• 1770 and 1850 – Economy Changed• From agricultural to industrial• Not one key invention, but range of technological progresses• Main result = Development of factories• Steam Engines + Iron Industry = Better Transportation• Better transportation = Larger markets
• 1806 - 1859• Brunel built bridges, railways and the worlds biggest ship.• Brunel showed the world what engineers could achieve.• Brunels work meant that people could travel and trade in a new way.
• Life was difficult for people working in factories during the Industrial Revolution.• Long days and demanding physical labor often lasted from before sunrise, until well after sunset.• The industrial revolution made many people rich but for many poor families life was the worst it had been for a long time.
• in Lon don the pop ulati on grew at a reco rd rate.• Larg e hous es were turn ed into flats and the landl
One family would occupyeach floor. The attic andcellar were used to housefamilies also. Toilets wouldbe at the end of the street.
‘In one group of 26 streets…the ground was covered with sewage which leakedinto the cellars. A pool, over a metre deep, was found in one cellar under the bed where the family slept.’
Many people could not afford therents being charged and they weremade homeless.This included many children.They were turned out of home andleft to look after themselves at anearly age.Many more ran away because ofill treatment.
‘There are more than thirty thousand naked, filthy, roaminglawless and deserted children, in and around the metropolis .’
• At the end of the 18th century it was not just crime that was increasing but also poverty.• As people moved into the towns and cities, the crime rate increased rapidly.• Middle class people became alarmed at the increase in theft and rioting. Public disturbances occurred quite often throughout the country.
Victorians were worried about therising crime rate.Offences went up from about5,000 per year in 1800 to about20,000 per year in 1840.Sentences for both children, Many prisoners were sentenced to hardwomen and men were strict. labor, including a treadmill that worked on muscle engine powered by walking steadilyThe punishment for stealing food upward. British prisoners spent six hours acould include a sentence of hard day on the treadmill.labor, even for children.
Please answer the questions and share your findings with the class!What do these artifacts tell us about life during the Industrial Revolution?
During the reign ofQueen Victoria, (1837 -1901), the population ofEngland doubled andthe Industrial Revolutionput new pressures onher society.This caused an increasein the crime rate and theproblem of where tohouse these criminalsworsened.Transportation ofconvicts to Australia hadbeen abolished in 1868,due to increasingopposition.
There was a need to reform thepolice force of England.Home Secretary Robert Peel (1829)developed what was a crude butpartially effective police force.To stop the activities of criminals,who had in fact taken over wholesuburbs and made them their own.He formed The Metropolitan PoliceForce’In 1888, during the Jack the Ripperinvestigation the police weresuffering from a severe shortage ofmanpower.
In 1888, London was a divided cityfor many reasons.Just as it is today, the West Endwas the most wealthy area.The East End was much poorer.At a time when Great Britain ranthe biggest empire since theRomans, the people of the EastEnd of London were still living andworking in degrading conditions.
In London there is an East End and a West End. In the West End are those fortunate ones who are sent into the world with a kiss. In the East End are the others. Here live the poor, the shamed, those whom Fate, seeing how shrunken and bent theyare as they creep through the gates of life, spat in their face for good measure. Jacob Adler (1855 – 1926)
Prostitution was one of the onlyreliable means through which asingle woman or widow couldmaintain herself.The police estimated that in1888 there were some 1,200prostitutes in Whitechapel in theEast End of London.Not including the women whosupplemented their smallearnings by occasionalprostitution.
In the late Victorian era, Londonwas terrorized by a serial killerknown as Jack the Ripper.Ripper slaughtered five or moreprostitutes working in the EastEnd of London.The name originates from aletter written by someone whoclaimed to be the killerpublished at the time of themurders.The killings took place within amile area and involved thedistricts of Whitechapel,Spitalfields, Aldgate, and theCity of London proper.The case still remains unsolved
The murderer and his victimalways faced each other.The Ripper seized the women bytheir throats and strangled them.The Ripper lowered his victims tothe ground.He then cut the throats with aknife from the right side to the leftside of her throat.The Ripper then made his othermutilations.
Dr Thomas CreamHe was an American Doctor who hadbeen arrested for poisoning prostitutesand writing false letters to the police. Hewas hanged in 1892 for murderingprostitutes and his last words were “I amJack”. However, he was in prison inSeptember 1888 when the murdershappened.Severin Klosowski (AKA GeorgeChapman)He was suspected by the police at thetime of the murders. He had poisonedtwo of his wives. He trained as a doctorand worked as a barber nearWhitechapel. He was convicted of poisoningand executed in 1903.
Alexander PedachenkoHe was a Russian doctor who worked in awomen’s hospital. He went back to Russiaafter the last murder and was then sent to amental hospital after murdering a woman inSt Petersburg.Prince Alber t VictorHe was the grandson of Queen Victoria andwas known for hanging around the gay barsin Whitechapel late at night. He was a keenhunter and also suffered from a braindisease. He had secretly married a womanhis family disapproved of and the last victimMary Kelly worked for him for a short while.
Jill the RipperWelsh-born Lizzie Williams, the wifeof surgeon Sir John Williams (himselfa prime suspect for the Ripper),killed women because she could notconceive.
Traditionally, Jack the Ripper isconsidered to have killed fivewomen, all London prostitutes,during 1888:Mary Ann Polly Nichols onAugust 31 ,Annie Chapman onSeptember 8,Elizabeth Stride andCatherine Eddowes onSeptember 30Mary Jane (Marie Jeanette)Kelly on November 9
Jack the ripper operated in the East Endfor a number of reasons.How did the living conditions in the EastEnd of London help Jack the Ripper?Use the information from the hand-out,guess how the living conditions helpedJack the Ripper with his gruesome crimes.
While not the first serial killer, Jack theRippers case was the first to create aworldwide media frenzy
Helped to bring about the positivechanges in the East End.Newspaper coverage highlightedproblems of poor sanitation,overcrowded slum housing andextreme poverty.Nearly one million people lived interrible conditions and peopleoutside of the East End werehorrified. Government was in the process ofclearing slum housing, publicityhelped speed up the clearance.
The IndustrialRevolution gavebir th to modernfootball
During the early years of the IndustrialRevolution, life was tough and there werefew opportunities to relax.Farm and factory workers had little freetime.The workdays, even for many childworkers, were long and tiring.Production took priority over play.
Working people were also discouragedfrom gathering in large groups outside theworkplace.The authorities perceived such groupsas dangerous because they wasted timethat could be used for work.Additionally, they providedopportunities for workers to organizethemselves and challenge the power offactory owners.
Factory Act 1850 – Workers could not workbefore 6 a.m. (7 a.m. in winter) or after 6 p.m.on weekdays (7 p.m. in winter);On Saturdays they had to stopwork at 2 p.mAwareness that workers were being exploitedGrowing calls for new open spaces andfunding of ‘healthy’ leisure pursuitsIt has been suggested that suchdevelopments were a form of social control: totame the workforce and ensure industrialprogressRecognition that weak and sickly workerscould not be productive
Sports participation was promoted toensure that workers were physicallyable to perform their jobs.There were growing calls for newopen spaces and funding of ‘healthy’leisure pursuits.Personal fitness was highlypublicized, and there was anemphasis on gymnastics andoutdoor exercises.
For the wealthy all these activitiesrequired special clothing -- ridinghabits, tailored suits for golf, shorterskirts for tennis; and from the late1860s bathing costumes werefeatured in womens magazines.
To understand the love Brits have for footballwe need to back go back in time!Mob Football – middle ages sport involvinga ball made from a pig’s bladder.It was explicitly violent and played betweenvillages, at the time of celebration and festivity.It was so violent that people living nearby wouldbarricade their windows during matches.Both "teams" tried to force a ball into the centersquare of the enemy village or they might haveplayed across different parts of town, againcentered at a market place or a town square.Between 1324 and 1667, football was bannedin England alone by more than 30 royal and Blown uplocal laws. by air from the mouth.
For centuries, football was abloody, no-holds-barredsport that often ended inriots, injuries and evendeaths.in the early 1800s, ashocked Frenchman gasped:If Englishmen callthis playing, it would Our reputation for hooliganism begins!be impossible to saywhat they would callfighting.
It is believed that Britishschools (Eton and Harrow, inparticular) took the gameaway from the "mob" andcivilized it through anorganization of rules andcodes of conduct. Up until the industrial revolution, football and rugby were virtually indistinguishable, because the rules of play were different depending on where you played.
This changed in 1863 with thecreation of The FootballAssociation (The FA).Several football clubs chose towithdraw from the FA becauseof two rules: the use of handsand tripping had been removedfrom charter for the league. FA Cup, is a knockout cup competition inThese clubs formed the Rugby English football and is the oldest association football competition in theFootball Union in 1871, which worldfinally separated associationsof football and rugby
It was the small industrialtowns that had the mostsuccessful clubs.This occurred for one veryimportant reason: Theindustrial revolution occurredhere.Towns such as Manchesterand Liverpool.
For those arriving to the city,their traditional countryactivities were taken away.Migrant workers from all overBritain and Europe flocked tothese industrial cities for work.They had no ties to their newcommunity.In most cases, they didnt knowthe language, had few friends,and had no outlet outside ofwork. Football gave them something they could belong to.
The traditional British kick-off time is 3 p.m.Still considered to be a working class sport:TheWorld Cup (1966) wasnt won on theplaying fields of England. It was wonon the streets. Sir. Bobby CharltonBy regulating football during the IndustrialRevolution it also created a respect for laws,orders and submission to authority, whetherthese authorities are referees, employers, policeor political leaders.However, ‘Mob Football’ violence or hooliganismstill occurs today.The Football Association from Great Britain has aPermanent seat on the IFAB (InternationalFootball Association Board) – which controls therules of Football along with FIFA.