Transforming classroom practices through the learning of TPACK: The case of Kibasila Secondary School
Transforming Classroom Practices through Teachers’ Learning of TPACKThe case of In-service Teachers in Tanzania Ayoub Kafyulilo, Petra Fisser and Joke Voogt University of TwentePaper Presented at the SITE conference in Austin, Texas. 5th to 9th March 2012
Introduction Education reforms around the world emphasizes the use of learner-centered teaching approaches Our social and institutional contexts limit the effective use of learner-centered approaches Schools (e.g. in Tanzania) have; fixed study schedules, a time bound syllabus, and examination oriented learning. Thus, teachers worry more about the time to finish the syllabus, than the competencies that students need to develop Technology can help teachers to use time effectively and enable students to understand the lesson
How can technology enhance students learning There are evidence from literature (Keong et al, 2005; Voogt et al, 2009; Knezek & Christensen, 2008) that; Constructivist pedagogical approaches are easily supported through the use of technology. With technology; Students’ learning is improved through increased collaboration Students maintain a high level of communication and sharing of knowledge. Students visualize difficult and/or dangerous concepts and processes that cannot be visualized by eyes (e.g. cell division)
Technology Integration in Education in Tanzania Despite the potentials of technology on students’ learning, the majority of teachers in Tanzania are not embracing it in teaching Factors contributing to low level of technology uptake in teaching: lack of technological tools, limited supply of electricity in most schools, limited teachers’ technological knowledge and Limited teachers’ technology integration competencies. Most of the teachers in Tanzania have the basic ICT knowledge but they don’t know how ICT can support teaching and learning An understanding of TPACK is considered important in the development of teachers’ ability to integrate technology in teaching
TPACK Development among In-service Teachers A professional development program to develop teachers’ TPACK was organized as follows; Two days training and hands on activities on TPACK Four weeks collaboration in teacher design teams to design technology integrated lessons (scheme of work, lesson plan and lesson notes) A practical teaching of a technology integrated lesson in a classroom One day workshop to reflect on the training, collaboration in design teams, lesson design, classroom teaching and students feedback. Redesign of the lesson in teacher design team and Re-teach the lesson in the classroom
Some of the activities during the workshopLesson design in teacher design teams Rehearsing teaching with technology
Methodology 12 teachers participated in the project Data were collected for pre-intervention and post-intervention results The following data collection instrument were used for both pre and post intervention results i. Teachers’ questionnaire ii. Teachers’ observation checklist iii. Teachers’ interview guide iv. Students’ observation checklist Data were also collected by using student questionnaire for post intervention
Data Analysis Descriptive statistics involving the calculation of mean and standard deviations were conducted for the students’ experience with the use of technology in learning Wilcoxon signed ranks test for two related samples was used to analyze the level of significance in the difference between pre and post intervention results for teachers’ perceived ability of using technology in Teaching Effect sizes were calculated for each item to determine the magnitude of the change between pre and post intervention results.
Teachers’ perceived effect of technology in teaching (N=12) P Effect Pre Post size No of Interventio Intervention items n M(SD) M (SD) Use of technology improves teaching productivity (enhance students’ interactions, assessment and classroom 2.85 4.23 managment) 5 .002 1.97 (0.73) (0.67) Use of technology supports learning activities that facilitate students’ 3.48 4.21 4 .012 1.15 higher order thinking (0.73) (0.52)Scale: 1 = Strongly disagree, 2 = Disagree, 3 = Undecided, 4 = Agree, 5 = Strongly agree
Observed classroom practices with technology (1) Prior to the participation in the professional development program to develop TPACK, teachers were using teacher centered teaching approaches. Interaction with students in the classroom was limited In all subjects teachers were lecturing; students were listening and copying notes Some teachers were talking while writing notice on the chalkboard. After the training; the teaching approach changed, The technology required a teacher to interact with the students by asking questions regarding what is presented through technology.
Observed classroom practices with technology (2) The use of an animation or video to depict scientific processes, enhanced interaction between teacher and students, amongst students, students and technology as well as students and subject matter. Students Subject Technology matter Teacher
Observed classroom practices with technology An example of interactive lesson was demonstrated by the biology team through the video they made about first aid provision to a fainting person During this lesson, a teacher was seating behind the classroom with students and acted like a fellow learner but a leader to the discussion. He made groups of five and assigned tasks to each group, Each group made a presentation of their task to the colleagues in the classroom There was a great debate between students from different groups which was reflecting on the video
Students’ Experience with Technology inScience Learning (N = 40) No of Mean SD itemsStudent’s knowledge of computer (have seen it 4 3.59 1,04before, used it)Students’ attitude towards learning science with 11 4.45 0.52technologyUse of technology enhances learning of difficult 5 4.24 0.64conceptsTechnology helps students to be more involvedin the learning process than the traditional 6 4.35 0.57classesScale: 1 = strongly disagree, 2 = disagree, 3 = undecided, 4 = agree, 5 = strongly agree
Teachers’ opinions regarding students learning in a technology integrated classQuestion Responses (number of respondents in brackets)To what -To a great extent (all teachers) reasons:extent do -Students attention to the lesson was increased (4)you think -Students were very active and interactive during thestudents’ technology integrated lesson (4)learning inscience -They did well in the assignment they were given (5)improved -They told us that they enjoyed and understood thethrough the lesson (3)integration -Students asked for other lesson that use technology (3)of -They were able to observe process which are difficult totechnology observe in the regular classes (1)in teaching? -Students were excited by our lesson; they told us (3)
The Impact of TPACK on Teachers’ Classroom Practices Teachers’ understanding of TPACK had an impact on: Teachers’ choice of the pedagogical approaches in relation to the content and the technology in use Teachers’ design of the students activities in relation to the technology in use and the content to be covered By considering TPACK, Kibasila secondary school teachers were able to focus their lessons design around technology, pedagogy and content in an integrated manner TPACK was used as a guide and a reflection model for ensuring a clear interplay between content, pedagogy and technology
The Impact of TPACK on Teachers’ Classroom Practices (2) An understanding of TPACK had an impact not only on how teachers teach but also to the students; Hayes (2007) uphold that, use of technology in teaching doesn’t only change the way a teacher teaches, but also the way students learn For example students at Kibasila secondary school reported to enjoy and understand the technology integrated lessons better than traditional lessons; Students also reported to understand some scientific concepts and processes (e.g. mitosis) more easily, and developed interests and motivation to the lesson than it used to be in other lessons
The impact of teachers’ TPACK on classroom practices Learning with technology offered an opportunity for students to learn through collaboration to solve a task given by their teachers. The collaboration approach had two advantages to students; i. the opportunity to share ideas and concepts, thus, being able to respond to questions more appropriately; and ii. the social gain, where new friendships were established From our findings we consider that the changes that teachers made in their teaching, were a result of their learning and understanding of TPACK.