Example: when we see a young person not carrying his backpack we perceived him as :- lazy spoilt in REALITY : he could have hurt his shoulder. we are INFLUENCED by our cultural expectation : those who are young (is assumed to be healthy and therefore (cultural expectation) should carry their own rucksack.
Example Sales people are more outgoing and aggressive Accountants are quiet and introspective Married people are stable employees. All old workers are less skilled in computer technology Women are more nurturing than men.
Example:- Suppose you are in a job Interview, the first thing you say is "the weather is crap and I hate long days" to your next possible employer, the person who is interviewing you will automatically assume that you are generally a negative person, and will probably assume all other qualities about you are bound to be negative, and will therefore probably not consider hiring you. if an interview starts with a negative statement from the interviewee, there is higher chance that he would be rejected due to horn effect.
Example He is very Friendly He must definitely be a good husband He must be soft-hearted He must be a true friend He must be a good son
Example If we interview a person for over 2 hours. at the end of the interview, he said he almost won the Indian Idol. We assumed he is creative and a good singer.
Example On TV game shows where people can win everything in a list of items they see, they usually at least Remember the first few items.
Example we see a young man, lying by the road side in the morning. we assumed he is lazy and a drunkard. we judge/attribute this (i.e. him sleeping by the roadside to him ) rather than attribute to his environment - maybe recently he lost his business and was made a bankrupt.
Example when we get an 5 marks for UT1 for OB subject, we think it is us being hardworking, smart etc.when we get an 1 marks for UT1 for accounts subject, we think it is due to the exam paper being difficult or the invigilator was noisy and distract us.
Example if a supervisor believes that a new employee will not be able to perform the job, this expectation influences the supervisor’s behavior towards the employee when a teacher, labelled a kid as stupid (because he has illegible handwriting).Soon the kid believed on teacher and behave like one.
Evidence indicates that interviewers make perceptual judgments that are often inaccurate and they rarely agree while perceiving the candidates. Different interviewers see different things in the same candidate and, thus, reach different conclusions about the applicant. Furthermore, interviewers generally draw early impressions and most interviewers rarely change their decisions after the first four or five minutes of the interview. Therefore, judgments of the same candidate can vary widely in an interview situation..
It is seen that individuals seek to validate their perceptions of reality, even when those perceptions are not appropriate. Self-fulfilling prophecy is a very good example of this. It is the tendency for someone's expectations about another to cause that person to behave in a manner consistent with those expectations
A study was conducted on 105 soldiers in the Israeli Defense Forces who were taking a fifteen-week combat command course. Soldiers were randomly divided and identified as having high potential, normal potential, and potential not known. Instructors were seemed to get better results from the high potential group because they expected it, confirming the effect of a self-fulfilling prophecy.
An employee's performance appraisal is very much dependent on the perceptual process. Although the appraisal can be objective, many jobs are evaluated in subjective terms. Subjective measures are, by definition, judgmental. To the degree that managers use subjective measures in appraising employees, what the evaluator perceives to be good or bad employee characteristics or behaviors will significantly influence the outcome of the appraisal.
An individual's future in an organization is usually not dependent on performance alone. An assessment of an individual's effort is a subjective judgment susceptible to perceptual distortions and bias.
1. Perceptual Errors
2. rectifying perceptual errors
3. Specific Applications in Organizations
Perceptual error means not seeing reality is.
Illusion can be understood as reliable
perceptual error (when the constancy
doesn’t hold good)
There are many types of perceptual
SIMILAR TO ME EFFECT
FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR
SELF SERVING BIAS
SELF FULFILLING PROPHECY
“Making positive or negative generalizations
about a group or category of people, usually
based on inaccurate assumptions and beliefs
and applying these generalizations to an
individual member of the group.”
Based on one NEGATIVE quality, we assumed
the person is BAD. i.e. we perceived the whole
person, based on ONE quality.
Drawing general impression of individual on the
basis of a single characteristic. i.e. if someone is
good at one dimension, he/she is perceived to be
good at other dimensions as well.
when the most RECENT information
influence our judgement, even though we
have a whole of other information on the
Tendency to form a judgement/opinion
quickly based on the first information we
received. (Subsequently, we may received
other information),but based our
judgement on the first information.
The Similar-to-Me Effect
We tend to favour/like or give favourable
judgement to those who are similar to us.
two candidates came along for interview, one
from Delhi and the other from Bihar. As
interviewer is from Delhi, he tend to the
candidate from Delhi, better evaluation.
Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendency to underestimate the influence of
external factors and overestimate the influence
of internal factors when making judgments
about the behavior of others.
The tendency for individuals
to attribute their own
successes to internal factors
while putting the blame for
failures on external factors.
People’s preconceived expectations and beliefs
determine their behavior, thus, serving to make
their expectations come true
when a teacher, labelled
a kid as stupid (because he
has illegible handwriting).
Soon the kid believed on
teacher and behave like one.
Rectifying Perceptual Errors
• Correcting the errors in the Perception Process or
• Rectifying Yourself
• Acting as a Mediator
• Avoiding Negative Decision Making
Sources of Perception Errors
• Allowing early information about someone to make our
• Not Collecting enough information about other people.
• Seeing what we expect & want to see without investigating.
• Allowing our own characteristics to affect what we see in
others and how we judge.
• Basing attributions on irrelevant evidence.
• Taking more time and avoiding instant judgment's
• Collecting and consciously using more information
about other people.
• Developing an understanding as how it our personal
biases effect our perceptions & judgment's.
• Checking our attributions – appearance on one
hand and behavior on the other.
Acting as a Mediator
Mediators use both parties to validate feelings and to
encourage the parties to move off positions.
Role as a Mediator
• Discussing the concerns with both parties in group.
• Maintaining impartiality
• Identifying the Perceptual Error
• Stepping into each other’s shoe
Avoid Negative Decision Making
• Halo Effect:
Avoid appraising an employee undeservedly on one quality
because she is attractive.
• Horn Effect:
The opposite of Halo Effect. Avoid appraising an employee
undeservedly on one quality because she is not attractive.
• Recency Effect:
Avoid appraising an employee on the basis of person’s recent
Avoid Negative Decision Making
• Primary Effect:
Avoid appraising an employee on the basis of person’s first behavior
instead of looking how he behaved throughout the period of appraisal
• Same as Me:
Avoid giving a good appraisal because the person is having same
qualities like you.
• Status Effect:
Better appraisals for higher level positions consistently in
compare to others.
• Strict Rating
Consistently harsh in appraising performance.
Specific Applications in
a) Pygmalion Effect
b) Golem Effect
Perceptual biases affect the accuracy of interviewers
judgments of applicants.
Early impressions are very important! Perceptual
judgments are often inaccurate!
Different interviewers see different things in the
same candidate and, thus, reach different
conclusions about the applicant. Furthermore,
interviewers generally draw early impressions
and most interviewers rarely change their
decisions after the first four or five minutes of
the interview. Therefore, judgments of the same
candidate can vary widely in an interview
People attempt to validate their perceptions of
reality – even when they are faulty!
It is seen that individuals seek to validate their
perceptions of reality, even when those
perceptions are not appropriate.
Pygmalion Effect: A positive instance of the
self-fulfilling prophecy, in which people
holding high expectations of another tend to
improve that individual's performance.
Golem Effect: A negative instance of the self-
fulfilling prophecy, in which people holding
low expectations of another tend to lower that
Appraisals are subjective perceptions of performance.
An employee's performance appraisal is very
much dependent on the perceptual process.
Although the appraisal can be objective, many
jobs are evaluated in subjective terms.
An individual's future in an organization is
usually not dependent on performance alone.
An assessment of an individual's effort is a
subjective judgment susceptible to perceptual
distortions and bias.