do they contain useful information the enables proper response? (iv) Response Capability. Do communities understand their risk? Do they respect the warning services? Do they know how to react?.
Strategic Drought InterventionsHuman welfare Herd management: Water management stock sales and slaughter Destocking water conservation drought tolerant crops Restocking rehabilitation of food purchases vaccination existing water sources use of food reserves prophylactic development of alternative diet treatment new sources smaller meals at lower Herd dispersal Technical assistancefrequency herd splitting use of alternative dependence on relief supplement feeding sourcesfood use of grazing change of watering small scale money reserves and leased frequencygenerating activities pastures construction of casual employment longer daily grazing underground cisterns Livelihood fairs period Sensitization on Capacity building NRM etc... sanitation and multi-sector hygiene related tointerventions etc. water
Strategic Drought Interventions• Examples of adaptation measures in Agriculture include: – Expanding efforts to promote rainwater harvesting – Improved soil management techniques that decrease soil erosion and increase soil water holding capacity – Improved weed management – Adoption of cultivars or crops that are drought tolerant – Integration of multi-purpose agro-forestry and legume green manure species into croplands – Tailoring of fertilizer recommendations to high-risk environments – Seed distribution – Strategic stockpiling – grain – Seed fairs / voucher systems – Technical assistance
Examples of adaptation measures in DCM include: Alert Alarm o Cary out strategic water o Open emergency needs assessment. boreholes: maintain o Form emergency water emergency borehole repair repair team service o Systematic check on o Limited water tankering to condition of all boreholes, covered water storage pumps and gensets, and installations maintenance o Stockpile spare parts o Set up emergency repair and maintenance service
Examples of adaptation measures in DRM include: Emergency Recovery o fodder provision o Restocking programs o Animal health interventions o Cash injection o Human health interventions o Deworming o Destocking – commercial & o Natural resource slaughter based management o Food distribution o Forestation programs o Cash injections o Water point rehabilitation o Water support systems – etc…. trucking; strategic fuel o De-silt pans and dams subsidies include repairs & o Cultivation rehabilitation
Selecting an InterventionAppropriate interventions depend on the following:o Understanding of local livelihoods & vulnerabilitieso Community driven implementationo Community organizationo Strong participation of womeno Local training and capacity buildingo Blending of traditional and modern approacheso Reconciling short-term needs with long-term goalso Supportive policy environment
Drought Preparation & Mitigation Measures Preparation Mitigation Strengthen traditional coping means Forage preservation & conservation Diversification of livelihoods ( hay baling) Strengthen NRM institutions Animal sales (de-stocking/re- Institutionalization & Policy stocking) enactment Strategic water utilization Range reseeding Livestock access to preserved areas Enhance disease surveillance Mass vaccinations Water conservation De-silting water pans Peace building
Case study: Pastoralist Livelihoods Initiative (PLI) in EthiopiaThe Pastoralist Livelihoods Initiative (PLI) is a 2 yr livestock programme inthe Somali, Afar and Oromia regions of Ethiopia.Its main activities focus on enhancing early-warning systems, increasingaccess to markets, improving livestock prodn & facilitating policy reform.In 2008, early warnings of failed rains were issued just as the project wasdue to start.In response, the project rapidly switched to emergency livelihoodinterventions. By facilitating meetings btn traders & pastoralists, itsupported the commercial de-stocking of approximately 14,000 animals,pioneering large scale commercial de-stocking in Ethiopia.Approximately 9,500 additional animals were de-stocked directly byNGOs, while support from Gov’t enabled large-scale animal healthinterventions, including the vaccination of over a million animals & rapidwater rehabilitation...
Application to PFSDemonstration of appropriate coping strategies…How? Group work Thank You Yusuf Lorika