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Vertical Circulation and Services of Highrise

High Rise the most common word in Modern Architecture. Here we made a Report on Vertical Circulation and Services of a High rise. Hope this will help you to Design a High rise.

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Vertical
Circulation & Services
Vertical circulationis the means by which building occupants access
specific areas of a building, including: internal stairs. internal ramps. elevators.
Element of Vertical circulation:
1. RAMP.
2. STAIR.
3. ELEVATOR.
4. ESCALATOR.
Service:
• Simply state that service is defined as those part of a building that consists of the
service lift, fire stair,
• Toilet, M&E service riser duct .
1. TOILET
2. FIRE STAIR.
3. SERVICE/FIRE ELEVATOR
4. RISER DUCT
Core:
• The core of a multistory building that integrates functions and service needs for established
occupants. Such areas are normally composed of toilet facilities, elevator banks, janitors’ closet,
utilities, mechanical facilities, smoke shafts and stair.
• Core also known as facade envelope is a spatial element for load-bearing high-rise building
system
1. Central core
2. Split core
3. End core
4. Atrium core
Types of core:
a. If the building structure been R.C.C,the core structure
should be shear wall. In this case core structure may not be steel
structure.
b. If the building structure been steel , the core structure
should be steel structure. In this case core structure may be R.C.C
structure.
c. If the building structure been Composite ,the core structure
should be shear wall. In this case core structure may not be steel
structure.
Structure of Core:
Stair
 Medium of travel which connects two consecutive
horizontal surfaces.
 A complete arrangement of steps, stringers, newel
posts, hand rails, balusters, etc.
 Easy and quick access to different floors with comfort
and safety.
• a) Every high rise building Have minimum 2 number of
Staircases.
b) Width of staircases varies from 1 m. to 2 m.
Requirements of a good stair
Stairs should be safe and easy for everyone to use.
• They should be clearly visible and easy to identify.
• Width of a stair (minimum 90 cm in residential use).
• Length of flight (maximum 12 steps ).
• Pitch of stair (should not exceed 40 degree and should
not be flatter than 25 degree).
• Head room (should not less than 2.14m).
• Materials.
• Balustrade to ensure safety.
• Landing (should not be less than the width of stair).
• Avoid winders and extra materials. Use optimum use
of materials.
• Step proportion.

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Vertical Circulation and Services of Highrise

  • 2. Vertical circulationis the means by which building occupants access specific areas of a building, including: internal stairs. internal ramps. elevators. Element of Vertical circulation: 1. RAMP. 2. STAIR. 3. ELEVATOR. 4. ESCALATOR. Service: • Simply state that service is defined as those part of a building that consists of the service lift, fire stair, • Toilet, M&E service riser duct . 1. TOILET 2. FIRE STAIR. 3. SERVICE/FIRE ELEVATOR 4. RISER DUCT
  • 3. Core: • The core of a multistory building that integrates functions and service needs for established occupants. Such areas are normally composed of toilet facilities, elevator banks, janitors’ closet, utilities, mechanical facilities, smoke shafts and stair. • Core also known as facade envelope is a spatial element for load-bearing high-rise building system 1. Central core 2. Split core 3. End core 4. Atrium core Types of core:
  • 4. a. If the building structure been R.C.C,the core structure should be shear wall. In this case core structure may not be steel structure. b. If the building structure been steel , the core structure should be steel structure. In this case core structure may be R.C.C structure. c. If the building structure been Composite ,the core structure should be shear wall. In this case core structure may not be steel structure. Structure of Core:
  • 5. Stair  Medium of travel which connects two consecutive horizontal surfaces.  A complete arrangement of steps, stringers, newel posts, hand rails, balusters, etc.  Easy and quick access to different floors with comfort and safety. • a) Every high rise building Have minimum 2 number of Staircases. b) Width of staircases varies from 1 m. to 2 m.
  • 6. Requirements of a good stair Stairs should be safe and easy for everyone to use. • They should be clearly visible and easy to identify. • Width of a stair (minimum 90 cm in residential use). • Length of flight (maximum 12 steps ). • Pitch of stair (should not exceed 40 degree and should not be flatter than 25 degree). • Head room (should not less than 2.14m). • Materials. • Balustrade to ensure safety. • Landing (should not be less than the width of stair). • Avoid winders and extra materials. Use optimum use of materials. • Step proportion.
  • 7. Classification of stairs 2. Dog-legged stairs 1. Straight stairs
  • 8. 3. Open-newel stairs 5. Three Quarter Turn Stair : 4. Quarter turn newel stairs
  • 9. 6. Bifurcated Stair 7. Geometric stairs 8. Spiral stairs
  • 10. Wooden stair Stone stair Metal stair
  • 11. R.C.C stair Brick stair Glass stair
  • 12.  String beam concrete stairs Types of concrete stair
  • 13. Continuous concrete stairs Cantilever concrete stairs
  • 14. Limitations of stairs for high rise • All step risers should be solid. • Open risers can be a source of visual confusion and are disconcerting for many people to use. • Spiral stairs and stairs with tapered treads should not be used, as they are much more likely to cause tripping. • Spiral stairs create problem as the force is more in highrise .
  • 15. Number of Stairways Required  This is usually controlled by local building codes. This control may be achieved by setting a minimum of two exits per floor, a restriction on the maximum horizontal distance from any point on a floor to a stairway, or a limitation on the maximum floor area contributory to a stairway. In addition, codes usually have special provisions for assembly buildings, such as theaters and exhibition halls. Restrictions usually also are placed on the maximum capacity of a stairway. For example, the National Fire Protection Association ‘‘Life Safety Code’’ sets a maximum capacity for stairways of 60 persons per 22-in unit of width, up or down.  The Number of Stair Case increases with the increment of building height and purpose ( one stair case for 75 feet )
  • 16. Elevator An elevator is a hoisting and lowering mechanism equipped with a car or platform that moves along guides in a shaft, or hoist way, in a substantially vertical direction and that transports passengers or goods, or both, between two or more floors of a building. • Considered as a requirement in all building over three storeys • Minimum standards of service – one lift for every four storeys with a maximum distance of 45m to the lift lobby • Floor space estimates and car capacity can be based on an area of 0.2𝑚2 per person Passenger elevators- Designed to carry people between building floors. Their capacity is determined by the need of the specific building and it can vary between 5 and 25 peoples. Express elevators- They do not service all floors, but instead only selected parts of the building. Most notably they move passengers from the building lobby to the top floor/sky lobby. For express elevators, which make no intermediate stops, intervals of 30 to 35s may be considered acceptable. Car speeds used vary with height of building: 4 to 10 stories, 200 to 500 ft / min; 10 to 15 stories, up to 700 ft /min; 15 to 20 stories, up to 800 ft /min; 20 to 50 stories, up to 1200 ft /min; and over 50 stories, up to 2500 ft /min. Practically speaking, 200-ft /min elevators are generally not economically advantageous and have been replaced by 350-ft /min elevators for most passenger applications.
  • 17. Urban transport elevators- They move passengers between several altitude potions, not inside a building but rather in open urban space. For example from bottom to the top of the hill. Freight elevators- Indented for transport of goods. Their carrying load can vary between 2000 to 4500 kilograms. Most often their source of power are electric engines. Types of Elevator: Elevators can be classified according to  Hoist Mechanism  Building Height  Building Types  Elevator Location  Special Uses
  • 19. According to Hoist Mechanism 1.Hydraulic Passenger Elevator Hydraulic elevators are elevators which are powered by a piston that travels inside a cylinder. An electric motor pumps hydraulic oil into the cylinder to move the piston. The piston smoothly lifts the elevator cab. Advantages: • The absence of overhead machine room, • Pent house, traction equipment • Elevator Load is carried by the ground not • By the structure • Hoist way is smaller due to absence of counter • Weight and its guide rail. • Essentially there is no lifting limit. Disadvantages: • Operating is expensive is higher due to absence of counter weight • This are limited to low rise (maximum 60ft) • Speed is low, ride quality is inferior • Can not be used in High-rise Building
  • 20. According to Hoist Mechanism 2.Traction/pulley passenger Elevator Traction lifts are the oldest and most versatile type of lift. They basically consist of a lift car and a counterweight attached to separate ends of a cable which travel over a large pulley wheel called a Sheave at the top of the lift shaft. Much higher travel speed Applicable on low rise, mid rise and high rise Strictly mechanical Most common for high-rise Gearless models up to 825 ft There are two types of traction lift a) Gearless Traction Lift b) Geared Traction Lift
  • 21. Gearless Traction Elevators • Gearless technology makes the tallest buildings in the world possible • These elevators typically operate at speeds greater than 500 feet per minute (2.54 meters per second) • Hoisting ropes are attached to the top of the elevator • Gearless traction elevators have the wheel attached directly to the motor. • Gearless traction elevators are capable of speeds up to 2,000 feet per minute • They have a maximum travel distance of around 2,000 feet so they are the only choice for high-rise applications.
  • 22. Geared Traction Elevators • As the name implies, the electric motor in this design drives a gear-type reduction unit • These elevators typically operate at speeds from 350 to 500 feet per minute (1.7 to 2.5 meters per second) • Carry loads of up to 30,000 pounds (13,600 kgs) • An electrically controlled brake between the motor and the reduction unit stops the elevator • The maximum travel distance for a geared traction elevator is around 250 feet.
  • 23. According to building height A- Low-Rise buildings (1- 3 stories):- Buildings up to about (1 to 3) stories typically use hydraulic elevators because of their lower initial cost B- Mid-Rise buildings (4 -11 stories):- Buildings up to about (4 to 11) stories typically use Geared Traction Elevators C- High-Rise buildings (12 + stories):- Buildings up to about 12+ stories typically use Gear-Less Traction Elevators According to elevator location:- 1.Outdoor Elevator (Inclined elevator) 2.Platform Elevator
  • 24. According to Building types  Hospital elevators.  Residential /domestic elevators.  Industrial elevators.  Commercial elevators.  Parking buildings elevators According to special uses:-  Handicapped elevator  Grain elevator
  • 25. Dumbwaiter Dumbwaiters are small freight elevators that are intended to carry food, books or other small freight loads rather than passengers. • They often connect kitchens to rooms on other floors. • They usually do not have the same safety features found in passenger elevators, like various ropes for redundancy. • They have a lower capacity, and they can be up to 1 meter (3 ft) tall. • Control panels at every stop mimic those found in passenger elevators, allowing calling, door control and floor selection. Paternoster A special type of elevator is the paternoster, a constantly moving chain of boxes. A similar concept, called the man lift or human lift, moves only a small platform, which the rider mounts while using a handhold seen in multi- story industrial plants.
  • 26. Rack-and-pinion elevator Rack-and-pinion elevator are powered by a motor driving a pinion gear. Because they can be installed on a building or structure's exterior and there is no machine room or hoistway required, they are the most used type of elevator for buildings under construction (to move materials and tools up and down) Scissor lift The scissor lift is yet another type of lift. These are usually mobile work platforms that can be easily moved to where they are needed, but can also be installed where space for counter-weights, machine room and so forth is limited. The mechanism that makes them go up and down is like that of a scissor jack.
  • 27. Capsule Passenger Lifts : Glass capsule elevators is artistically designed to be used in offices, shopping malls, multiplexes and other prestigious buildings. • Capsule Lifts are inspired with creative flair to suit your particular needs. • Capsule elevators give an upscale, attractive feel to offices, shopping malls, • multiplexes and other prestigious buildings. • They are offered in different sizes, specifications, shapes and capacity according to the requirements of our clients.
  • 28. Next Generation Lift Horizontal + Vertical • A revolutionary idea, but it’s not just a new elevator –It’s an exciting new “vertical and horizontal transportation system”. • NO CABLES and no traveling cable required • Application of totally new technologies, like - Linear motor and drive - Exchanger, which moves cabin from one shaft to the other - New materials (light weight cabin & cabin door) • It’s a shaft-changing cabin system with multiple cabins, running in one shaft loop. • However horizontal links between several loops or to a horizontal track is possible at exchanger levels • The basic approach is a circulating system (paternoster) with an available cabin every 15 - 25s • The safety concept is based on the TWIN know-how, collision prevention and high level safety features • Targeted speed: up to 5m/s, extension possible up to 7 m/s • Ideal with 8 - 10 cabins per side which means 16 - 20 in total in one loop for 600m driveway or 300m height - however not limited
  • 29. Technical Terms : ELEVATOR HOISTWAYS: A hoist way is a shaft in which an elevator travels. 1.Hoistway Enclosure: The enclosure should have a 2-h fire rating, and hoist way doors and other opening protective assemblies should have a 11 ⁄2-h rating. should enclose the hoist way to a height of 8 ft above each floor and above the treads of adjacent stairways. Openwork enclosures may be used above that level, if openings are less than 2 in wide or high. 2.Venting of Hoist ways In significant high-rise-building fires, the elevator hoist ways have served as a flue for smoke and hot gases generated by fire. The prevailing thought has been that hoist way venting means could minimize the spread of smoke and hot gases throughout the building.
  • 30. Machine Rooms • If the driving machine is located at the top of the hoist way, other machinery and equipment for building operation may also be installed in the machine room but must be separated from the elevator equipment by a substantial metal grille at least 6 ft high. • In machine rooms at the top of the hoist way, headroom of at least 7 ft above the floor must be provided. For spaces containing only overhead, secondary, or deflecting sheaves, headroom may be only 31 ⁄2 ft, but 41 ⁄2 ft is required if the spaces also contain over speed governors, or other equipment. Hoist way Doors • Each opening in a hoist way enclosure for access to elevator cars should be protected with a 11 ⁄2-h fire-rated door for the full width and height of the opening. • single-section swinging doors or horizontally sliding doors are used for freight and passenger elevators and vertically sliding doors are used exclusively for freight elevators. • Vision panels of clear wired glass or laminated glass, with an area between 25 and 80 in2 , may be inserted in any type of hoist way door and car door, to enable passengers in a car to see if passengers at landings are waiting to enter. • specifically requires such a vision panel to be installed in all horizontally swinging hoist way doors and in manually operated, self-closing, sliding hoist way doors for elevators with automatic or continuous-pressure operation.
  • 31. Guide Rails: The paths of elevator cars and of counterweights, if used, are controlled by vertical guide rails installed in the hoist way. Buffers and Bumpers: Energy-absorbing devices are required at the bottom of a hoist way to absorb the impact from a car that descends below its normal limit of travel Hoist way Dimensions: The clearance between a car and the hoist way enclosure, for example, should be at least 3 ⁄4 in. The clearance between the car platform sill and vertically sliding hoist way doors or the hoist way edge of the landing sill should be at least 1 ⁄2 in where side door guides are used and 3 ⁄4 in where corner guides are used, but not more than 11 ⁄12 in. Maximum clearance between the loading side of the car platform and the hoist way enclosure generally is 5 in but may be as much as 71 ⁄2 in when vertically sliding hoist way doors are used.
  • 32. ELEVATOR CARS A car consists basically of a platform for transporting passengers and goods. The platform is raised or lowered by wire ropes or a hydraulic piston or plunger. Door Controls Car doors may be horizontally or vertically sliding. They usually are power operated. For safety, they should be equipped with devices that prevent them from opening while the car is moving or is outside the landing zones, the space 18 in above and below a landing. The doors should be kept open for at least 20 s after reopening. Car Equipment The interior of the car should be ventilated and illuminated with at least two electric lamps.. In addition, an emergency electric-lighting power source should be installed, to operate immediately after failure of the normal power source. Emergency stop switch should be installed about 35 in above the platform. The height of the highest push button or of a telephone should not exceed 48 in. A handrail should be provided about 32 in above the floor along the rear car wall. An emergency exit should be provided in the roof of each car.
  • 33. Car Capacities and Sizes: Cars are rated in accordance with their load-carrying capacity. For passenger elevators, capacities generally range from 1500 lb for use in apartment buildings to 5000 lb for use in department stores and hospitals. (Approximate capacity in passengers can be estimated by dividing the rated capacity, in pounds, by 150.) Capacities of freight elevators usually range from 1500 lb for light duty up to 10,000 lb for general- purpose work or 20,000 lb for heavy duty. To obtain the outside dimensions of a car, add 4 in to the clear width (parallel to car door) and the following to the clear depth: • 10 in for passenger elevators with center-opening doors or a single sliding door • 11/12 in for passenger and hospital elevators with two-speed, center opening doors at one end only • 19 in for hospital elevators with two-speed front and rear doors • 7 in for freight elevators with front doors only • 10 in for freight elevators with front and rear doors
  • 34. Car Leveling at Landings Elevator installations should incorporate equipment capable of stopping elevator cars level with landings within a tolerance of 1⁄2 in under normal loading and unloading conditions. Because changing car loads vary the stretch of the hoisting ropes, provision should be made to compensate for this variation and keep the car platform level with the landing. Most elevators employ automatic leveling. Terminal Stopping Devices • Emergency terminal speed-limiting device • Normal terminal stopping device • Final terminal stopping device Counterweights The weight of the counterweight usually is made equal to the weight of the unloaded car and the ropes plus about 40% of the rated load capacity of the car. Roping for Elevators • All these ropes should be at least 1⁄2 in in diameter. • The 1:1 single-wrap roping often is used for high-speed passenger elevators. • The arrangement, called 2:1 roping, is suitable for heavily loaded, slow freight elevators.
  • 35. Sky Lobby Zone A sky lobby is an intermediate interchange floor where people can change from an express elevator that stops only at the sky lobby to a local elevator which stops at every floor within a segment of the building. • For building > 40 levels. • A group lift with high speed moving lift without interruption from the floor to the sky lobby. • The elevator will move with normal velocity at the next level.
  • 36. Number of Elevators Required:
  • 38. T6: Elevator Equipment Recommendation
  • 39. • Traffic is measured by the number of persons requiring service during a peak 5-min period. • 𝑛 = 𝑉 𝐻𝐶 = 𝑉𝐼 300𝑝 V = peak traffic, persons in 5 min
  • 40. Elevators in Single-Purpose Buildings The maximum 5-min periods may be 13.5 to 16.0% of the population, depending on the type of occupancy. If traffic volumes are high, occupancy of the building should be carefully balanced against elevator requirements. Elevators in Government Buildings Population density often may be assumed as one person per 140 to 180 ft2 of net area. The 5-min maximum peak occurs in the morning and may be as large as 16% of the population. Professional-Building Elevators Since crowding of incapacitated patients is inadvisable, elevators should be of at least 3000-lb capacity. If the building has a private hospital, then one or two of the elevators should be hospital-type elevators. Hotel Elevators The 5-min maximum occurs during checkout hour and can be about 12.5 to 15% of the estimated population, with traffic moving in both directions. The service elevator quantity is 50 to 60% of the passenger elevator quantity. Apartment-Building Elevators Traffic flow at that time may be 6 to 8% of the building population in a 5-min period Typically, a 2500-lb elevator with a 9-ft clear ceiling height can be relied on to carry most furniture.
  • 41. Function Lif capacity (lbs) Min. Speed (ft/min.) Building height (ft) Office Building Small size Medium size High scale 2500 3000 3500 350 – 400 500 – 600 700 800 1000 0 – 125 126 – 225 226 – 275 276 – 375 > 375 Hotel 2500 3000 Same as above Hospital 3000 3500 4000 150 200 250 – 300 350 – 400 500 – 600 700 0 – 60 61 – 100 101 – 125 126 – 175 176 – 250 > 250 Residential 2000 2500 100 200 250 – 300 350 - 400 0 – 75 76 – 125 126 – 200 > 200 Commercial 3500 4000 5000 200 250 – 300 350 – 400 500 0 – 100 101 – 150 151 – 200 > 200
  • 42. Other Information: • A 3-ft 6-in opening is excellent, because two passengers may conveniently enter and leave a car abreast. • Department stores, hospitals, and other structures served by larger passenger elevators (4000 lb and over) usually require 4-ft door openings. • In a well-diversified office building, the 5-min peak used is about 12.5% of the population. • For busy, high-class office buildings in large cities, time intervals between elevators may be classified as follows: 26 to 28 s, excellent; between 28 and 30 s, good; between 30 and 32 s, fair; between 32 and 35 s poor; and over 35 s may be unsatisfactory. In small cities, however, intervals of 30 s and longer may be satisfactory. • For greatest efficiency and lowest cost, elevator group sizes should not exceed six elevators, with four elevators per group as a more practical approach. • Since one cannot guarantee equal use of the two groups, each group should be designed to handle 60 to 65% of the traffic • Buildings of up to 500,000 or 600,000 gross square feet frequently have only a single service elevator, whereas larger buildings are provided with two or more separate service cabs.
  • 43. Arrangement pattern & spatial effect of Vertical circulation: (ELEVATOR) ARRANGEMENT TWO-CAR GROUPING •Side-by-side arrangement is best •Passenger face both cars& can react immediately •AVOID separation of elevators •EXCESSIVE separation destroy advantages of group operation THREE-CAR GROUPING •3 cars in a row is PREFERRABLE •2 cars opposite 1 is acceptable •PROBLEM: location of elevator call button
  • 44. Arrangement pattern & spatial effect of Vertical circulation: (ELEVATOR) Arrangement Four-Car Grouping •commonly in large, busier buildings •2-opposite-2 arrangement is the most efficient Six-Car Grouping •found in large office buildings, public buildings & hospitals •provide quantity & quality •3-opposite-3 position is PREFERRED •dimension of the LOBBY must not be less than 3m or 3.6m if function as a passageway Arrangement Eight-Car Grouping •the largest PRACTICAL group •4-opposite-4 arrangement
  • 45. Arrangement pattern & spatial effect of Vertical circulation: (ELEVATOR) Express Elevator: • fastest elevator • interval stoppage: specific floor • interval time: 33 ft/s(World Trade Centre) 54 ft/s (Taipei 101) Local Elevator: • normal speedy elevator • interval stoppage: each floor • interval time: up to 10 ft/s
  • 46. ELEVATOR 1.Central Core Arrangement pattern & spatial effect of Vertical circulation: (ELEVATOR) Elevator position preferable in centre &Horizontal circulation is easier Petronas Twin Tower 43th floor plan
  • 47. ELEVATOR 2.Split Core Arrangement pattern & spatial effect of Vertical circulation: (ELEVATOR) • Individual elevator layout position according to using purpose • Horizontal circulation is not easier Commerce Bank Frankfurt Norman Foster & Partners
  • 48. ELEVATOR 3.End Core Arrangement pattern & spatial effect of Vertical circulation: (ELEVATOR) Horizontal circulation is not easier
  • 49. ELEVATOR 4.Atrium Core Arrangement pattern & spatial effect of Vertical circulation: (ELEVATOR)
  • 50. ESCALATORS Escalators, or powered stairs, are used when it is necessary to move large numbers of people from floor to floor. They provide continuous movement of persons and can thus remedy traffic conditions that are not readily addressed by elevators. Escalators should be viewed as preferred transportation systems whenever heavy traffic volumes are expected between relatively few floors. Escalators are used to connect airport terminals, parking. Maximum rise 21 ft 4 in (NCE model) Dimensions for Escalators • Minimum depth of tread in direction of travel—153⁄4 in • Maximum rise between treads—81⁄2 in • Minimum width of tread—24 in • Maximum width of tread—40 in • Maximum clearance between tread and adjacent skirt panel—3⁄8 in • Maximum distance between handrail centerlines—width between balustrades plus 6 in with not more than 3 in on either side of the escalator Escalator Speeds and Capacities Escalators typically operate at 90 or 120 ft /min, as needed for peak traffic.
  • 51. Standard escalator widths are 32 and 48 in. Manufacturers rate their 90-ft /min units at corresponding capacities of 5000 and 8000 persons per hour, although observed capacities, even in heavy traffic, rarely exceed 2000 and 4000 persons per hour, respectively. Although 120-ft /min escalators will move about 30% more volume, they are rarely specified because of the potential for adverse litigation. Structural Considerations in Escalator Installation Floor-to-floor height should be taken into account in determining loads on supporting members. Generally for floor-to-floor heights of less than 20 ft, the escalator truss need be supported only at top and bottom. Increased vertical rise can create the need for intermediate support points. A structural frame should be installed around the escalator well to carry the floor and well way railing.
  • 57. WHAT IS BUILDING SERVICES? • Imagine yourself in the most fabulous building in the world. Now take away the lighting, heating and ventilation, the lifts and escalators, acoustics, plumbing, power supply and energy management systems, the security and safety systems...and you are left with a cold, dark, uninhabitable shell. o Everything inside abuilding which makes it safe and comfortable to be in comes under the title of Building Services'. A building must do what it was designed to do - not just provide shelter but also be an environment where people can live, work and achieve. Building services are “what makes a Building come to life”. . . . They include: o energy supply -gas ,electricity and renewable sources o heating and air conditioning o water, drainage and plumbing o natural and artificial lighting, and building facades o escalators and lifts o ventilation and refrigeration o communication lines, telephones and IT networks o security and alarm systems o fire detection and protection
  • 59. Service: Simply state that service is defined as those part of a building that consists of the service lift, fire stair, Toilet, M&E service riser duct . Element of Service : 1. TOILET 2. FIRE STAIR. 3. SERVICE/FIRE ELEVATOR 4. RISER DUCT 1.Escape stair 2.Service lift 3.Lift lobby 4.Lavatories 5.Service rooms 6.Combi-offices 7. Team offices
  • 60. 1. TOILET 2. PLUMBING 3. DUCTING 4. SERVICE/FI RE LIFT 5. FIRE STAIR PLAN: SEARS TOWER Elements of service :
  • 61. PLUMBING o Plumbing is the system of pipes, drains, fittings, valves, and fixtures installed for the distribution of potable water for drinking, heating and washing, and waterborne waste removal. "Plumbing" also refers to the skilled trade which installs and maintains it. o The plumbing industry is a basic and substantial part of every developed economy.[1] The word derives from the Latin plumbing for lead, as the first effective pipes used in Roman era were lead pipes. o "Plumbing" often denotes the supply and waste system of an individual building, distinguishing it from water supply and sewage systems that serve a group of buildings. Plumbing System • The major categories of plumbing systems or subsystems are: • potable cold and hot tap water supply • plumbing drainage venting • sewage systems and septic systems with or without hot water heat recycling and gray water recovery and treatment systems • Rainwater, surface, and subsurface water drainage[relevant? – discuss] • fuel gas piping • hydronic, i.e. heating and cooling systems utilizing water to transport thermal energy, as in district heating systems, like for example the New York City steam system.
  • 62. Ducted Distributionof Services • Service duct require careful planning and should be considered at an early stage in the design of a building. • Accommodation of the plant and the layout of services are the two essential factors in design. • It is usual to need some 7 – 10% of the total floor area for plant spaces and ducts. • The purpose : • conceal the services and to facilitate inspection, repair and alterations. • Helps to reduce noise • Protects the services from damage
  • 63. Important of unified system of services distribution • Most services can be run in common ducts except flammable liquids and gases • The pattern of distribution of services is considered as a whole in relation to the building planning • 3 different categories of services run having different requirements for patterns of distribution: • Wells and flues • Pipes and ventilation trucking's • Electrical cables • Stair and lift wells run vertically through buildings. They do not required linkage with services at each floor level but prevent an obstacle to horizontal distribution of other services
  • 64. Arrangement pattern & spatial effect of Service: (RISER DUCT) • Duct layout should be near of toilet block for cost effective ducting • Duct shaft should be included maintenance door
  • 65. Verticalducts & Undergroundducts • Vertical ducts: dimensions are often found varied due to lack of planning in the design process • Underground ducts: would conflict with columns and foundations in construction
  • 66. Arrangement pattern & spatial effect of Service: (TOILET) • Toilet layout should be in service core • Toilet block should be near of riser duct • Block position is located in a place so that people can use it without access in lift lobby TOILET
  • 67. STAIR & FIRE EXIT 1.Central Core Arrangement pattern & spatial effect of Service: (STAIR & FIRE EXIT) Easily escape for central position & mechanical lighting
  • 68. 2.Split Core STAIR & FIRE EXIT Arrangement pattern & spatial effect of Service: (STAIR & FIRE EXIT) More easily escape for split position
  • 69. 3.End Core STAIR & FIRE EXIT Arrangement pattern & spatial effect of Service: (STAIR & FIRE EXIT) Easily escape for end position
  • 70. 4.Atrium Core STAIR & FIRE EXIT Arrangement pattern & spatial effect of Service: (STAIR & FIRE EXIT)
  • 71. SERVICE ELEVATOR 1.Central Core FIRE ELEVATOR Arrangement pattern & spatial effect of Service: (SERVICE & FIRE ELEVATOR)
  • 72. 2.Split Core SERVICE ELEVATOR FIRE ELEVATOR Arrangement pattern & spatial effect of Service: (SERVICE & FIRE ELEVATOR)
  • 73. 3.End Core SERVICE ELEVATOR FIRE ELEVATOR Arrangement pattern & spatial effect of Service: (SERVICE & FIRE ELEVATOR)
  • 74. Ventilating is the process of replacing air in any space to provide high indoor air quality ( to control temperature, replenish oxygen, or remove moisture, odors, smoke, heat, dust, airborne bacteria and carbon dioxide). Ventilation is used to remove unpleasant smells and excessive moisture, introduce outside air, to keep interior building air circulating, and to prevent stagnation of the interior air. Types of ventilation: 1. Natural ventilation: occurs when the air in a space is changed with outdoor air without the use of mechanical systems, such as a fan. Most often natural ventilation is assured through operable windows. Open windows or vents are not a good choice for ventilating a basement or other below ground structure. Allowing outside air into a cooler below ground space will cause problems with humidity and condensation. 2. Mechanical ventilation: an air handling unit or direct injection to a space by a fan. A local exhaust fan can enhance infiltration or natural ventilation, thus increasing the ventilation air flow rate. 3. Mixed Mode Ventilation: both mechanical and natural ventilation processes. Natural ventilation Mechanical ventilation VENTILATION
  • 75. Preferable ventilation: Mechanical. Preferable ventilation: Natural. Preferable ventilation: Natural. Preferable ventilation: Natural & Mechanical Core and ventilation
  • 76. 1.Central Core 4.Atrium Core3.End Core 2.Split Core Mechanical Ventilation Natural Ventilation Natural Ventilation Natural Ventilation & Mechanical Ventilation Arrangement pattern & ventilation:
  • 78. Core size and daylight satisfication: Assessment: Larger light well ensures much satisfaction.
  • 79. Building shape and lighting Example:
  • 82. Fire fighting lobby ventilation
  • 83. Ventilation requirement: Equation to calculate: #For 5000 occupancy needed ventilation .375cfm for per sq ft. #If the area is 30000 sq ft required ventilation is 11250 cfm #High-rise Residential – for habitable areas not ventilated with Natural Ventilation, cfm=(0.06 cfm/ft2 + 5 cfm/occ). "Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality" (7.5 L/s per person). In this case (a one bedroom suite for 2 people in a high-rise) a minimum of 30cfm (15 Lls) continuous ventilation supply is required plus an intermittent exhaust capacity of 100 cfm (50LIs) for the kitchen. Ventilation Capacity - Code Considerations
  • 84. B. Fixed Minimum Damper Set point C. Dual Minimum Set point Design D. Energy Balance Method E. Return Fan Tracking (ASHRAE standard) F. Airflow Measurement of the Entire outdoor air Inlet(acceptable) G. Injection Fan Method H. Dedicated Minimum Ventilation Damper with Pressure Control Ventilation System Operation and Controls A. Outdoor Ventilation Air and VAV Systems A D E F HG
  • 85. Lighting Commerzbank: Frankfurt, Germany, Noman Foster • The Central atrium, free of structuralmembers, was essential to provide light • Both vertically, from the glass roof at the atrium’s top & horizantally, from • The winter garden facades to the office across the atrium
  • 87. Activity Lux Footcandles Direct Sunlight 32000–100000 2300 - 9300 (approx) Daylight (not sun) 10000–25000 930 - 2300 (approx) Full moon (clear) 1 0.1 Kitchen ambient 108 10 Kitchen task 538 50 Dining 54 5 Living Space 54 5 Living Space (task) 323 30 Desk lighting 431 40 Bedroom ambient 54 5 Bedroom reading 431 40 Bedroom dressing table 431 40 Bathroom ambient 54 5 Bathroom task 323 30 Laundry 323 30 Circulation 54 5 Sewing 538 50 Garage/Workshop 108 10 Small detailed task 1076 100 Lighting Calculation Lumen A lumen (symbol lm) is a measure of the total amount of light visible light emitted by a source in any particular direction. That's keeping it simple. For a more precise definition Wikipedia can tell you more about what a lumen is. Lux - the metric system Lux is a measure of illuminance which basically means it's a measure of how much light there is over a given surface area. One Lux (lx) is equal to one lumen per square meter. 1 lx = 1 lm/m2 Footcandle - the imperial system Footcandle is also a measure of illuminance for those of you who prefer to work in feet. One Footcandle (fc) is equal to one lumen per square foot. 1 fc = 1 lm/ft2
  • 88. Lighting Calculations How Many Fittings are Required for a Room The utilization factor table and a few simple formulas allow us to calculate the number of fittings required for any room. Step1: Understand the utilization factor table that is available on most fittings Step2: Calculate Room Index (K) K = L x W ; Hm (L+W) Where: L = Room Length ; W = Room Width Hm = Mounting Height of Fitting (from working plane) Step3: Using the room index and reflectance values in the utilization factor table. Step4: To calculate the number of fittings required use the following formula: N =E x A F x uF x LLF Where: N = Number of Fittings E = Lux Level Required on Working Plane A = Area of Room (L x W) F = Total Flux (Lumens) from all the Lamps in one Fitting UF = Utilisation Factor from the Table for the Fitting to be Used LLF = Light Loss Factor. This takes account of the depreciation over time of lamp output and dirt accumulation on the fitting and walls of
  • 89. Example: Consider the below fig as small office room length is12 m, width is8 m & height of the room is3.5 m. Lux required for the work area is150 lux & consider the36 watts lamb. Lamp mounting in fall ceiling at height of3m. Calculate the no of lamp required ? Formula: N= (E X A)/ (F X UF X LLF) K= (L X W) / Hm ( L + W) = (12 X8) /3 X (12 +8) K =1.6 From the first table of utilization factor table find the value of U.F. for the corresponding K value UF = 0.52 (FOR k=1.6) X O.7 (REFLECTANCE VALUE FOR CEILING) UF =0.364 LIGHT LOSS FACTOR VALUE ( LLF)= 0.8 (For Air conditioned office) N= (E X A)/ (F X UF X LLF) = (150 X96) / (3000 X0.364 X0.8) N =16.48=16 Nos.
  • 90. Case study : Babylonia, Dhaka Shanta western tower, Dhaka
  • 91. Babylonia: Project name: Babylonia Architect: Mustapha Khalid Palash Location: Bir Uttam Mir Shawkat Sarak, Tejgoan Land area: 40 katha, 28818 sq.ft Occupancy type: commercial Building stories: 12 stories +3 basement No of floor: 15 Size of spaces: 4363-14566 sq.ft No of lift: 5 Car parking :128+
  • 92. Vertical Circulation & Services: 1. Elevator 2. Stair 3. Fire Stair 4. Toilet 5. Fire & Service Elevator 6. Riser Duct 5.6. Core Type: End Core Ventilation Type: Natural Ventilation
  • 93. Shanta western tower, Dhaka Project name: Shanta western tower Architect: Mustapha Khalid Palash Location: Bir Uttam Mir Shawkat Sarak, Tejgoan Occupancy type: commercial Building stories: 14 stories + 3 basement No of floor: 17 No of lift: 7 Car parking :333+
  • 94. WEST PARTSOUTH PART NORTH PARTEAST PART 2 1 Central core: Mechanical ventilation Vertical Circulation & Services: 1 22 3 3 4 5 5 5 5 1 .Lift Lobby 2. Fire Exit 3. Toilet Block 4. Fire & Service Elevator 5. Riser Duct
  • 95. Building: Genzyme Center Architects: Behnisch Architekten Location: Cambridge, Massachusetts, US (North Latitude)
  • 96. Table-1 Business and Mercantile Business and Mercantile (Occupancy type‐B) Shops, department store 1 car parking per 200 m² gross area Restaurants 1 car parking per 1000 ft² gross area Office 1 car parking per 2000 ft² gross area Other 1 car parking per 2000 ft² gross area Assembly Theater or auditorium 1 car parking per 20 seats Parking
  • 97. For a 4 storied commercial building, Let the total area of the building 14600 sq.m The area of ground floor (departmental stores and shops) ( for per 200 m² 1 car parking is required) :5000 sq.m = 53,819 sq. ft The area of 1st floor (office ( for per 200 m² 1 car parking is required) : 3500 + 500 sq.m = (37,673 +5,400)sq.ft +restaurant ) ( for per 100 m² 1 car parking is required) The area of 2nd floor (office) ( for per 200 m² 1 car parking is required) : 5000 sq.m = 53,819sq. ft The area of 3rd floor (auditorium) ( for per 20 seats 1 car parking is required) : 600 sq.m = 6,458 sq. ft (300 seats ) Total area : 14600 sq.m = 157169 sq. ft So the number of parkings – For ground floor = 5000/200 = 25 cars For 1st floor = 3500/200+ 500/100 = 22.5 cars = 23 cars For 2nd floor = 5000/200 = 25 cars For 3rd floor = 300/20 = 15 cars Total = 88 cars
  • 98. Ramp break over angle Angleofapproach Angleofdeparture Angle of departure Max 10 Degree To reduce incident of tailpipe and rear bumping dragging. Angle of approaches Max 15 Degree
  • 99. Ramp break over angle • Gradient
  • 100. Loops
  • 101. Minimum width and length of parking aisle (car type): Parking angle to aisle One way traffic Two way traffic Bay on one side Bay on both side Bays on one or both sides 0°(parallel) 11.5’ 13’ 14’ 45° 13’ 13’ 14’ 90° (perpendicula r) 14’ 14’ 14’ Car type Parking width Parking length Normal car (for each ) 2.4 m 7.8 ft 4.6 m 15 ft 2 wheel motor bike (for each) 1.0 m 3.28 ft 2.0 m 6.56 ft Minimum width of driveway : Onewaybothsidebay Twowaybothsidebay
  • 102. • A single helix (two-way) arrangement should be limited to five or six levels because of the number of turns required to pass all parking spaces. • For a double threaded helix (one- way), arrangements allow for a vehicle to circulate up and then back down without making a U-turn at the top.
  • 104. • For using parking ramp ,the maximum required slope is 1: 8. In front of ramp 4.25 m horizontal space is required. but it is not applicable for arising .75m height. • For one way traffic the minimum width of the ramp will be 3 m. for two way traffic the minimum width of the ramp will be 4.25m and for others minimum width of the ramp will be 6 m. • For 10 m of front lengthen land there should me only one entry and exit way. • In car parking, car lift can be used as an alternative of ramp. • For residential site minimum 100 car parking and for other site 50 car parking is required for these parking separate traffic margin lane and holding bay must be required. • The clear height between parking place and ramp will be at least 2.25m. • In the place of car parking car lift can be built in stead of ramp for movement. • For maximum 4 no of cars, if necessary the angular parking from the ramp can be considered by the following conditions: 1. 45° parking is required. 2. parking is not allowed around 15 m bus stand. 3. Parking is not allowed around 25m of any road junction or across footpath. 4. parking must not be allowed at national highway. RULES AND REGULATION ON PARKING (ACCORDING TO BNBC) :
  • 105. Thank YouMy Building will be my Legacy, they will speak for me long After I m gone… - Julia Morgan Group A Salim, Effti, Amitabh, Ariful, Raja Department of Architecture Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science & Technology University, Dinajpur-5200 Bangladesh