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Victorian Era



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Victorian Era

  1. 1. Victorian Literature By :  Maidaturrohmaniah  Anisyah Zulvia  Isnaini Ainun Rinayati
  2. 2. The Victorian Age • “The Victorian” era of British history was the period of Queen Victoria’s reign from 1837 until her death in 1901. It was a long period of peace, prosperity, refined culture, great advancements in technology, and national self-confidence for Britain. • During theVictorian age, Britain was the worlds most powerful nation. By the end of Victorias reign, the British empire extended over about one-fifth of the earths surface. Like Elizabethan England, Victorian England saw great expansion of wealth, power, and culture. But as Victorian England was a time of great ambition and grandeur, it was also a time of misery, squalor, and urban ugliness.
  3. 3. Queen Victoria’s
  4. 4. The Growth of the British Empire • England grew to become the greatest nation on earth • Empire included Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, Singapore, South Africa, Kenya, and India • England built a very large navy and merchant fleet (for trade and colonization)
  5. 5. The Growth of the British Empire (continued) • Imported raw materials such as cotton and silk and exported finished goods to countries around the world • By the mid-1800s, England was the largest exporter and importer of goods in the world. It was the primary manufacturer of goods and the wealthiest country in the world • Because of England’s success, they felt it was their duty to bring English values, laws, customs, and religion to the “savage” races around the world
  6. 6. The Industrial Revolution • It started at the end of the eigh teenth century, when theoretical knowledge and practical technology were connected. Scientific ideas were applied to the making of machines that transformed the way things were made and dramatically changed people’s lifestyles. A formerly agricultural nation was now based on urban and industrial growth. Butas industry grew, it was accompanied by a rapid increase in the numbers of the urban working-classpoor. Workers in the cities lived in miserableconditions. Urban squalor and misery were signs ofa massive change in the English society. • The Age of Steam • Mass Production
  7. 7. • The Impact of the Industrial Revolutions : • I. The Emergence of Over crowded Cities One result of the advance of technology was the unprecedented growth of cities. People, in search of work left the country side to work in factories in the different cities of Britain. They had to live in very dirty and unhealthy conditions. There were too many workers and not enough houses. People were living like animals. Diseases raged, hunger, poverty, and deprivation prevailed, crime accelerated, and misery increased. • II. Child Labor Children were expected to help to support their families. They often worked long hours in dangerous jobs and in difficult situations for verylittle wages. For example, there were the climbing boys employed by the chimney sweeps, the little children who could scramble under the moving machinery to retrieve the cotton fluff; boys and girls working down the coal mines, crawling through tunnels too narrow and low to take anadult.
  8. 8. Victorian Thinkers a. John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)-philosopher who created two ideas • Utilitarianism: the object of moral action was to bring about the greatest good for the greatest amount of people • Liberalism: governments had the right to restrict the actions of individuals only when those actions harmed others, and that society should use its collective resources to provide for the basic welfare of others. Also encouraged equal rights for women.
  9. 9. b. Charles Lyell (1797-1875): Showed that geological features on Earth had developed continuously and slowly over immense periods of time c. Charles Darwin (1809-1882): Introduced the survival of the fittest theory Lyell Darwin
  10. 10. • d. John ruskin • The most Romantic prose of the Victorian (1819-1900) • Ruskin’s greatness is as striking as his singularity, an instance of the effect of Evangelicalism and Romanticism on an only child. • e. John Henry Newman • The master of Victorian Non-Fictional prose (1801-90) • f. Herbert Spencer (1820-1903): Applied Darwinism to human society: as in nature, survival properly belongs to the fittest, those most able to survive. Social Darwinism was used by many Victorians to justify social inequalities based on race, social or economic class, or gender • g. Adam Smith - 18th century economist, held that the best government economic policy was to leave the market alone—to follow a laissez faire or “let it be” policy of little or no gov’t intervention
  11. 11. The Role of Women • TheWoman Question • Changing conditions of women’s work created by the Industrial Revolution • The Factory Acts (1802-78) – regulations of the conditions of labor in mines and factories • The Custody Act (1839) – gave a mother the right to petition the court for access to her minor children and custody of children under seven and later sixteen. • The Divorce and Matrimonial Causes Act – established a civil divorce court • Married Women’s Property Acts
  12. 12. Working Conditions for Women • Bad working conditions and underemployment drove thousands of women into prostitution. • The only occupation at which an unmarried middle-class woman could earn a living and maintain some claim to gentility was that of a governess.
  13. 13. Gender and Sexuality • The NewWoman of the 1880s and 1890s – Smoking, swearing, riding a bike, debating in public, wearing men’s clothing, refusing marriage – A figure of greater sexual, social, and economic independence • 1890s: women experience greater access to education, employment, political and legal rights, and civic visibility. 1880s the term “homosexual” enters the English language – Until this time, no real conception of homosexuality as an identity – Homosexual acts between men were illegal and punishable by death until 1861; Labouchere Amendment of 1885 mandates imprisonment for any man found guilty of a sexual act with another man.
  14. 14. The term “lesbian” emerges in the 1890s, but do not suffer the same persecution as gay men – Rationale: women unmotivated by sexual desire, intense, passionate “friendships” seen as innocent • End result: feminized male characters (the dandy, the aesthete, the fop) and masculinized female characters (the New Woman) in literature.
  15. 15. Literacy, Publication, and Reading • By the end of the century, literacy was almost universal. • Compulsory national education required to the age of ten. • Due to technological advances, an explosion of things to read, including newspapers, periodicals, and books. • Growth of the periodical • Novels and short fiction were published in serial form. • The reading public expected literature to illuminate social problems.
  16. 16. • Victorian Literature • • Novels: dominant literary form; “social problem” novel, “domestic” novel • • Poetry: influenced by Romantic period; • – dramatic monologue: a lyric poem in the voice of a speaker who is not the poet • • Drama: frivolous, romantic, witty; mocked contemporary values (satirical) • • Non-fiction: essays, criticism, history, biography,newspapers, and magazines • – “The Age of Periodicals” • – “The Age of Reading”
  17. 17. 1. Novel • A. EARLY-VICTORIAN NOVEL (or social-problem novel) dealing with social and humanitarian themes • realism, criticism of social evils but faith in progress, general optimism • The main representative was CHARLES DICKENS. • B. MID-VICTORIAN NOVEL (novel of purpose) • showing Romantic and Gothic elements and a psychological interest. The main representative writers were the BRONTË sisters and ROBERT LOUIS STEVENSON. • C. LATE- VICTORIAN NOVEL (naturalistic novel near to European Naturalism) showing a scientific look at human life, objectivity of observation, dissatisfaction with Victorian values. The main representative writers were THOMAS HARDY and OSCAR WILDE.
  18. 18. For the first time, women were major writers: the Brontes. ElizabethGaskell,George Eliot Emily Bronte Charles Dickens Charlotte Bronte
  19. 19. 2. Poetry • The greatest poets of the period are Alfred Lord Tennyson and Robert Browning. • Other important poets are Matthew Arnold, Gerard Manley Hopkins, Christina Rossetti, Elizabeth Barrett Browning. Thomas Hardy is considered the best poet of the late Victorians. Browning
  20. 20. 3. Drama • The theater was a flourishing and popular institution during the Victorian period. • The popularity of theater influenced other genres. • Bernard Shaw and Oscar Wilde transformed British theater with their comic masterpieces.
  21. 21. Thank You  For your attention...