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STAIRS AND LIFTS IN ARCHIETCTURE

S
SYED PASHA

THE DESCRIPTION OF LIFT AND STAIRS IN ARCHITECTURE DESIGN.

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ARCHITECTURAL
DESIGN - V
SYED ADNAN PASHA
SYED MOAZAM
OZAIR SAAD
ELEMENTS
LIFT
STAIRS
SERVICE STAIRS
FIRE ESCAPE
20XX AD 2
LIFT
20XX Pitch Deck 3
An elevator can be defined as an electric
lift which is used as vertical transportation of
goods as well as people among the floors in
buildings using bins otherwise silos. As usual,
these are activated with the electrical motors that
also to drive counterweight system cables for
drive transaction such as a hoist, otherwise,
pump hydraulic fluid for raising a cylindrical piston
such as a jack.
Elevator is important for patient, guest,
guardians, small children, guest, visitors. It
makes our life easier; let us work and go to
different floors faster, allows us to transport
goods with ease and helps us feel comfortable
and relax all throughout the ride.
With the help of modern technologies, it allow to
install a lift in a very confined space. There are
many types of elevators according to place.
Elevators are a standard part of any tall
commercial or residential building.
HOW TO LIFT WORKS?
20XX Pitch Deck 4
The working principle of an elevator or lift is similar to the pulley system. A pulley system is used to draw
the water from the well. This pulley system can be designed with a bucket, a rope with a wheel. A bucket is
connected to a rope that passes throughout a wheel. This can make it very easy to draw the water from the
well. Similarly, present elevators use the same concept. But the main difference between these two are;
pulley systems are operated manually whereas an elevator uses sophisticated mechanisms for handling
the elevator’s load.
Basically, an elevator is a metal box in different shapes which is connected to a very tough metal rope. The
tough metal rope passes through a sheave on the elevator in the engine room. Here a sheave is like a
wheel in pulley system for clutching the metal rope strongly. This system can be operated by a motor.
When the switch is turned ON, the motor can be activated when the elevator goes up and down or stops.
INSTALLATION
When installing a new Platform or passenger type lift there is so much to take into consideration, shapes,
colors, half or full height mirrors, controls but we never look at what would be best suited to the building
and be fit for purpose.
20XX Pitch Deck 5
Cable driven
Capsule
Hydraulic
pneumatic
Freight
TYPES OF LIFTS (IN
RESIDENTIAL)
20XX Pitch Deck 6
• Hydraulic lift
• Machine room with gear machine.
• Machine room less lift (MRL)

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STAIRS AND LIFTS IN ARCHIETCTURE

  • 1. ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN - V SYED ADNAN PASHA SYED MOAZAM OZAIR SAAD
  • 3. LIFT 20XX Pitch Deck 3 An elevator can be defined as an electric lift which is used as vertical transportation of goods as well as people among the floors in buildings using bins otherwise silos. As usual, these are activated with the electrical motors that also to drive counterweight system cables for drive transaction such as a hoist, otherwise, pump hydraulic fluid for raising a cylindrical piston such as a jack. Elevator is important for patient, guest, guardians, small children, guest, visitors. It makes our life easier; let us work and go to different floors faster, allows us to transport goods with ease and helps us feel comfortable and relax all throughout the ride. With the help of modern technologies, it allow to install a lift in a very confined space. There are many types of elevators according to place. Elevators are a standard part of any tall commercial or residential building.
  • 4. HOW TO LIFT WORKS? 20XX Pitch Deck 4 The working principle of an elevator or lift is similar to the pulley system. A pulley system is used to draw the water from the well. This pulley system can be designed with a bucket, a rope with a wheel. A bucket is connected to a rope that passes throughout a wheel. This can make it very easy to draw the water from the well. Similarly, present elevators use the same concept. But the main difference between these two are; pulley systems are operated manually whereas an elevator uses sophisticated mechanisms for handling the elevator’s load. Basically, an elevator is a metal box in different shapes which is connected to a very tough metal rope. The tough metal rope passes through a sheave on the elevator in the engine room. Here a sheave is like a wheel in pulley system for clutching the metal rope strongly. This system can be operated by a motor. When the switch is turned ON, the motor can be activated when the elevator goes up and down or stops. INSTALLATION When installing a new Platform or passenger type lift there is so much to take into consideration, shapes, colors, half or full height mirrors, controls but we never look at what would be best suited to the building and be fit for purpose.
  • 5. 20XX Pitch Deck 5 Cable driven Capsule Hydraulic pneumatic Freight
  • 6. TYPES OF LIFTS (IN RESIDENTIAL) 20XX Pitch Deck 6 • Hydraulic lift • Machine room with gear machine. • Machine room less lift (MRL)
  • 7. HYDRAULIC LIFT 20XX LIFT 7 Hydraulic Elevators are lift systems that use a hydraulic piston to raise and lower the elevator car. Hydraulic Elevators are typically used for low-rise and mid-rise buildings below 6 stories due to the elevator system’s slower speed and limited piston lengths.
  • 8. HYDRAULIC LIFTS 20XX Pitch Deck 8 ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES •Hydraulic lifts are cheaper to install than other elevator types. •They occupy less space in a building, requiring almost 10% less area for the lift shaft. •They are highly effective with heavy loads, as the hydraulic power provides great lifting strength. •There is no need for an overhead machine room. Similarly, overhead structural requirements aren’t needed either. The load of the elevator is distributed to load-bearing walls. •You have the option of using a remote machine room. •The relatively slow speed. A hydraulic lift cannot move faster than 150 feet per minute. •Oil in the piston system can overheat fairly quickly, which is why an efficient machine-room control is important. •Hydraulic oil can leak out of the pumping system and into the ground at the base of the elevator. This can lead to soil contamination or groundwater pollution. •Hydraulic lifts tend to be a little noisier than other elevator systems. •The hydraulic oil can emit an unpleasant odor when it becomes too warm from overuse. •The lift movement is generally not as smooth as with other lift systems.
  • 9. MACHINE ROOM WITH GEAR MACHINE. 20XX LIFT 9 Machine room with gear machine. are lift systems that use an electric hoisting machine and hoisting cables to raise and lower the elevator car vertically along guide rails. Traction Elevators are a common system for many mid-rise and high-rise structures and require a penthouse machine room to store the mechanical equipment and a counterweight to balance the load placed on the machinery by the car and passengers. Traction Elevators come in two types, geared and gear-less, that differ based on if a gearbox is attached to the motor
  • 10. MACHINE ROOM (TRACTION) LIFT 20XX Pitch Deck 10 ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES • Its higher speed compared with the hydraulic variety. • This means the traction system can be used in tall, modern, 21st-century buildings. • The ride in a traction elevator is also smoother. • The traction system is also more energy-efficient as the counterweight balances the car load, whereas the hydraulic system needs to push the car against gravity. • Its cost. • Installation can be 15 to 25 per cent more expensive that a hydraulic system. • Traction lifts may also be difficult to maintain, as the machine’s controls are located in the shaft headroom. This area could be difficult to access.
  • 11. MACHINE ROOMLESS LIFT 20XX LIFTS 11 Machine-Room-Less (MRL) Elevators are modern traction lift systems that use an electric hoisting machine located within the top of the elevator shaft to hoist the elevator car. Eliminating the penthouse machine room that is necessary for Traction Elevators, the Machine-Room-Less (MRL) Elevator is gaining popularity because they require less space, are energy efficient, and efficiently satisfy the speed and travel requirements of mid-rise buildings.
  • 12. MACHINE ROOM (TRACTION) LIFT 20XX Pitch Deck 12 ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES • amount of space they can save • tin and all of the mechanics that would be found in a machine room are placed inside the hoist instead. • Affordable: Since less space is required to install a machine roomless elevator, many property owners find that they are cheaper too. • Noise : it can be muffled with sound absorption • Capacity: In comparison to machine room elevator, MRL elevator lack in terms of load capacity. This means that they cannot carry as much weight as their competitors. In addition to this, this feature can also make them run at a slower pace, making them an ineffective investment in some circumstances.
  • 13. 20XX LIFT 13 LIFT DIMENSION THE DIMENSION FOR ALL ARE DIFFERENT AS REQUIREMENTS.THE LANDING WIDTH FOR THE ELEVATOR IS MIN 1.2M, OR ELSE ACCORDING TO THE DOOR OPENING . IF THE OPENING IS SWING THE WIDTH OF PLATFORM SHOULD BE GIVEN MIN 2.5M Generally, a residential elevator will be 36 inches wide by 48 inches deep; this is a nominal, clear platform size. An elevator of this size will require approximately a 48-inch wide by 60-inch deep hoistway. SWING AUTO
  • 14. 20XX Pitch Deck 14 Multistory residential buildings do not have peaks so pronounced as other types of buildings. Generally, the evening peak is the largest. Traffic flow at that time may be 6 to 8% of the building population in a 5-min period. Building population should be estimated in consideration of the market for which the building is designed. If only one elevator is selected to satisfy traffic conditions for a building of modest height, residents will be forced to use the stairs at times the elevator is out of service for repairs. Where the elevator is considered more than an amenity, two elevators should be provided. Market conditions may require that a separate service elevator also be provided in some urban settings. Typically, a 2500-lb elevator with a 9-ft clear ceiling height can be relied on to carry most furniture. As is the case with hotels, the potential for noise and vibration should The number of passenger elevators required for a particular building depends on the number of persons expected to work or live in the building. Traffic is measured by the number of persons requiring service during a peak 5-min period.
  • 15. DOES LIFT AND STAIRS ARE NOT GIVEN TOGETHER? 20XX LIFTS 15 • No we cant give the combination of lift and stairs together in building more than 15m height. • In case of fire we we cant use both because due to heat produced in the lift. • It is highly dangerous to use lift in fire escape. • The stairs should be enclosed. • Provide good ventilation to the stairs A staircase shall not be arranged round a lift shaft unless the latter is entirely enclosed by a material of fire-resistance rating as that for type of construction itself. For buildings more than 15m in height,
  • 16. STAIRS 20XX Stairs 16 Stairs is a set of steps which give access from floor to floor. The room or enclosure of the building, in which stair is located is known as staircase. Staircase provide access & communication between floors in multi- storey buildings and are a path by which fire can spread from one floor to another. Therefore it must be enclosed by fire resisting walls, floors, ceilings and doors. It must be designed to carry certain loads, which are similar to those used for design of the floors. Stairs may be constructed of Timber, Bricks, Stone, Steel or Reinforced Cement Concrete.
  • 17. REQUIREMENTS OF GOOD STAIRCASE 20XX Pitch Deck 17 LOCATION • They should be located near the main entrance to the building. • There should be easy access from all the rooms without disturbing the privacy of the rooms. • There should be spacious approach. • Good light and ventilation shouldbe available. WIDTH OF STAIR • It should be wide enough to carry the user without much crowd on inconvenience. • In Residential building, a 90 cm wide stair is sufficient while in public 1.5 to 1.8 m width may required. LENGTH OF FLIGHT • The number of steps should not be more t h a n 12 & less t h a n 3 from comfort pointof view.
  • 18. REQUIREMENTS OF GOOD STAIRCASE 20XX Pitch Deck 18 PITCH OF STAIR • Pitch should be limited to 30oto 45o. HEAD ROOM • Height of head room should not be less than 2.1 to 2.3 m. BALUSTRADE • Stair should always provided with balustrade. STEP DIMENSION • The rise and going should be of such dimensions as to provide comfort to users. • The going should not be less than 25 cm, though 30 cm going is quite comfortable. • The rise should be between 10 to 15 cm. • The wid th of landing should not be less than width of stair. MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION • The material should have fire resistance and sufficient strong.
  • 19. TYPES OF S T E P S 20XX Pitch Deck 19 Flier Bull Nose Round Ended Splayed Commode Dancing Winders TYPES OF S TA I R C A S E Straight Staircase Turning Staircase Quarter Turn Half Turn (Dog-Legged & Open wellStaircase) Three-Quarter Turn Staircase Bifurcated Staircase Continuous Staircase Circular Staircase Spiral Staircase Helical Staircase
  • 20. 20XX Pitch Deck 20 OPEN WELL QUARTER TURN GEOMETRICAL SPIRAL BIFURCATED DOG-LEG STRAIGHT
  • 21. 20XX Pitch Deck 21 TIMBER STONE R.C.C METAL GLASS TYPES OF MATERIALS
  • 22. CONCRETE STAIRS (R.C.C) 20XX Pitch Deck 22 ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES • Concrete is easier to shape according to your chosen design as it is a paste that eventually dries up to form whatever shape or style you desire. • The best part about choosing concrete for your stairs is that the material is sturdy, strong, and reliable, ensuring that the stairs will last for years to come. • Concrete stairs are fire-resistant. • This staircase building material can be ideal for wide areas and grand staircase designs. • Staircase designs made from concrete are often bulky • You must provide proper support using a frame to prevent the cracks from developing in the concrete. • Concrete edges on the steps can chip over time and repairing small chips and cracks is often difficult.
  • 23. STONE STAIRS 20XX Pitch Deck 23 ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES • Stairs made from natural stone can be quite durable and sturdy. • You’ll be able to find different colours and qualities of stone for any project based on your need. • Natural stone is a fire-resistant construction material. • Both marble and granite can be fairly slippery and should be used with caution. • Stone slabs can be quite heavy and will require sufficient support to build the stairs
  • 24. TIMBER STAIRS 20XX Pitch Deck 24 ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES • It is fairly lightweight as a construction material, allowing you to play with your creative ideas and designs. • You can choose light or dark coloured woods or cheap or pricier woods based on your preference. • Most wooden structures are easy to build and are cost-effective as well. • You can easily paint, polish, varnish, or clean wood with easy DIY processes. • Stairs made of wood are generally not fire-resistant, so they pose a risk in areas where wildfires are common. • Wood might not be the most durable material though, as it is prone to cracks and scratches. • Humid environments can cause wood to rot and destroy the structural integrity of your stairs.
  • 25. TIMBER STAIRS 20XX Pitch Deck 25 ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES • It is fairly lightweight as a construction material, allowing you to play with your creative ideas and designs. • You can choose light or dark coloured woods or cheap or pricier woods based on your preference. • Most wooden structures are easy to build and are cost-effective as well. • You can easily paint, polish, varnish, or clean wood with easy DIY processes. • Stairs made of wood are generally not fire-resistant, so they pose a risk in areas where wildfires are common. • Wood might not be the most durable material though, as it is prone to cracks and scratches. • Humid environments can cause wood to rot and destroy the structural integrity of your stairs.
  • 26. GLASS STAIRS 20XX Pitch Deck 26 ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES • Stairs made from glass can help the eye make seamless transitions from one floor to the next. • Sheets of glass are ideal for floating staircases in cramped spaces. • The transparency of glass allows light to filter through structures and keep the interior bright during the day •Glass is a fragile material that is prone to breaking without proper support. •It is also a high maintenance material that needs frequent cleaning. •Glass staircases may be slippery and a fall hazard for kids and the elderly, as the transparency makes it difficult to judge the beginning and end of each step. •Thick slabs of glass can be quite heavy to lift on your own
  • 27. FIRE ESCAPE 20XX Pitch Deck 27 The Fire escape staircase as is the special type of emergency exist which plays an important role to safely exit from the building during an emergency or any fire hazard. Fire escape staircase is widely used in the multi-storey residential buildings for commercial buildings. Every building should have a fire escape staircase to permit the safe escape of occupants in case of the emergency. Fire escape should be constructed with non- combustible materials. The building should be properly design and constructed as per the required fire safety according to the fire protection of the National Building Code of India. Fire escape stairs are mainly governed by the two main aspects which are the Stability and Access.
  • 28. 20XX LIFT 28 TYPES OF FIRE ESCAPES Drop ladder is one of the best fire escape equipment which is widely used in case of emergencies. These types of order can be permanently fixed and it is safe and stable so that anyone can use it. DROP LADDER GOOSENECK LADDER It is a vertical ladder that extends from the top floor of the terrace or balcony and used as a standard fire escape. This type of ladder is attached to the top landing of the fire escape and extends and bends over the roofline and the bottom of this ladder should be secured to the roof system. COUNTERBALANCED LADDER Counterbalance staircase is the common method which is widely used to protect building occupants during the period of emergency. This type of staircase is applied to the tip of the stair flight that consists of cables and pulleys.
  • 29. 20XX Pitch Deck 29 What Is the Importance of Fire Escape in the Building? Due to urbanisation, there are high rise buildings construction are increasing. But it is necessary to construct and design the buildings as per the rules and regulations by considering all the safety provisions of the code of practice for fire safety of Buildings. The emergency exit routes are very important which will provide a clear and safe way to escape from the building during a crisis or emergency. The exit routes can be provided in the form of Doors are staircases which will help to escape from the building. The design and dimensions of the fire escape staircase are governed by the Indian Standard Code of Practice for Fire Safety of the Building. This code describes the fire escape staircase requirements and Fire stair dimensions. The material which is used in the exit routes should be fire-resistant and free from any type of obstructions so that the occupant can easily escape through it.
  • 30. 20XX Pitch Deck 30 Fire Escape Staircase Regulations • The High rise buildings should have a minimum of two staircases and fire escape and it should be connected to the public areas and the common areas on the floors or ground. • The route towards the fire escape staircase should be free from any type of obstruction. • The fire escape staircase shall not be taken into consideration while calculating the number of staircases for the building. • The entrance which is provided to the fire escape shall be separate and removed from the internal staircase. • The door which leads a way towards the fire escape staircase should be made from the fire-resistant material. • The fire escape staircase should have handrails of height not less than 1 metre. • The fire escape staircase should be located such that it should have one side of the external wall which has a large opening for the exit. • The spiral fire escape staircase should not be less than 1.5 metres in diameter and should have adequate headroom. • All the fire escape staircase should be directly connected to the ground. • Fire escape staircase should have straight flight not less than 25 metre in width and 25 cm treads and risers not more than 19 cm. • The use of a spiral staircase should be limited to low occupant load and a building height of 9 meters. • The main staircase and the fire escape staircase shall be continuous from the ground floor to the terrace level.
  • 31. 20XX Pitch Deck 31 What Are the Fire Staircase Requirements? • The surface of the fire step should be slip resistance under all the conditions. • The landing of the fire staircase should be a minimum length of 900 mm. • The landing of fire stair should be designed properly at an appropriate interval. • The handles of the fire staircase should be accessible by both sides. • The distance between handrail and adjacent wall surface should be 50-60 mm minimum.
  • 32. 20XX Pitch Deck 32 Fire Escape Floor Plan
  • 33. 20XX Pitch Deck 33 DIMENSIONS • The length of the fire staircase should be a minimum of 900mm in length. • The width of the fire escape staircase should not be less than 75 cm. • The height of the fire escape staircase riser should not be more than the 19 cm.
  • 34. SERVICE STAIRS 20XX Pitch Deck 34 A stairway that is not used for general purposes; it provides access to specific areas such as the roof and equipment rooms.it helps to reduce the traffic on the common staircase. Some people doesn’t prefer the servant to use the same staircase as the janitors and servants may carry cleaning equipments which might dirt the floors and walls. Sometimes people carry furniture which causes traffic to the common staircase
  • 35. 20XX Pitch Deck 35 COMPARISON THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN COMMON STAIRCASE AND SERVICE STAIRCASE IS ONLY THE WIDTH AND ENTRANCES ARE GIVEN DIFFERENT. COMMON STAIRCASE : • THE WIDTH IS GIVEN NORMAL FROM 1.2M TO 1.6M • ENTRANCES IN GIVEN NEARER TO ACCESS SERVICE STAIRCASE : • THE WIDTH IS GIVEN FROM 1.8M TO 2M • ENTRANCES ARE GIVEN FROM BACKSIDE
  • 36. THANK YOU SYED ADNAN PASHA SYED MOAZAM OZAIR SAAD 20XX Pitch Deck 36