New York City: The Crossroad of World Trade


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New York City: The Crossroad of World Trade

  1. 1. New York City: The Crossroad of World Trade Assignment 3 History 141 Kristi Beria
  2. 2. “ A Merger That Puts New York on Top” <ul><li>New York City has struggled in the past to remain the leader of the cultural and economic center of America. </li></ul><ul><li>The building of the Erie Canal and the control of the cotton trade between the South and England helped New York dominate the national economy. </li></ul><ul><li>New York is able to capitalize on commercial developments that have started in other parts of the country, such as steel (Pittsburgh), automotive industry (Detroit), and the movie industry (California). </li></ul><ul><li>New York struggles to keep the lead as more business between other parts of the world are done over the internet. </li></ul><ul><li>The merger between America Online and Time Warner will help keep the erosion of New York’s hold as the new headquarters will be based out of New York. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The City in the Land of the Dollar <ul><li>Chicago was where 20 th century American urbanism started, with the invention of the skyscraper, urban design, and “downtown” commercialism. </li></ul><ul><li>The city boomed with the construction of railroads and in 1871 boasted a population of 300,000 people. </li></ul><ul><li>A fire that destroyed the business center of Chicago in 1871 paved the way for a new type of city to be designed . </li></ul><ul><li>Electric trolley cars and railroads permitted the expansion horizontally into the surrounding land. </li></ul><ul><li>The invention of the elevator allowed expansion to move upward. </li></ul><ul><li>Steel-frame construction was used for the first time in America and was cheaper and more efficient than wood-frame construction. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The City in the Land of the Dollar <ul><li>Skyscrapers made the price of real estate increase and caused people to move outside the city center. </li></ul><ul><li>These neighborhoods were the precursor to suburban areas that popped up around the edges of cities. </li></ul><ul><li>People worked and played in the city, but lived outside of it. </li></ul><ul><li>City planners tried to put itself on the cultural map. </li></ul><ul><li>Frederick Law Olmsted planned most of the large urban parks. </li></ul><ul><li>Olmsted felt that large, open green spaces were essential for the well-being of the citizens of Chicago. </li></ul><ul><li>The World’s Columbian Exposition of 1893 brought about an enormous change in the landscape of Chicago, with the building of grand public buildings. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The City in the Land of the Dollar <ul><li>The Exposition brought about a change in the public’s view of what a city could be. </li></ul><ul><li>Water pools, lake views, landscaping, and public art was located only seven miles from the choked and dirty center of the city. </li></ul><ul><li>The introduction of a civic center brought noncommercial buildings into downtown and gave people a sense of civic pride. </li></ul><ul><li>Grand American railroad terminals were built as gateways into cities. </li></ul><ul><li>A grand plan was developed to link the suburban areas to the city center by highways and railroads. </li></ul><ul><li>The height restriction of buildings continued to increase allowing for taller skyscrapers to be built. </li></ul><ul><li>The profits brought to the city by the taller buildings soon outweighed the push for a more beautiful and utopian city. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Episode Two: Order and Disorder, 1825-1865 <ul><li>In 1825 there were less than 170,000 people living in Manhattan yet it was still the largest city in America. </li></ul><ul><li>At this time, there were no regular police force, firemen, or public transportation. </li></ul><ul><li>The Erie Canal connected the Great Lakes with the Hudson River which allowed for the city to grow exponentially and become the economic center of the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of the narrow geography of New York, the number of people piled up on each other and the first slums were born. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1840 there were 50,000 Germans living in New York and by 1842 100,00 Irish moved there. </li></ul><ul><li>The Irish famine of 1845 sent even more Irish to New York, with the Irish population growing to 1,000,000 in a ten year period. </li></ul><ul><li>Irish were seen as a completely different race and were treated as poorly as the African Americans. </li></ul><ul><li>The Irish and African Americans competed for the lowliest and dirtiest jobs which caused the tension between the two ethnicities to run high. </li></ul><ul><li>During the economic crises of 1857 the conditions for blacks and Irish grew even worse. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Episode Two: Order and Disorder, 1825-1865 <ul><li>In 1860 Lincoln arrived in New York to give a speech to help win the presidential election. </li></ul><ul><li>His speech on the restriction of slavery made him an overnight sensation and helped him win the election. </li></ul><ul><li>New York was reluctant to support the abolishment of slavery because most of their economic system was supported by slavery. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1861 New York drew up a non-binding secession in order to concentrate on the commerce and not the political aspect of slavery. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 150,000 New Yorkers went on to fight for the Union cause during the civil war. </li></ul><ul><li>The war brought in money to New York as the manufacturing of war-time products grew. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1863 the opposition to the war was growing, especially in the Irish community. </li></ul><ul><li>President Lincoln enacted the Conscription Act in order to draft hundreds of thousands of men against their will. </li></ul><ul><li>People were upset because Lincoln was asking white people to fight and die for the freedom of African Americans. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Episode Two: Order and Disorder, 1825-1865 <ul><li>The Irish were angry that the upper class were able to buy their way out of the draft for $300, which was more than most people made in a year. </li></ul><ul><li>The draft lottery started in July of 1863 with 1,200 names being pulled that day. </li></ul><ul><li>Later that night drunk immigrants, mostly Irish, were gathering in the streets to protest the draft. </li></ul><ul><li>By mid-morning on July 13, 15,000 men were rioting in the streets of New York. </li></ul><ul><li>The draft was officially suspended for a time. </li></ul><ul><li>The mob plundered, ransacked, burned buildings and cut telegraph wires. </li></ul><ul><li>There wasn’t a military presence because most men were in Gettysburg fighting. </li></ul><ul><li>The mob searched for African Americans and beat, burned and hanged them. </li></ul><ul><li>The mob then turned on the rich and destroyed homes. </li></ul><ul><li>It took the military three days to arrive and gain control over the angry mob. </li></ul><ul><li>In the end there was five million dollars worth of property damage done and at least 119 people killed, including rioters, African Americans and soldiers. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Episode Three: Sunshine and Shadow, 1865-1898 <ul><li>“ Boss” William M. Tweed is remembered for being the most corrupt politician New York had seen at the time, despite the fact that he helped so many of the poor. </li></ul><ul><li>Tweed was an ex-fireman and chair maker. </li></ul><ul><li>Tweed ran Tammany Hall and reached out to the newcomers and poor that already lived in New York. </li></ul><ul><li>Tammany Hall helped people get jobs, make rent, helped with legal issues, gave coal in the winter, and built orphanages and hospitals for the poor. </li></ul><ul><li>As head of Tammany Hall, Tweed funneled money from city projects that he was in charge of and gave builders prime contracts if they were willing to give him a kickback. </li></ul><ul><li>As Commissioner of Public Works, he was privy to information regarding future sewer lines and would buy the property and then sell it for a huge profit. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1870 he started being investigated by the newspapers. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1871 he was indicted and given jail time. His jail time was later revoked, but a civil suit left him penniless which sent him to jail. </li></ul><ul><li>Tweed died in jail of pneumonia in 1878. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Episode Three: Sunshine and Shadow, 1865-1898 <ul><li>In 1867, the East River froze over completely halting commerce for weeks. </li></ul><ul><li>John Augustus Roebling, who had pioneered wire rope, designed a bridge to connect New York to Brooklyn. </li></ul><ul><li>Roebling died as a result of an injury sustained during surveying for the bridge in 1869, which left his son, Washington, in charge. </li></ul><ul><li>Construction officially began in 1870, and shortly after Washington contracted “caissons” disease, which made him weak. </li></ul><ul><li>His wife, Emily Warren Roebling, stepped in and became the critical link between her husband and the engineers. </li></ul><ul><li>There were numerous construction delays as a result of strikes, accidents, and political corruption. </li></ul><ul><li>Over the next 12 years, nearly 5,000 men worked on the Brooklyn Bridge for less than $2 a day, many of them Irish. </li></ul><ul><li>The bridge finally opened on May 24, 1883. </li></ul><ul><li>The Irish didn’t attend because it was Queen Victoria’s birthday, which they considered to be anti-Irish. </li></ul><ul><li>The opening of the bridge ushered in new era of the “vertical city”, where people looked upward to expand. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Episode Three: Sunshine and Shadow, 1865-1898 <ul><li>Jacob Riis was born in Denmark and arrived in New York in 1870 at the age of 21 with $40 in his pocket. </li></ul><ul><li>The money ran out quickly and Riis found himself among the destitute in New York’s Five Points slums. </li></ul><ul><li>He was able to land on his feet and became a crime reporter for a newspaper. </li></ul><ul><li>Riis reported on the deplorable living situations for most of the immigrants living in New York. </li></ul><ul><li>The invention of flash photography allowed him to photograph these conditions and show people the “real” New York. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1890 he published the book “How the Other Half Lives” which made the middle and upper class of New York realize what was going on their fine city. </li></ul><ul><li>The book chronicled the life of the one million overworked and undernourished poor, many of them children. </li></ul><ul><li>At the time, there were no laws that governed the conditions of the tenements. </li></ul><ul><li>Riis tried to change the belief that people were poor because of a “character flaw”. </li></ul><ul><li>After reading the book, then Civil Service Commissioner Theodore Roosevelt was moved to help. </li></ul>