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“CLIMATE - SMART AGRICULTURE :
MAKING AGRICULTURE SMART TO COMBAT CLIMATE CHANGE”
-: Speaker :-
SONDARVAYAGNESH M.
Departm...
Content
1. Introduction
2. CSA concept
3. CSA approaches
4. Roles of institutions
5. Capacity Development
6. CSA Policy an...
Introduction
 Change is nature’s law, it is inevitable, and if it is by the virtue of nature is
welcome.
 Agriculture is...
FOOD SECURITY
“Food security exists when all people, at all times, have
physical, social and economic access to sufficient...
(Source: Climate-Smart Agriculture Sourcebook, FAO -2013) 5
What is Climate Change?
Climate change refers to the variation in the Earth's global
climate or in regional climates over ...
Why the Climate change?
Natural Causes
2. Volcanoes
1. Continental drift
4. Ocean currents
3. The earth's tilt
Man made Ca...
HISTORY OF CSA
 2009: Term Climate-Smart Agricultural development
 2010: 1st Global Conference on Food Security, Agricul...
 An integrated approach to developing technical, policy and investment
conditions to achieve sustainable agricultural dev...
Objectives of CSA
11
Overview of CSA
Addresses the complex interrelated challenges of food security,
development and climate change, and identi...
Seeks to create enabling environments through a better
alignment of policies, investments and institutions
Strives to achi...
Considers climate change mitigation as a potential
secondary co-benefit, especially in low-income,
agricultural-based popu...
 CSA contributes to the
achievement of sustainable
development goals: economic,
social and environmental.
 Uses green ec...
So what’s new about it ?
Harmonization
and
synchronization of
practices and
policies
Avoiding
contradictory and
conflictin...
Supporting Institutions
17
CSAAPPROACHES
Landscapes management
Water management
Soils management
Energy management
Genetic resources management
...
Crops Livestock Fisheries Forestry
CSA requires coordination across agricultural sector
19
Producing and sharing
technical knowledge
Providing financial services,
credit and access to markets
Supporting the co-
or...
WEATHER INFORMATION
 Current weather forecasts
 Seasonal forecasts
 Longer-term climate trends
AVAILABLE OPTIONS INFORM...
FARMER
EXTENSION
ORGANIZATIONS
EDUCATIONAL
INSTITUTIONS
FINANCIAL
INSTITUTIONS
FARMER /
COMMUNITY BASED
ORGANIZATIONS
MINI...
CSA IN INDIA
23
V- KVK SMS Advisory Community Radio
Weather Information
Hiring Agricultural
Implements
New initiatives in KVK
24
•To enhance resilience of Indian agriculture (including crops, livestock and fisheries) to
climatic variability and climat...
Implementation
framework
Plan of Work
PRA
ICAR
FGD
NRM
Div.
Extn.
Div.
Baseline
CRIDA ATARI
Action plan
KVK Interventions
...
27
100 Districts selected for
Technology Demonstration
National Innovation on Climate ResilientAgriculture
N
Cold wave
Cold w...
Village Climate Risk Management Committee
Comprises of 12-20 members, represent the community
• Elected President, Secreta...
Small Farm Mechanization through Custom Hiring Centres
• Facilitates timely sowing operations in
narrow windows of moistur...
In XII Plan period, the vision is to develop at least 50 CSVs by 2016-17.
These villages should act as hubs for upscaling ...
Climate-Smart Village Programme
Participatory approach of promoting CSA
• Strategy
• Integrated farmer participatory appro...
1800
1300
800
300
-2002010 2012 2014 2016
NumberofClimate
SmartVillages
End of
2016
Climate Smart Villages In India
Source...
Key Interventions in a Climate-Smart Village
34
35
1. To undertake a capacity gap analysis in the climate smart technologies and practices.
To establish the existing capacit...
To disseminate information on CSA technologies and practices.
 To develop a communication strategy
 To coordinate and pr...
National
Solar Mission
National
Mission for
Enhanced
Energy
Efficiency
National
Mission on
Sustainable
Habitat
National
Wa...
 To make agriculture productive, sustainable, remunerative and
climate resilient;
 To adopt comprehensive soil health ma...
Newly launched CSA related schemes in India
40
CSA IN GUJART
SOLAR CO-OPERATIVE
SAUNI YOJANA
SOIL HEALTH CARD SCHEME
41
BUILDING SYNERGIES
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), New Delhi;
ICAR-Agricultural Technology Appl...
Source: Aryal et al. (2015), CIMMYT-CCAFS
Linkages among NAPCC, SAPCC, LAPA and Climate Smart Villages (CSVs)
42
43
Name of Project Agency Focus Area
Climate Change Adaptation in Rural
Areas of India (CCA‐RAI)
GiZ, MOEFCC Implementation i...
1. Water conservation and water harvesting.
2. Drought proofing including afforestation and tree plantation .
3. Irrigatio...
Research Review
46
Figure : 1 Distribution of farmers according to their
knowledge level about climate change
Himachal Pradesh Sarkar and Pad...
Table 1 : Distribution of farmers according to major coping mechanism adopted by them to
mitigate the impact of climate ch...
48
Adapted measures Yes (%) No (%) Don’t know (%)
1 Intercropping 92 08 00
2 Rain water harvesting 29 70 01
3 Mulching 95 ...
Sr.
No.
Particulars No. Per cent Rank
A. Personal constraints
1 Small size fragmented land holdings 90 60 I
2 Low literacy...
Preferences/expectations No. Per
cent
Rank
Research
To develop varieties that could tolerate drought 43 73.33 II
Appropria...
Figure 2 : Distribution of farmers according to their Levels of preference
by scoring and bidding (WTP) for rice-growing t...
Figure 3 : Distribution of farmers according to Level of preference by scoring
and bidding for wheat-growing technologies
...
53
25%
66%
29%
Low (< 16.20)
Medium (16.20 to 19.30)
High (>19.30)
Figure 4: Distribution of Extension functionaries accor...
67%
28%
33% Low (18 to 52)
Medium (53-64)
High (65-69)
Figure 5: Distribution of extension professionals according to thei...
Table 5 : Distribution of Extension Agents’ according to their Sources of the
Information on Climate Change
Information
so...
Table 6: Distribution of extension professionals according to their training
needs
No. Title of the Course Mean score Rank...
Table 7: Distribution of beneficiaries according to impact of Agro Advisory
Service in terms of their technical knowledge
...
Table 8: Distribution of beneficiaries according to impact of Agro Advisory
Service in terms of their adoption of recommen...
 Mrs. S. Meenakshi Ammal
 Allikundam NICRA Village of Kovilpatti Centre
 8 acres of landunder cotton cultivation.
 SVP...
Details of AAS issued to Meenakshi Ammal at Allikundam
Date Advisory given Reason behind the issue of AAS
19-08-2014 Initi...
Comparison of BC ratio analysis between Meenakshi Ammal AAS and
non-AAS farmers in rainfed cotton
Input details AAS Farmer...
CASE STUDY
63
63
 Organization(s) Involved:
• Centre for Development Informatics (CDI)
• International Development Research Centre (IDR...
65
65
 Results To Date:
•44 % of farmers implemented climate-smart practices on rice
•92 % of farmers implemented climate-sm...
Conclusions
75
 CSA brings together practices, policies and institutions that are not
necessarily new but are used in the...
67
68
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climate smart agriculture concept and its application in India

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CSA concept as given by FAO and its applocation in india and some initiative taken by Indian government to combat climate change

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climate smart agriculture concept and its application in India

  1. 1. “CLIMATE - SMART AGRICULTURE : MAKING AGRICULTURE SMART TO COMBAT CLIMATE CHANGE” -: Speaker :- SONDARVAYAGNESH M. Department of Agril. Extension BACA, Anand Agricultural University Anand - 388110 Gujarat, India A SEMINAR ON 1
  2. 2. Content 1. Introduction 2. CSA concept 3. CSA approaches 4. Roles of institutions 5. Capacity Development 6. CSA Policy and Programmes in India 7. Research review 8. Conclusion 2
  3. 3. Introduction  Change is nature’s law, it is inevitable, and if it is by the virtue of nature is welcome.  Agriculture is also prone to the climate change which directly and indirectly affecting the farming practices and crop yields.  Farmers face many problems due to climate change. 3 3
  4. 4. FOOD SECURITY “Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food which meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.” -World Food Summit, 1996 4Source: FAO, 20124
  5. 5. (Source: Climate-Smart Agriculture Sourcebook, FAO -2013) 5
  6. 6. What is Climate Change? Climate change refers to the variation in the Earth's global climate or in regional climates over time. UNFCCC defines climate change as “a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods.” 6
  7. 7. Why the Climate change? Natural Causes 2. Volcanoes 1. Continental drift 4. Ocean currents 3. The earth's tilt Man made Causes 1. The Industrial pollution 2. The burning of fossil fuels 3. Deforestation 4. Agriculture Climate change 8
  8. 8. HISTORY OF CSA  2009: Term Climate-Smart Agricultural development  2010: 1st Global Conference on Food Security, Agriculture and Climate Change in The Hague - the concept of CSA was presented.  2012: At the 2nd Global Conference in Hanoi, Vietnam: Climate-Smart Agriculture Sourcebook advanced the CSA concept intending to benefit primarily smallholder farmers and vulnerable people in developing countries.  2013: 3rd Global Conference in Johannesburg, South Africa, discussions began on a climate smart agriculture alliance.  2014: Climate Summit in New York, the Global Alliance for Climate-Smart Agriculture Action plan was presented.  There have been three Climate-Smart 88Agricultural Global Science Conferences:  Wageningen, Netherlands, Oct 24-26 2011  Davis, CA March 20-22 2013  A third in LeCorum Montpellier France, March 16-18. 2015 9
  9. 9.  An integrated approach to developing technical, policy and investment conditions to achieve sustainable agricultural development for food security under climate change.  It integrates the three dimensions of sustainable development (economic, social and environmental) by jointly addressing food security and climate challenges.  CSA brings together practices, policies and institutions that are not necessarily new but are used in the context of climatic changes, which are unfamiliar to farmers.  What is also new is the fact that the multiple challenges faced by agriculture and food systems are addressed simultaneously and holistically, which helps avoid counterproductive policies, legislation or financing. CSA CONCEPT 10
  10. 10. Objectives of CSA 11
  11. 11. Overview of CSA Addresses the complex interrelated challenges of food security, development and climate change, and identifies integrated options that create synergies and reduce trade-offs Recognizes that these options will be shaped by specific country contexts and capacities as well as socio- economic and environmental situations Assesses the interactions between sectors and the needs of different stakeholders Identifies barriers to adoption (esp. for farmers), and provides appropriate solutions in terms of policies, strategies, actions and incentives 12
  12. 12. Seeks to create enabling environments through a better alignment of policies, investments and institutions Strives to achieve multiple objectives with the understanding that priorities need to be set and collective decisions made on different benefits and trade-offs Prioritizes the strengthening of livelihoods (esp. those of smallholders) by improving access to services, knowledge, resources (including genetic resources), financial products and markets Addresses adaptation and builds resilience to shocks, especially those related to climate change 13
  13. 13. Considers climate change mitigation as a potential secondary co-benefit, especially in low-income, agricultural-based populations Seeks to identify opportunities to access climate-related financing and integrate it with traditional sources of agricultural investment finance 14
  14. 14.  CSA contributes to the achievement of sustainable development goals: economic, social and environmental.  Uses green economy’s need for more resource efficiency and resilience.  Sustainable intensification: focuses on availability dimension of food security (CSA covers also accessibility, utilization and stability) CLIMATE-SMART AGRICULTURE Sustainable intensification Green Economy Sustainable development Links to Previous Approaches 15
  15. 15. So what’s new about it ? Harmonization and synchronization of practices and policies Avoiding contradictory and conflicting policies by internally managing trade- offs and synergies Approach to guide the needed changes of agricultural systems to address food security and climate change Not a new agricultural system or a set of practices 16
  16. 16. Supporting Institutions 17
  17. 17. CSAAPPROACHES Landscapes management Water management Soils management Energy management Genetic resources management 18
  18. 18. Crops Livestock Fisheries Forestry CSA requires coordination across agricultural sector 19
  19. 19. Producing and sharing technical knowledge Providing financial services, credit and access to markets Supporting the co- ordination of collaborative action Institutions that produce and share information and help people translate this information into knowledge. These institutions include organizations and institutional arrangements providing  credit,  insurance,  social safety nets,  payments or rewards for environmental services. Institutional arrangements are needed to facilitate co- ordination across organizations and sectors (e.g. through networks and knowledge-sharing platforms). Roles of institution
  20. 20. WEATHER INFORMATION  Current weather forecasts  Seasonal forecasts  Longer-term climate trends AVAILABLE OPTIONS INFORMATION  Climate smart technologies  Climate smart practices SERVICES TO FARMERS 21
  21. 21. FARMER EXTENSION ORGANIZATIONS EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FARMER / COMMUNITY BASED ORGANIZATIONS MINISTRIES/DEPAR TMENTS/AGENCIES OF GOVERNMENT INTERNATIONAL AND REGIONAL ORGANIZATIONS NGOs RESEARCH ORGANIZATIOS INPUT DEALERS 22
  22. 22. CSA IN INDIA 23
  23. 23. V- KVK SMS Advisory Community Radio Weather Information Hiring Agricultural Implements New initiatives in KVK 24
  24. 24. •To enhance resilience of Indian agriculture (including crops, livestock and fisheries) to climatic variability and climate change •To demonstrate site specific technology packages on farmers’ fields to cope with current climatic variability •To enhance the capacity of scientists, farmers and other stakeholders in climate resilient agricultural research and awareness of impacts Project Components • Strategic Research • Technology Demonstrations • Capacity Building • Sponsored / Competitive research grants Program areas •Rainfed crop production systems •Irrigated crop production systems •Horticultural production systems •Soil, water and nutrient management •Monitoring of GHGs •Resource use efficiency in agriculture •Improved machinery for adaptation and mitigation •Livestock and Dairy sector •Fisheries including Aquaculture National Innovations on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) Objectives 25
  25. 25. Implementation framework Plan of Work PRA ICAR FGD NRM Div. Extn. Div. Baseline CRIDA ATARI Action plan KVK Interventions Impact & up-scalingNICRA village ZMC for Monitoring & Third party evaluation Village level Climate Risk Management Committee (VCRMC) (10-20 villagers) 26
  26. 26. 27
  27. 27. 100 Districts selected for Technology Demonstration National Innovation on Climate ResilientAgriculture N Cold wave Cold wave & Drought Cold wave, Drought &Frost Cyclone Cyclone &Flood Drought Drought & Cold wave Drought & Flood Drought & Heat wave Drought & Salinity Flood Flood & Cyclone Flood & Salinity Frost Frost & Cold wave Heat wave & Cold wave Heavy rainfall High temperature Salinity & Water logging Scanty rainfall &Salinity Water stress Water stress, Soil erosion &Soil acidity 28
  28. 28. Village Climate Risk Management Committee Comprises of 12-20 members, represent the community • Elected President, Secretary and Treasurer • Manages the custom hiring centre for farm machinery • Under takes repair, maintenance of equipment • Mobilizes fellow farmers for capacity building programs • Collectively decide the implementation of interventions & pass appropriate resolutions • Operates bank account, deposits include hiring charges and farmers share towards critical inputs like seed, breeds & other inputs 29
  29. 29. Small Farm Mechanization through Custom Hiring Centres • Facilitates timely sowing operations in narrow windows of moisture availability • Precision planting, good germination and better crop stand • Access to small & marginal farmers of costly machinery • Crop residue recycling • Water saving, in situ moisture conservation • Increase in crop productivity • Labor saving • Multiple operations e.g. planter & rotavator Most Popular Implements in CHCs • Zero till drill • Drum seeder • Rotavator • Happy seeder • Ridge & furrow planter • Multi crop planter • Multi crop thresher • Power tiller 30
  30. 30. In XII Plan period, the vision is to develop at least 50 CSVs by 2016-17. These villages should act as hubs for upscaling climate smart practices under NMSA. Vision is to have all these villages fully comply with climate resilience practices like: 1. Utilization of complete surface water harvesting potential 2. Mandatory ground water recharge structures 3. Fertilizer use only based on soil testing 4. Nitrogen application based on better products 5. Use of energy efficient pumps for water lifting 6. No burning of crop residues; mandatory greening of waste lands with tree cover 7. Green and brown manuring to the extent feasible 8. Water saving paddy cultivation practices (direct seeding, AWD etc.) 9. Mandatory vaccination of livestock for seasonal diseases 10. Livestock feeding, housing and manure management that emit least methane 11. All farmers to have access to agro advisories through mobiles 12. Appropriate weather insurance packages identified Towards Developing Climate Smart villages 31
  31. 31. Climate-Smart Village Programme Participatory approach of promoting CSA • Strategy • Integrated farmer participatory approach • Builds on local knowledge and plans • Precision agronomy principles • Use of modern ICT tools • Capacity strengthening and technology targeting 32
  32. 32. 1800 1300 800 300 -2002010 2012 2014 2016 NumberofClimate SmartVillages End of 2016 Climate Smart Villages In India Source: Pramod aggrawal (2015), CIMMYT-CCAFS 33
  33. 33. Key Interventions in a Climate-Smart Village 34
  34. 34. 35
  35. 35. 1. To undertake a capacity gap analysis in the climate smart technologies and practices. To establish the existing capacity on CSA technologies and practices at the national and county levels 2. To develop training materials to support the capacity development gaps identified. To facilitate participatory stakeholder engagement workshops to develop and test training materials 3.To strengthen institutional and community capacity and partnership to deliver climate services and products. To retrain and re-orient the rural agricultural advisory services in selected counties to deliver on CSA technologies and practices 1. Enhance meteorological service capacity to downscale weather and climate information for agriculture 2. Build capacity to collect and use agro-meteorological data to inform decision making by end-users 3. Package climate information into user friendly formats and disseminate to end users 4. Support CS Agricultural demonstration centres in the counties 5. Coordination and integration of the various climate change units 6. Set up national and county platforms for innovation funds for CSA To develop and strengthen capacity to support CSA technologies and practices 36
  36. 36. To disseminate information on CSA technologies and practices.  To develop a communication strategy  To coordinate and promote a network of CSA communities to facilitate information and knowledge sharing and exchange  To use of traditional media with innovative media for information dissemination, Like employing ICT, print media,, drama, song, dance, etc. To develop, re-package and disseminate knowledge products and services to promote CSA technologies and practices.  To downscale weather and climate information  To strengthen collection and utilization of agro-meteorological data to inform CSA  To re-package climate information into user friendly formats  To promote private-public partnerships in developing climate products and services.  To use these products to support and equip the Climate Change Resource Centre To generate and disseminate knowledge and information to support CSA 37
  37. 37. National Solar Mission National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency National Mission on Sustainable Habitat National Water Mission National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem National Mission for a Green India National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) 38
  38. 38.  To make agriculture productive, sustainable, remunerative and climate resilient;  To adopt comprehensive soil health management practices based on soil fertility status;  To optimize utilization of water resources through efficient water management;  To conserve on-farm resources through appropriate resource conservation technologies;  To develop capacity of farmers & stakeholders in the domain of climate change adaptation and mitigation measures;  To pilot models in select blocks by mainstreaming rainfed technologies and leveraging resources ;  To establish an effective inter and intra Departmental/Ministerial co-ordination for accomplishing key deliverables of NMSA NMSA Objectives 39
  39. 39. Newly launched CSA related schemes in India 40
  40. 40. CSA IN GUJART SOLAR CO-OPERATIVE SAUNI YOJANA SOIL HEALTH CARD SCHEME 41
  41. 41. BUILDING SYNERGIES International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), New Delhi; ICAR-Agricultural Technology Application Research Institute (ATARI), Ludhiana, Punjab Haryana State Department of Agriculture (DOA) developed guidelines for mainstreaming the Climate-Smart Village (CSV) Programme through Local Adaptation Plan of Action (LAPA) in India. 42
  42. 42. Source: Aryal et al. (2015), CIMMYT-CCAFS Linkages among NAPCC, SAPCC, LAPA and Climate Smart Villages (CSVs) 42 43
  43. 43. Name of Project Agency Focus Area Climate Change Adaptation in Rural Areas of India (CCA‐RAI) GiZ, MOEFCC Implementation in 4 states ‐ MP, Rajasthan, TN, and WB. Supported SAPCC in 18 states Climate Smart villages CGIAR‐CCAFS Haryana, Bihar, Punjab and Maharashtra – 1000 villages Climate Change Adaptation (in semi‐ arid regions) Watershed Organisation Trust (WOTR) Maharashtra, MP, Rajasthan, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Jharkhand Programme on Sustainable Agriculture, Livestock , water resource management and others BAIF Development Research Foundation Multiple states across country Small Holder Agriculture & Climate Change and Natural Resource Management Oxfam (India) through numerous grassroots NGOs Assam, Bihar, Chattisgarh, Jharkhand, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand Toolkit to enable local governments to develop climate resilience ICLEI Three cities: Shimla, Bhubaneswar and Mysore. strategies and plans of action Adapting to Climate Change in Urbanising Watersheds (ACCUWa) ATREE Karnataka, Tamil Nadu Adaptation through collaborations and NGOs 44
  44. 44. 1. Water conservation and water harvesting. 2. Drought proofing including afforestation and tree plantation . 3. Irrigation canals. 4. Provision of irrigation facility to land owned by SC, ST/beneficiaries under IAY. 5. Renovation of traditional water bodies. 6. Land development . 7. Flood control and protection works including drainage in water logged areas. 8. Rural connectivity to provide all weather access. 9. Agriculture related works 10.Livestock related works 11.Fisheries related works 12.Works in coastal areas 13.Rural drinking water related works 14.Rural sanitation related works 15.Any other work notified by the GOI MGNREGA INTERVENTION FOR CSA 45
  45. 45. Research Review 46
  46. 46. Figure : 1 Distribution of farmers according to their knowledge level about climate change Himachal Pradesh Sarkar and Padaria (2015) n=100 19 19 32 21 9 Very low Low Medium High Very high 47
  47. 47. Table 1 : Distribution of farmers according to major coping mechanism adopted by them to mitigate the impact of climate change Sr. No. Coping mechanism Small Farmers Medium Farmers Large Farmers Total Farmers A. Technological mitigation 1 Change in cropping pattern 60.00 40.00 26.67 42.22 2 Mixed/inter cropping 93.33 76.67 56.67 75.56 3 Cultivating tree crops 0.00 10.00 76.67 28.89 4 Soil organic matter enhancement 46.67 46.67 16.67 36.67 5 Drought resistant crops 13.33 43.33 20.00 25.56 6 Mixed farming system 93.33 76.67 43.33 71.11 B. Socio-economic factors 7 Reduced consumption expenditure 60.00 50.00 0.00 36.67 8 Shifting to other profession 80.00 50.00 20.00 50.00 9 Borrowing 86.67 50.00 10.00 48.89 10 Crop insurance 6.67 16.67 10.00 11.11 11 Selling of land and livestock 26.67 6.67 3.33 12.22 12 No response 6.67 23.33 23.33 17.78 Karnataka n=250 48 Asha et al. (2012)
  48. 48. 48 Adapted measures Yes (%) No (%) Don’t know (%) 1 Intercropping 92 08 00 2 Rain water harvesting 29 70 01 3 Mulching 95 05 00 4 Zero tillage 00 12 88 5 Improved varieties 52 40 08 6 ITK knowledge to control disease, insects and pests 95 05 00 7 Use of insurance 00 25 75 8 Agroforestry 69 29 02 9 Crop rotation 37 52 11 Table 2 : Distribution of farmers according to coping and adaptive strategies adopted by them to combat impact of climate change Shukla et al. (2015)Sikkim n= 300 49
  49. 49. Sr. No. Particulars No. Per cent Rank A. Personal constraints 1 Small size fragmented land holdings 90 60 I 2 Low literacy level 84 56 II 3 Inadequate knowledge of how to cope or build resilience 68 45 III 4 Traditional belief /practice on the related farming practices 46 31 IV B. Institutional constraints 5 Poor extension service on climate risk management 108 72 I 6 Poor access to information source 93 62 II 7 Non availability of institutional credit 78 52 III C. Technical constraints 8 Non availability of drought tolerant variety (timely) 107 71 I 9 Lack of access to weather forecasting technology and poor reliability on it 99 66 II 10 Highly dependent on monsoon 96 64 III 11 High cost of irrigation facilities 69 46 IV 12 Difficulties in shifting to different cropping patterns in short duration of time 63 42 V 13 Lack of technical know how on climate change and its consequences and adaptation strategies 60 40 VI Karnataka Kumar et al. (2013) Table : 3 Distribution of farmers according to constraints faced by them in adoption to climate vulnerability n=150 50
  50. 50. Preferences/expectations No. Per cent Rank Research To develop varieties that could tolerate drought 43 73.33 II Appropriate and accurate forecasting / forewarning techniques 46 76.67 I Timely visits of the scientists/extension workers for rendering timely advisory on the agronomic practices 38 63.33 IV To develop low cost inter cultivation implements suitable for dry lands 41 68.33 III Formulation of contingency plans well in advance to cope with the crisis and creating awareness among farmers 36 60.00 V Extension Voluntary organizations should take initiation to construct farm ponds and water harvesting structures 44 71.66 I Awareness and guidance on relief programmes 26 43.33 III Timely financial support from the Govt. bodies to face the crisis the losses 40 66.66 II Utilizing mass media for dissemination of ameliorative measures to save the crop 23 38.33 IV Praveena et al. (2014)Hyderabad Table 4: Distribution of farmers according to preferences/expectations from research scientists and extension officers to overcome drought n=60 51
  51. 51. Figure 2 : Distribution of farmers according to their Levels of preference by scoring and bidding (WTP) for rice-growing technologies 4 3 1 2 2 3 2 1 3 4 44 4 1 1 2 4 2 1 3 2 3 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 RWM SRI LLL IS INM GM LCC DTV CD WA CI PREFERENCELEVELSCORING/BIDDING LEVEL OF TECHNOLOGY Scoring Bidding Taneja et al. (2014)Bihar IGP = Indo-Gangetic Plain; WTP = willingness to pay; RWM = rainwater management; SRI = system of rice intensification; DSR = direct seeding; LLL = laser leveling; IS = irrigation scheduling; INM = integrated nutrient management; GM = green manure; LCC = leaf color chart; DTV = drought-tolerant variety; CD = crop diversification; WA = weather advisories; CI = crop insurance. 60 52
  52. 52. Figure 3 : Distribution of farmers according to Level of preference by scoring and bidding for wheat-growing technologies 3 1 2 4 2 2 4 2 4 1 4 4 3 3 3 3 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 ZT FIRB IS LLL INM LCC WA CI LEVELOFPREFERENCESCORING/BIDDING LEVEL OF TECHNOLOGY Scoring Bidding WTP = willingness to pay; ZT = zero tillage; FIRB = furrow-irrigated raised bed; IS = irrigation scheduling; LLL = laser leveling; INM = integrated nutrient management; LCC = leaf color chart; WA = weather advisories; CI = crop insurance. Haryana Taneja et al. (2014) 60 53
  53. 53. 53 25% 66% 29% Low (< 16.20) Medium (16.20 to 19.30) High (>19.30) Figure 4: Distribution of Extension functionaries according to awareness about climate change and its effect on agriculture n=120 Anand Patel et al. (2013)54
  54. 54. 67% 28% 33% Low (18 to 52) Medium (53-64) High (65-69) Figure 5: Distribution of extension professionals according to their knowledge regarding impact of climate change in agriculture n-=75 Ghanghs et al. (2015) Hisar 55
  55. 55. Table 5 : Distribution of Extension Agents’ according to their Sources of the Information on Climate Change Information source Very useful Useful Not useful Mean Rank Boss 186 (64.8) 98 (34.1) 3 (1.0) 2.63 4 Clientele 144 (50.2) 139 (48.4) 4 (1.4) 2.49 7 Colleagues 136 (47.4) 147 (51.2) 4 (1.4) 2.46 8 Training 215 (74.9) 71 (24.7) 1 (0.3) 2.74 2 Research stations 191 (66.6) 91 (31.7) 5 (1.7) 2.63 4 Books and journals 134 (46.7) 142 (49.5) 11 (3.8) 2.43 10 Electronic media 223 (77.7) 60 (20.9) 4 (1.4) 2.76 1 Internet 165 (57.5) 104 (36.2) 18 (6.3) 2.51 6 Bulletins 140 (48.8) 134 (46.7) 13 (4.5) 2.44 9 Conference and seminar 191 (66.6) 91(31.7) 5 (1.7) 2.65 3 Ale et al. (2016)Nigeria n=297 56
  56. 56. Table 6: Distribution of extension professionals according to their training needs No. Title of the Course Mean score Rank 1 Workshop on Promotion of Integrated Pest Management 1.29 VI 2 Workshop on Climate Change And Its Effect on Agriculture & Allied Fields 1.68 I 3 Workshop on Community Based Natural Resources Management 1.34 V 4 Workshop on Promotion of Organic Farming for Sustainable Agriculture 1.47 II 5 Workshop on Knowledge Management System And Web Designing for Agriculture & Allied Fields 1.45 III 6 Workshop on Value Addition And Post Harvest Management of Agricultural & Horticultural Crops (NHM) 1.41 V 7 Workshop on ICT Application In Agriculture & Allied Fields 1.27 VII Patel at el. (2015)Anand n = 100 57
  57. 57. Table 7: Distribution of beneficiaries according to impact of Agro Advisory Service in terms of their technical knowledge Sr. No Knowledge level Before After % Change Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage 1 Low (0 - 9) 295 38 163 21 -17 2 Medium (10 - 18) 403 52 465 60 8 3 High (19 - 28) 77 10 147 19 9 Total 775 100 775 100 Sushil et. al (2015)Raipur n=775 58
  58. 58. Table 8: Distribution of beneficiaries according to impact of Agro Advisory Service in terms of their adoption of recommended practices Sr No. Adoption level Before After % Change Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage 1 Low (0 – 8) 263 34 70 9 -25 2 Medium (9 - 16) 364 47 473 61 14 3 High (17 - 24) 147 19 232 30 11 Total 775 100 775 100 Raipur Sushil et. al (2015) n=775 59
  59. 59.  Mrs. S. Meenakshi Ammal  Allikundam NICRA Village of Kovilpatti Centre  8 acres of landunder cotton cultivation.  SVPR 2 variety was grown during Rabi 2014-15.  series of AAS bulletins were issued which was followed as such by the farmer. Success story of a farm woman Higher profit obtained by Mrs. Meenakshi Ammal is attributed to:  She followed all the AAS issued and carried out all farm operations in time.  She avoided insecticide spraying two times due to rainfall forecast. 60
  60. 60. Details of AAS issued to Meenakshi Ammal at Allikundam Date Advisory given Reason behind the issue of AAS 19-08-2014 Initiate sowing/ seed treatment Start of pre-monsoon rain 06-09-2014 Gap fill on the 10th day For optimum plant stand in the field 20-09-2014 Thinning For optimum plant density in the field 08-10-2014 Avoid spraying of insecticides About rainfall 22 mm was expected 15-10-2014 0.5 % urea and 1% KCl spray to check nutrient deficiency Sufficient moisture available due to rain 22-10-2014 Nipping of terminal buds To arrest vegetative growth 04-11-2014 Foliar spray of TNAU Cotton Plus To mitigate mid season drought and reduce flower and square shedding 19-11-2014 Spray to control Bacterial leaf blight Moist and humid conditions favorm leaf blight disease 26-11-2014 Imidacloprid 100 ml ha-1 or NSKE 3% spray To control leaf hopper infestation due to humid weather 31-01-2015 Harvesting during morning time and proper storage To harvest quality kapas to fetch higher price in market. 61
  61. 61. Comparison of BC ratio analysis between Meenakshi Ammal AAS and non-AAS farmers in rainfed cotton Input details AAS Farmer Non-AAS Farmer Field preparation cost (` ha-1) 1500 1500 Seed cost (` ha-1) 1900 1900 Seed treatment (` ha-1) 650 50 Fertilizer cost (` ha-1) 4850 7300 Labour cost (Weeding, Nipping, spraying of fertilizers and pesticides) (` ha-1) 4750 4500 Cost of plant protection (` ha-1) 9500 14000 Harvesting (Transport and picking) 7500 5500 Cost of cultivation (` ha-1) 30650 34750 Kapas yield (q ha-1) 25.5 21.25 Price of cotton (` q-1) 2800 2800 Total income (` ha-1) 70,700 59,500 Net profit (` ha-1) 40,050 24,750 Benefit cost ratio 2.30 1.71 62
  62. 62. CASE STUDY 63
  63. 63. 63  Organization(s) Involved: • Centre for Development Informatics (CDI) • International Development Research Centre (IDRC) • University of Manchester, UK • Timeframe 2007 – 2011  Location/Region: • Adi tribal community, Siang river valley and foothills of the Eastern Himalayas, Arunachal Pradesh State, North-East India  Condition: • Smallholders and practice slash-and-burn cultivation for subsistence, and production is low. • 40 % of the population live below the poverty line. • The environmental conditions are hard: mountainous terrain, regular natural catastrophes and irregular rainfall during the wet season.  Primary Objective: • To provide better information about climate-smart agriculture in order to raise awareness and adoption of practices that are sustainable. • The aim of such practices is to increase productivity, resilience, mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and enhance food security and development.  Expected Results: • The adoption of climate-smart agricultural practices by the beneficiaries is the main expected result. eArik : Using ICTs to Facilitate "Climate Smart Agriculture" among Tribal Farmers of North East India (Saravanan, R. 2011. http://www.niccd.org) 64
  64. 64. 65
  65. 65. 65  Results To Date: •44 % of farmers implemented climate-smart practices on rice •92 % of farmers implemented climate-smart practices on mandarin •42 % of farmers reported increased production of rice •29 % of farmers reported increased production of mandarin •55 % of farmers moved from slash-and-burn to settled cultivation •Increase of income  Success Factors: • It is estimated that the e-Arik approach is 3.6 times cheaper than a conventional agricultural extension system and that farmers can access information 16 times faster. • each farmer is saving – on average – Rs.2,400 (US$53) per year in fuel costs due to journeys to the agricultural extension office that would previously have had to be made, but which can now be foregone. (Saravanan 2008a).  Critical success factors : •Use of trusted local intermediaries between experts and farmers •Appropriate use of a wide variety of ICTs •Multi-stakeholder partnership  Scale-Up Potential: • A scale-up phase of the project is planned with further government funding. • The goal is to replicate the project in the other seven north-east states of India. • There, a greater emphasis will be on the use of mobile phones. 66
  66. 66. Conclusions 75  CSA brings together practices, policies and institutions that are not necessarily new but are used in the context of climatic changes which is prime requirement in arena of climate change.  Farmers possessed low level of knowledge regarding climate change, and they adopted traditional methods to mitigate the impact of climate change. Small land holdings, poor extension services and non availability of stress tolerant verities were the major problems faced by the farmers in adoption to climate change.  Extension functionaries were having medium level awareness about impact of climate change on agriculture. They used electronic media, training and conferences and seminars as major sources of information for climate change. They needs training on climate change related aspects. 67
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