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TRANSPORTATION
SYSTEM IN
BUILDING

LIFTS
History of Lifts


Roman architect Vitruvius, reported
that Archimedes built his first elevator in
236 BC.[13] Elevators were mentioned as
cabs on a hemp rope and powered by
hand or by animals.
• In 1852, Elisha Otis introduced the
safety elevator, which prevented the
fall of the cab if the cable broke. The
design of the Otis safety elevator is
somewhat similar to one type still used
today.
• On March 23, 1857 the first Otis
passenger elevator was installed at 488
Broadway in New York City

• The Equitable Life Building completed
in 1870 in New York City was the first
office building to have passenger
elevators.[20]
Elisha Otis' elevator patent drawing, 15 January 1861.
1.1 Definition of Lifts


A vertical transport equipment that efficiently moves people
between floors (levels, deck) of a building, vessel or other
structure.



Generally powered by electric
motor that drive by traction cable and
counterweight systems like a hoist or
hydraulic pump.
Importance of Lifts


Rapid development : buildings design nowadays built vertically
/higher because of high land cost.



Basic needs : to bring building user from one level to higher level in
building



Comfort needs : working efficiency for office building or large
organization.



UBBL : building with more than 6 storey must provide lifts system.



Fire requirements : provide fire lift to be used during fire.
Ad

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Lift

  • 2. History of Lifts  Roman architect Vitruvius, reported that Archimedes built his first elevator in 236 BC.[13] Elevators were mentioned as cabs on a hemp rope and powered by hand or by animals.
  • 3. • In 1852, Elisha Otis introduced the safety elevator, which prevented the fall of the cab if the cable broke. The design of the Otis safety elevator is somewhat similar to one type still used today. • On March 23, 1857 the first Otis passenger elevator was installed at 488 Broadway in New York City • The Equitable Life Building completed in 1870 in New York City was the first office building to have passenger elevators.[20]
  • 4. Elisha Otis' elevator patent drawing, 15 January 1861.
  • 5. 1.1 Definition of Lifts  A vertical transport equipment that efficiently moves people between floors (levels, deck) of a building, vessel or other structure.  Generally powered by electric motor that drive by traction cable and counterweight systems like a hoist or hydraulic pump.
  • 6. Importance of Lifts  Rapid development : buildings design nowadays built vertically /higher because of high land cost.  Basic needs : to bring building user from one level to higher level in building  Comfort needs : working efficiency for office building or large organization.  UBBL : building with more than 6 storey must provide lifts system.  Fire requirements : provide fire lift to be used during fire.
  • 7. 1.2 Lift Categories According to the Function  Trade Lift - Crucial to the good performance to clients of the building. - Between 6 – 23 people. - Speed of elevator 200 – 2000 ft/ min. - Examples : offices, shopping mall and hotels
  • 8.  Hospital Lift - Used in hospital & treatment center - Designed for transporting large carts or furniture. - Speed of elevator 100 – 350 ft/ min. - Two sides of front and back doors for loading and unloading facilities. - Door width between 900 – 1100mm
  • 9.  High Residential Lift - For high rise residential buildings such as flat, apartment or condominium. - Needs regular maintenance because high frequency of its use everyday or possibility of vandalism.
  • 10.  Institution Lift - Used in library, office, classroom or lecture hall located at high altitudes.  Store Lift - Used to transport heavy goods but depends on types of good transported. - Elevator speed 50 – 150ft/min. - 5000 lbs normal, load haul 20000 lbs. - Usually used in shoppping complex, airports, hotels, warehouse
  • 11.  Lift of Cars - Used specifically to lift a car in multi storey car park or showroom. NOTES : • The six types of elevators had to be in the form of pull (traction) and hydraulics. • Form of traction is more commonly used for high velocity. • Hydraulic type only used to transport goods where waiting time is not concerned.
  • 12. 1.3 Characteristic of Lifts 1. 2. 3. Lift needed for the building more than 6 storey. Installation must be in accordance with the regulation in UBBL. Suitable speed 100 – 150ft/min. Too fast will result in a nervous breakdown to the user. If too slow will cause lack of function. USER REQUIREMENTS :     Good System – quiet equipment, smooth journey, good condition and safe at every moment. Waiting time – minimum waiting time at any level. Aesthetics – Button panel clear and easily reached at appropriate level. Complete instruction. Decorative lighting and comfortable. Movement of door – door movement is quiet and fast.
  • 13. 1.4 Components & Installation of Lifts Lift sub-system     Control Motion – includes motor, gear, engines, brakes and power supply. Control System - to get control the movements of the lift. Door Control – contained motor connecting lift car doors, platforms gates and door safety devices. Safety Control – contain the safety gear, speed controller for the first balance, heat and lack of power.
  • 15. Lift Components LIFT CAR    Platform where passengers or goods is transported. Constructed with steel or iron attached with steel frame. Fire resistance Elevator hoist ropes on top of a lift car
  • 16.  Equipment to be provided – door, floor panel indicators, button of request, phone, emergency button, lighting, ventilation and enough emergency supplies. A modern internal control panel. Notice the buttons labeled 1 above G. An external control panel
  • 17. • Divided into 2 types : 1. Closed Lift (typical type) 2. Open Lift (bubble type) Open Lift (bubble type) Closed Lift (typical type)
  • 18. LIFT SHAFT    Constructed with reinforced concrete. To accommodate the loading and fire resistance. Size of lift shaft space is determined by the number of user. Looking down the lift shaft of a hydraulic elevator. The hydraulic ram is to the left
  • 19. Gearless motor mounted on the wall in the lift shaft
  • 20. GOVERNOR  Usually placed at the top of lift shaft.  Placed in room equipped with a lifting beam for maintenance purposes.  Have electric motor, safety gear, guard rail, diaphragm motion and gear.
  • 21. LIFT DOOR Lift car is equipped with its own door (sliding type).  Security measure – resist the movement as long as the door is still open.  Self closing within a certain time frame.  2 types of sliding door : 1. Opened automatically when the lift stops at every level. 2. Swing door – will open when the lift stopped at the lobby. 
  • 22. GUARD RAIL    Work to keep the car and the counterweight. Mounted on both sides of the lift shaft which is attached to the wheel of the car. A safety device to hold the lift from crashing down if the rope break. BUFFER   To absorb the impact of the lift car when it fell. Placed in a room called the lift pit.
  • 23. COUNTERWEIGHT  Load borne by the generator is balanced by the counterweight.  Connected with a wire rope of the elevator car.  Function of counterweight : - To grip the lift car - Reduce the power of generator - Reduce the brake to stop the car lifts.
  • 24. 1.5 Selection Factor GENERAL REQUIREMENTS  Utility – The function must be identified whether for commercial, office of hospital.  Capacity & number of lifts – depends on the access building pattern and building size.  Speed – depends on the number of stops, numbers of user and transport cost.  Type & size of lift gate – depends on the use or function. PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS  Size of lift shaft – depends on lift cargo capacity  Depth of lift shaft – depends on the speed of elevator  Area of space in lift – depends on speed of elevators.  Mechanical room size – depends on type and size of the lift equipment.
  • 25. OTHER REQUIREMENTS      Electrical panels and power outlets. Ventilation fan and lighting in engine room. Steps down and power sockets in the wells lift (lift pit). The structure for lifting the machinery room. Maintanence works.
  • 26. Building type Waiting time (second) Office building - Central town - Commercial 25 – 30 30 – 45 Residential building - Luxury - Medium type - Low cost - Hostel 50 – 70 60 – 80 80 – 120 60 – 80 Hotel - Class A - Class B 40 – 60 50 - 70
  • 27. Function Lif capacity (lbs) Min. Speed (ft/min.) Building height (ft) Office Building Small size 2500 Medium size 3000 High scale 3500 350 – 400 500 – 600 700 800 1000 0 – 125 126 – 225 226 – 275 276 – 375 > 375 Hotel 2500 3000 Same as above Hospital 3000 150 200 250 – 300 350 – 400 500 – 600 700 0 – 60 61 – 100 101 – 125 126 – 175 176 – 250 > 250 100 200 250 – 300 350 - 400 0 – 75 76 – 125 126 – 200 > 200 200 250 – 300 350 – 400 500 0 – 100 101 – 150 151 – 200 > 200 3500 4000 Residential 2000 2500 Commercial 3500 4000 5000
  • 28. 1.6 Location & Lift Arrangement LIFT ARRANGEMENT  To ensure there is no interference between passengers who wish to get into the lift.  Should be carefully planned so can easily get into lobby and travel distance is reasonable.  Maximum travel distance 150 – 200ft  System layout depends on the number of elevator cars that use the elevator  Normally the elevator is set in the layout or zoned. BENEFIT  If there is high traffic , the usage is at optimum level  Waiting time will be shorten.
  • 29. Lift Arrangement for 2 car lift Side by side arrangement – width of corridor = width of car lift Opposite arrangement of corridor = width of car lift ment – width of corridor = width of car lift Not good arrangement
  • 30. Lift Arrangement for 3 car lift Opposite arrangement – width of corridor = 1.5 – 2A, where A is width of lift Side by side arrangement width of corridor = 1.5A, where A is width of lift
  • 31. Lift Arrangement for 4 car lift Opposite arrangement – width of corridor = 1.5 – 2A, where A is width of lift Side by side arrangement width of corridor = 1.5A, where A is width of lift
  • 32. Lift Arrangement for 6 car lift Opposite arrangement – width of corridor = 1.75 – 2A, where A is width of lift Side by side arrangement width of corridor = 2A, where A is width of lift
  • 33. Lift Arrangement for 6 car lift Weak arrangement for 6 car lift
  • 34. Lift Arrangement for 8 car lift Opposite arrangement – width of corridor = 2A, where A is width of lift
  • 35. 1.7 Types of lift ELECTRIC LIFT        Common type used today. Use electric lift cable to lift the elevator car with the weight and movement is the catalyst action. Use the traction with the motor. Used in most building > 60ft. Motor room on top of lift shaft will increase the load of building structure. Possibility of noise structure Need a lift wells and maintenance room near the engine room. Traction elevator motor
  • 36. HYDRAULIC LIFT        Use hydraulics principles – moves by the action of steel plunger lift which installed under the car. Not suitable for building > 60ft (low rise) – insufficient space or roof rooms too small to put the machinery. Transport load not > 100,000 pound. Speed – not > 200ft/min. Installation does not increase the building structures because lifting weight is not used. Machinery room located at ground floor Shaft area is smaller than electric lift.
  • 37. Bottom view of a hydraulic elevator
  • 38. HANDICAPPED LIFT    For people with disability who use wheelchair. Or with disabilities who are unable to use ordinary crowded lift of fast services. Mounted on the stair parallel to the ladder FIRE LIFT   Buildings over than 60ft high are required to provide fire lift. This lift controlled by a system back on in emergencies.
  • 39. PATERNOSTER       A lift systems moves continuously in one direction by providing the same car lifts. Provides the movement up and down continuously. No doors and passengers are forced into or out of the moving car lift Speed – 80 min. Suitable for 6 – 7 storey buildings Not suitable to used by children or older people.
  • 40. HIGH RISE LIFT     Service requirement for high rise building is critical to balance the upper and lower level services. The concept of zone system and sky lobby can be used. Usually divided into zones where high level car will not stop or pick passengers at lower level. Zone which too low will takes passengers down to lower levels such as 5 – 10 levels below.
  • 41. DOUBLE DECKER LIFT        Carry passengers without raising double the lift shaft. Have two platforms which are increased. High transport capacity and reduce floor space Number of stops can reduced to 50% - reducing waiting time and shorter car lift trips. Can be used in building which has a same height in every level. The main lobby has two levels. Must have clear indication of the use in the main lobby to avoid confusion.
  • 42. 1.8 : Lift Installation by zone system ONE SYSTEM ZONE  For building not > 15 levels.  Elevators car stops at every level of the building.  Used to save space. TWO SYSTEM ZONE  For buildings > 15 levels and < 40 levels.  System brake into two zone of elevator  The elevator of bottom and same for the top will not stop at any lower zone.  Not effective in the event of ‘off peak’ and interfloor service.
  • 43. SKY LOBBY ZONE    For building > 40 levels. A group lift with high speed moving lift without interruption from the floor to the sky lobby. The elevator will move with normal velocity at the next level.