“Literature gives voice to issues and themes  that transcend time       and place.”       {
What are thesewords in Spanish?     Imperialism {   Empire     Colonialism     Colony     Proconsul     Procurator
Where do they comefrom? { Rome!
What else are theyassociated with? { Power!
Empire { Supreme power in governing
Imperialism { The policy of extending the rule   Of a country/empire over   foreign countries.
Colonialism { Set of unequal relations between   one country over a dependent   nation
‚Words are pale shadows of forgottennames. As names have power, wordshave power. Words can light fires in theminds of men....
   An important theme in Julius    Caesar is the relationship    between words and power.   The ability to make things  ...
‚When Caesar says ‘Dothis,’ it is performed,‛          (I.ii.10)       Divide and Rule: The Legacy of   {   Roman Imperial...
Background                                             History   After Caesar died Rome continued to prosper and expand f...
   They willingly and                                   freely incorporated                                   newly conqu...
Roman approaches                              towards conquering                          {   and administrating          ...
Divide and Rule:   Gaining and maintaining power by breaking    up larger concentrations of power into chunks    that ind...
•   Rome is often seen as        ‚rescuing‛ savage        peoples to its own{       superior level of        culture      ...
Why, man, he doth bestride the narrow worldLike a Colossus, and we petty menWalk under his huge legs and peep about   {   ...
How great was his legacy?{   It crossed the Oceans!
New World    •   Spanish and        Portuguese used        same techniques of        assimilation.{   •   Divide and Rule:...
Costa Rica - Matambú                 Nearly 1,000 years ago, the                  Chorotegas were one of the             ...
   The arrival of the Spanish changed                   the balance of this ethnic group.                  According to ...
   In 1977, Costa Rican law created 22              reservations             Acknowledging the existence of eight       ...
   According to one theorist, the                 purpose motivating the                 creation of reservations was:   ...
   According to Costa Ricas            National Commission on            Indigenous Affairs, known            as CONAl (C...
   Some authors argue            that the inhabitants of            ‚Matambu‛ are no            longer ‚indigenous       ...
Assignment – In pairs or individually:1. From what you have seen and experienced, does today’s society still reflect eleme...
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Romans

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Romans

  1. 1. “Literature gives voice to issues and themes that transcend time and place.” {
  2. 2. What are thesewords in Spanish? Imperialism { Empire Colonialism Colony Proconsul Procurator
  3. 3. Where do they comefrom? { Rome!
  4. 4. What else are theyassociated with? { Power!
  5. 5. Empire { Supreme power in governing
  6. 6. Imperialism { The policy of extending the rule Of a country/empire over foreign countries.
  7. 7. Colonialism { Set of unequal relations between one country over a dependent nation
  8. 8. ‚Words are pale shadows of forgottennames. As names have power, wordshave power. Words can light fires in theminds of men. Words can wring tearsfrom the hardest hearts.‛ { ― Patrick Rothfuss, The Name of the Wind
  9. 9.  An important theme in Julius Caesar is the relationship between words and power. The ability to make things { happen by speech alone is a powerful type of authority. Early in the play, it is established that Caesar has this type of absolute authority.
  10. 10. ‚When Caesar says ‘Dothis,’ it is performed,‛ (I.ii.10) Divide and Rule: The Legacy of { Roman Imperialism
  11. 11. Background History After Caesar died Rome continued to prosper and expand for several centuries with the Empire being ruled by an emperor, who had complete control over the people, with power no longer in the hands of the people.
  12. 12.  They willingly and freely incorporated newly conquered people into their { own society.  Freely giving citizenship to outsiders in order to Romanize themThe Romans were unique among ancient people.
  13. 13. Roman approaches towards conquering { and administrating territories and individuals provided the blueprint, for later European expansion and rule.The ancient Romans cast a long shadow over the peoples of Europe.
  14. 14. Divide and Rule: Gaining and maintaining power by breaking up larger concentrations of power into chunks that individually have less power than the one implementing the strategy.
  15. 15. • Rome is often seen as ‚rescuing‛ savage peoples to its own{ superior level of culture Or • Ruthlessly destroying indigenous cultures and reshaping them in its own tyrannical image.
  16. 16. Why, man, he doth bestride the narrow worldLike a Colossus, and we petty menWalk under his huge legs and peep about { Cassius (I.ii. 136-138)
  17. 17. How great was his legacy?{ It crossed the Oceans!
  18. 18. New World • Spanish and Portuguese used same techniques of assimilation.{ • Divide and Rule: manipulated the political situation between the indigenous tribes. • Replaced religious structures with those of Catholicism.
  19. 19. Costa Rica - Matambú  Nearly 1,000 years ago, the Chorotegas were one of the first ethnic groups in Mexico that decided to migrate southwards to the Nicoyan Peninsula.  According to legend, the Chorotegas were drawn to the Nicoyan Peninsula because the Gods told them to ‚live near to a fresh-water sea that has an island with two tall peaks‛.  They found this location when they arrived to the Island of Ometepe and the Nicoyan Peninsula.
  20. 20.  The arrival of the Spanish changed the balance of this ethnic group.  According to one theory, the Spanish took the majority of male Chorotegas to Peru as labourers. Few women and children were left behind.  This has been argued as the start of the assimilation of the Chorotega tribe and the loss of language / culture.  According to a study in 2003, the Catholic religion and education also contributed to the loss ofAssimilation language /culture.
  21. 21.  In 1977, Costa Rican law created 22 reservations  Acknowledging the existence of eight indigenous ethnicities (Chorotega, Bribri, Cabecar, Huetar, Guaymi, Maleku/ Guatuso, and Brunca).  The State created reservations in sites inhabited by self-identified indigenous peoples and in places described by historical writings as having been inhabited by indigenous peoples at the time of conquest.Reservations
  22. 22.  According to one theorist, the purpose motivating the creation of reservations was:  "to convert the Native Americans into more standard peasants, and to ignore the problem of helping them to find ways to retain their lifestyle" (Murillo cited in Adams 1991: 203).Modern day assimilation?
  23. 23.  According to Costa Ricas National Commission on Indigenous Affairs, known as CONAl (Comision Nacional de Asuntos Indigenas), the reservations were created with the express goal :  ‛to elevate their conditions of life and to integrate the aboriginal communities to the development process" (Matamoros Carvajal 1990: 69)CONAI
  24. 24.  Some authors argue that the inhabitants of ‚Matambu‛ are no longer ‚indigenous enough‛ and that other tribes are more ‘legitimate’  Some academics argue that this has left inhabitants feeling ‚empty or undefined‛, or as one community member noted ‚"sin el santo ni la limosna‛Limbo
  25. 25. Assignment – In pairs or individually:1. From what you have seen and experienced, does today’s society still reflect elements ofRoman rule, (divide and rule, assimilation, colonialism, empire, imperialism). Was theinfluence of Roman rulers similar to ‚Colossus‛ as Shakespeare states?2. ‚Men at some time are masters of their fates. The fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars. Butin ourselves‛Examine the quote - Are the inhabitants of Matambu* powerless as to their fate?Is it inevitable that minority cultures will indeed get smaller or even disappear?3. Do you feel connected to the heritage of Costa Rica? *For those students not attending the field trip, please investigate the general situation ofthe Costa Rican indigenous population.Collect evidence! photographs! talk to residents! record feelings!

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