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  1. 1. Motivation and Arousal Acquiring Movement Skills
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of arousal, as a drive affecting levels of motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation and Arousal Theories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drive Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inverted U Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catastrophe Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drive Reduction Theory and its impact on a lifelong, balanced, active and healthy lifestyle. </li></ul><ul><li>Ways of motivating people, and the implication of them leading a balanced, active and healthy lifestyle. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate critically motivation and arousal theories and motivational strategies. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Motivation <ul><li>personal inner drives to achieve a set goal </li></ul><ul><li>depends on external rewards or pressures </li></ul><ul><li>concerns the intensity (arousal) and direction of a performer’s behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>can strongly influence the decision to take part in sport and continue doing it </li></ul><ul><li>is responsible for the effort put into a performance </li></ul><ul><li>positive attitudes displayed through determination and perseverance during practice are because of MOTIVATION. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Is the drive to learn and perform well. It is described as the direction and intensity of behaviour” </li></ul>
  4. 4. Arousal <ul><li>the levels of inner drives </li></ul><ul><li>arousal needs to be under control and at the right level depending upon the task </li></ul><ul><li>the effects of arousal can be positive or negative </li></ul><ul><li>raising arousal can increase readiness to perform </li></ul><ul><li>or cause worry and increase anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>“ Is the degree of psychological and physiological readiness or activation. This varies on a continuum from deep state of sleep, to intense excitement” </li></ul>
  5. 5. Arousal. <ul><li>A mixture of both physical and psychological levels of activity that a performer experiences.these levels vary on a continuum: </li></ul><ul><li>Sports performance depends on an individuals optimum level of arousal and is based on many varying factors. </li></ul>Deep Sleep Normal waking state. Extreme attention. Extreme Excitement.
  6. 6. Motivation and Arousal <ul><li>Are motivation and Arousal the same? </li></ul><ul><li>We’ll discuss this… </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation has two parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensity of Behaviour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direction of Behaviour </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1. Intensity of Behaviour: The degree of emotional energy felt, this will determine and drive the direction of the behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Direction of Behaviour: This is the course of action (response) as a result of the emotional drive </li></ul>
  7. 7. Motivation and Arousal <ul><li>The ‘Intensity of behaviour’ part of motivation is what we call AROUSAL. This also has two parts: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Somatic (Physiological) Arousal: Changing state of the body E.G.? </li></ul><ul><li>Heart Rate, Blood pressure, Respiration etc… </li></ul><ul><li>2. Cognitive (Psychological) Arousal: Relates to the mind E.G.? </li></ul><ul><li>Moment to moment changes in worry or negative feelings </li></ul><ul><li>These types of Arousal will be experienced in sport and also when learning skills. </li></ul><ul><li>We will look at this in more detail later. </li></ul><ul><li>So Far: </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Arousal is the drive affecting levels of motivation’ </li></ul>
  8. 8. Types of Motivation. <ul><li>Intrinsic Motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>A person who is intrinsically motivated will want to take part in an activity for its own sake. </li></ul><ul><li>They are self-determined in trying to develop competence or excellence in performance. </li></ul><ul><li>They focus on enjoyment and fun of the activity. </li></ul><ul><li>They enjoy seeking out new challenges. </li></ul><ul><li>Do any of these relate to you? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Types of Motivation <ul><li>Extrinsic Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>This occurs when people perform and learn in order to receive material gain , social status or approval. </li></ul><ul><li>Extrinsic rewards may be in the form of what? </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Swimming long distances in the pool in order to gain your swimming badge is an example of Tangible extrinsic motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>Other E.G.s?? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation <ul><li>Extrinsic rewards can be beneficial for beginners or those considering participation. </li></ul><ul><li>But may become a drawback later on… why?? </li></ul><ul><li>Intrinsically motivated performers will more likely continue to participate and put effort in, than those who rely on rewards. </li></ul><ul><li>How can you develop this? (Think about when you start learning) </li></ul><ul><li>At the early stages of learning, ensure you make the game/activity fun and enjoyable so they want to take part </li></ul><ul><li>We’ll expand on more strategies later </li></ul>
  11. 11. MOTIVATION <ul><li>INTRINSIC MOTIVATION </li></ul><ul><li>internal drives that direct our behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>feelings from within the performer </li></ul><ul><li>enjoyment of the performance </li></ul><ul><li>satisfaction of performing </li></ul><ul><li>pride and feeling of well-being </li></ul><ul><li>EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION </li></ul><ul><li>feelings coming from rewards externally derived (from outside the performer) </li></ul><ul><li>tangible rewards : prizes, awards </li></ul><ul><li>examples : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a gymnastics badge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wanting to win at basketball because a trophy may be won </li></ul></ul><ul><li>intangible rewards : praise, recognition from others </li></ul><ul><li>example : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>attaining a world record initiates praise by the media </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Tangible and Intangible extrinsic rewards. <ul><li>Tangible: </li></ul><ul><li>Medals. </li></ul><ul><li>Badges. </li></ul><ul><li>Certificates. </li></ul><ul><li>Money. </li></ul><ul><li>Intangible: </li></ul><ul><li>Positive reinforcement. </li></ul><ul><li>Praise. From who? </li></ul><ul><li>Social status. </li></ul><ul><li>Winning/glory. </li></ul><ul><li>Approval. </li></ul>Consider the F.A cup and Champions league are there any incentives for the big football teams!!!!
  13. 13. Three Motivation Theories <ul><li>Drive Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Inverted U Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Catastrophe Theory </li></ul>
  15. 15. Drive Theory <ul><li>The higher the arousal level, the higher the achievement / performance level </li></ul><ul><li>The more likely that a well- learned skill (a dominant response) will be reproduced </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant Response: Behaviour or response most likely to happen </li></ul><ul><li>The quality of performance depends on how well learned the skill is </li></ul><ul><li>So; when arousal increases in a competitive situation or when you feel under pressure, there’s a greater likelihood of the dominant response occurring </li></ul>
  16. 16. Application of Drive Theory <ul><li>High arousal would therefore be good for an expert, why?? </li></ul><ul><li>They have many learned and autonomous skills , so when arousal goes up, their ‘dominant response’ will come out – which is a good and learned skill </li></ul><ul><li>High arousal would not be beneficial for a novice, why?? </li></ul><ul><li>Their dominant response is one that is unlearned and mistake ridden (cognitive and associative stage learn characteristics) </li></ul><ul><li>So when learning, you should know as a coach which environments are best for different stage learners... </li></ul><ul><li>See Pg 185/186 </li></ul><ul><li>Do Task 1 on page 186 </li></ul>
  18. 18. Inverted U Theory <ul><li>INVERTED U THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>there is an optimum arousal level that you work up to </li></ul><ul><li>if aroused more than this performance will decline </li></ul><ul><li>If not aroused enough you will not reach optimum level </li></ul><ul><li>Optimum arousal depends on certain characteristics: </li></ul>
  19. 19. Inverted U Theory <ul><li>Factors affecting Optimum Arousal </li></ul><ul><li>Personality: </li></ul><ul><li>Type of Task: </li></ul><ul><li>Stage of Learning: </li></ul><ul><li>Level of Experience: </li></ul>
  20. 20. Inverted U Theory <ul><li>Under Aroused </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to direct and focus attention, attention field is very wide. The person focuses on to much, so information processing is slow, because slective attention is not working well. </li></ul><ul><li>Optimum Arousal </li></ul><ul><li>Perfect situation to learn and perform, why?? </li></ul><ul><li>Attention field is adjusted to the specific situation. So they can concentrate perfectly. Most important info can be focused on, better decisions are made. Cue Utilisation is taking place. </li></ul><ul><li>Cue Utilisation: Focusing on the most important info or cues </li></ul>
  21. 21. Inverted U Theory <ul><li>Over Aroused </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive degree of activation, this occurs when high anxiety happens. </li></ul><ul><li>Field of attention is excessively narrowed. So relevant cues are missed. This is called hypervigilance. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypervigilance: Condition of nervousness and panic </li></ul><ul><li>Summary: If your working at optimal arousal, you can maximise focus and concentration in a situation </li></ul>
  22. 22. Over Aroused…
  24. 24. Catastrophe Theory <ul><li>This examines how somatic arousal (physiological) and cognitive arousal (psychological) </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to inverted U, as somatic arousal increases, quality of performance increases. </li></ul><ul><li>However you only reach optimal arousal if cognitive arousal is kept low. So if cognitive arousal increases with somatic arousal, you will ‘go over the edge’ </li></ul><ul><li>You won’t drop slowly, but drop in performance dramatically, (a catastrophe) </li></ul><ul><li>example: the golfer who tries too hard and completely misses the fairway from his drive at the 18th hole when in a winning position </li></ul><ul><li>example: the gymnast who completely messes up her previously well-executed routine in a national final </li></ul>
  25. 25. Catastrophe Theory…
  26. 26. Applying Catastrophe Theory <ul><li>As a coach/teacher what should you do according to Catastrophe Theory? </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce cognitive arousal, by reassuring, applying positive feedback </li></ul><ul><li>If catastrophe happens, you need to go back to low arousal levels and gradually build up again to optimum. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Drive Reduction <ul><li>This is the term given to a loss of motivation when; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the skill being performer has been well learned or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the skill has become tedious (boring) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Initially there is a great motivation to solve a problem/ learn a new skill. Why? </li></ul><ul><li>The performer takes action to satisfy the drive and this shows in practice; willing, eager etc… </li></ul><ul><li>When the skill is well-learned (autonomous stage of learning) – a habit is formed, S-R bond is very strong </li></ul><ul><li>S-R bond (connection or link between the stimulus and response) </li></ul><ul><li>Drive or motivation to carry on, goes down </li></ul>
  28. 28. Decrease in Motivation <ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Too much practice (over learned) </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibition (mental fatigue or boredom causes reduction on performance) </li></ul><ul><li>What can you do as a coach to help? </li></ul><ul><li>Set new goals and targets. Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Re-motivate the person </li></ul><ul><li>Remember: Over learning is good, it’s a positive thing </li></ul>
  29. 29. Drive Reduction Theory Desire to learn a new skill Drive/Motivation to satisfy the need to learn the skill Skill is mastered and learning is accomplished Drive/motivation to continue to work at the skill is reduced
  30. 30. Drive Reduction Theory – Balanced, Active, Healthy lifestyle <ul><li>Obviously, a loss in motivation will impact on having a healthy lifestyle. How? </li></ul><ul><li>So teachers and coaches must implement motivational strategies </li></ul><ul><li>In Australia – they have a initiative called ‘The fundamental skills programme’ for primary schools. They highlight basic motor skills, which can then transfer into more complex motor skills in teenage years. This allows everyone to have skills for sport and exercise at all levels. </li></ul>
  31. 31. MOTIVATION <ul><li>this theory explains why it is sometimes necessary to vary or renew the need to learn </li></ul><ul><li>the theory says that the need to learn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to solve a problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to learn a skill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to achieve mastery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>inspires motivation , the drive to succeed at the task </li></ul><ul><li>this leads to the performer achieving the desired outcome (action) </li></ul><ul><li>which in turn leads to a reduction in drive (motivation) to achieve the same outcome (since it has already been achieved) </li></ul><ul><li>this is known as INHIBITION </li></ul><ul><li>therefore a change in desired outcome (a change in the need to learn) </li></ul><ul><li>would be necessary to inspire new motivation or drive </li></ul>DRIVE REDUCTION THEORY
  32. 32. Balanced, Active, Healthy Lifestyle <ul><li>Benefits of exercise (people should be reminded) </li></ul><ul><li>Improves both physical fitness and mental well-being </li></ul><ul><li>Develops social skills and helps people make friends </li></ul><ul><li>Prepares people for active leisure and can lead to a future career </li></ul><ul><li>Enriches your quality of life </li></ul>
  33. 33. Motivational Strategies <ul><li>External Motivation – Tangible rewards (certificates, medals) Intangible rewards (praise) </li></ul><ul><li>These are both important for young people during early learning </li></ul><ul><li>Extrinsic rewards provide concrete proof of success </li></ul><ul><li>BUT... Why should this be short term strategies? </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Motivation – The key to lifelong participation </li></ul><ul><li>Positive feelings about their performance </li></ul><ul><li>Established through positive reinforcement and setting achievable goals </li></ul><ul><li>Once interested... The teacher can promote other benefits – confidence, personal satisfaction and self-realisation </li></ul>
  34. 34. Tangible and Intangible extrinsic rewards. <ul><li>Tangible: </li></ul><ul><li>Medals. </li></ul><ul><li>Badges. </li></ul><ul><li>Certificates. </li></ul><ul><li>Money. </li></ul><ul><li>Intangible: </li></ul><ul><li>Positive reinforcement. </li></ul><ul><li>Praise. From who? </li></ul><ul><li>Social status. </li></ul><ul><li>Winning/glory. </li></ul><ul><li>Approval. </li></ul>Consider the F.A cup and Champions league are there any incentives for the big football teams!!!!
  35. 35. Revision <ul><li>Flash Cards </li></ul>