Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

perceptual errors

68,524 views

Published on

Presentation on
1. Perceptual Errors
2. rectifying perceptual errors
3. Specific Applications in Organizations

Published in: Marketing

perceptual errors

  1. 1. Presented by Presentation on 1. Perceptual Errors 2. rectifying perceptual errors 3. Specific Applications in Organizations
  2. 2. Perceptual Errors Perceptual error means not seeing reality is. Or Illusion can be understood as reliable perceptual error (when the constancy doesn’t hold good)
  3. 3. There are many types of perceptual errors  STEREO TYPING  HORN EFFECT  HALO EFFECT  RECENCY EFFECT  PRIMARY EFFECT  SIMILAR TO ME EFFECT  FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR  SELF SERVING BIAS  SELF FULFILLING PROPHECY
  4. 4. Stereo Typing “Making positive or negative generalizations about a group or category of people, usually based on inaccurate assumptions and beliefs and applying these generalizations to an individual member of the group.”
  5. 5. Horn Effect Based on one NEGATIVE quality, we assumed the person is BAD. i.e. we perceived the whole person, based on ONE quality.
  6. 6. Halo Effect Drawing general impression of individual on the basis of a single characteristic. i.e. if someone is good at one dimension, he/she is perceived to be good at other dimensions as well.
  7. 7. Recency Effect when the most RECENT information influence our judgement, even though we have a whole of other information on the Person.
  8. 8. Primary Effect Tendency to form a judgement/opinion quickly based on the first information we received. (Subsequently, we may received other information),but based our judgement on the first information.
  9. 9. The Similar-to-Me Effect We tend to favour/like or give favourable judgement to those who are similar to us. Example two candidates came along for interview, one from Delhi and the other from Bihar. As interviewer is from Delhi, he tend to the candidate from Delhi, better evaluation.
  10. 10. Fundamental Attribution Error The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others.
  11. 11. Self-Serving Bias The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors.
  12. 12. Self-fulfilling prophecy People’s preconceived expectations and beliefs determine their behavior, thus, serving to make their expectations come true Example when a teacher, labelled a kid as stupid (because he has illegible handwriting). Soon the kid believed on teacher and behave like one.
  13. 13. Rectifying Perceptual Errors DEFINITION: • Correcting the errors in the Perception Process or eradicating Misperception
  14. 14. Rectification Types • Rectifying Yourself • Acting as a Mediator • Avoiding Negative Decision Making
  15. 15. Sources of Perception Errors • Allowing early information about someone to make our judgment. • Not Collecting enough information about other people. • Seeing what we expect & want to see without investigating. • Allowing our own characteristics to affect what we see in others and how we judge. • Basing attributions on irrelevant evidence.
  16. 16. Rectifying Yourself • Taking more time and avoiding instant judgment's about others. • Collecting and consciously using more information about other people. • Developing an understanding as how it our personal biases effect our perceptions & judgment's. • Checking our attributions – appearance on one hand and behavior on the other.
  17. 17. Acting as a Mediator Mediators use both parties to validate feelings and to encourage the parties to move off positions.
  18. 18. Role as a Mediator • Discussing the concerns with both parties in group. • Maintaining impartiality • Identifying the Perceptual Error • Stepping into each other’s shoe
  19. 19. Avoid Negative Decision Making • Halo Effect: Avoid appraising an employee undeservedly on one quality because she is attractive. • Horn Effect: The opposite of Halo Effect. Avoid appraising an employee undeservedly on one quality because she is not attractive. • Recency Effect: Avoid appraising an employee on the basis of person’s recent behavior.
  20. 20. Avoid Negative Decision Making • Primary Effect: Avoid appraising an employee on the basis of person’s first behavior instead of looking how he behaved throughout the period of appraisal period. • Same as Me: Avoid giving a good appraisal because the person is having same qualities like you. • Status Effect: Better appraisals for higher level positions consistently in compare to others. • Strict Rating Consistently harsh in appraising performance.
  21. 21. Specific Applications in Organizations Employment Interview Performance Expectations a) Pygmalion Effect b) Golem Effect Performance Evaluations Employee Effort
  22. 22. Employment Interview Perceptual biases affect the accuracy of interviewers judgments of applicants. Early impressions are very important! Perceptual judgments are often inaccurate!
  23. 23. Example Different interviewers see different things in the same candidate and, thus, reach different conclusions about the applicant. Furthermore, interviewers generally draw early impressions and most interviewers rarely change their decisions after the first four or five minutes of the interview. Therefore, judgments of the same candidate can vary widely in an interview situation..
  24. 24. Performance Expectations People attempt to validate their perceptions of reality – even when they are faulty! OR It is seen that individuals seek to validate their perceptions of reality, even when those perceptions are not appropriate.
  25. 25. Pygmalion Effect: A positive instance of the self-fulfilling prophecy, in which people holding high expectations of another tend to improve that individual's performance. Golem Effect: A negative instance of the self- fulfilling prophecy, in which people holding low expectations of another tend to lower that individual's performance.
  26. 26. Performance Evaluation Appraisals are subjective perceptions of performance. An employee's performance appraisal is very much dependent on the perceptual process. Although the appraisal can be objective, many jobs are evaluated in subjective terms.
  27. 27. Employee Effort An individual's future in an organization is usually not dependent on performance alone. An assessment of an individual's effort is a subjective judgment susceptible to perceptual distortions and bias.
  28. 28. Bibliography http://obreader.blogspot.in/2007/10/perception- and-attribution.html http://educationportal.com/academy/lesson/per ceptual-errors-in-the-workplace-factors-that- distort-perception.html#lesson http://www.prenhall.com/behindthebook/0131 542842/pdf/Greenberg_CH03.pdf http://managementportal.blogspot.in/2013/05/s hortcuts-in-judging-others-and-its.html

×