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Non alcoholic beverages

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SOFT DRINKS

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Non alcoholic beverages

  1. 1. Non- alcoholic Beverages Breakfast Drinks from Plants
  2. 2. Beverages that contain caffeine or purine derivatives, are used world wide for their stimulating and refreshing qualities. Caffeine is an alkaloid that is a diuretic and nerve stimulant (<2%) Tea originated in southeastern Asia Coffee originated in southwestern Asia Cocoa from tropical America Lesser known ones  Cola – south Africa  Khat – Arabs  Guarana – South America Drink for Caffeine
  3. 3. ∗ Small molecules that contain nitrogen possessing purine skeleton. ∗ 15 compounds are reported ∗ Adenine and Guanine are nucleotides Purines
  4. 4. Tea Coffee Coca Three musketeers
  5. 5. ∗ Tea auctions are held in the city of London every week. ∗ Only place where tea from every tea producing country will be on sale. ∗ Tea tasting is a vital part of setting prices and buying and selling ∗ Autumnal, pungent or brisk ∗ Weedy or chesty Tea time
  6. 6. Originated in around Tibet and is also indigenous to Assam, China and Southern Cambodia Production: Asia – 70% India 30% but consumes more than 50% Sri Lanka – 10% East Africa –Kenya Indonesia, Thailand, China, Turkey, USSR British are world’s biggest tea drinkers Countries involved
  7. 7. ∗ Camellia sinensis ∗ Two main varieties ∗C.sinensis var. sinensis ∗C. sinensis var. assaminca ∗ Family: Theaceae ∗ Mainly grown in subtropics and mountainous regions of tropics ∗ It can be grown from above sea level and just over 2100 meters Plant
  8. 8. Small evergreen trees From rooting of cuttings to maintain uniformity of particular variety They are allowed to grow knee high for easy picking Mature when 4 yrs Only first two young leaves and the terminal buds called as “flush” are picked (high concentration of caffeine) Can be picked every 10 -14 days Morphology
  9. 9. Chinese tea – Green tea, flowery flavor and light Assam tea – Black tea, “heavy” stronger Black tea: Process involves  Withering by blowing air through the leaves that are in troughs to reduce water content and enzymatic release of aroma  Fermentation – by rolling leaves and leaving them in a warm damp condition to rupture cells, allow oxidation of phenolics and turn cooper color  Finally dry or fire the tea leaves with hot air to remove excess water, gives black color Green tea: Freshly picked leaves are steamed and dried without the withering stage and thus retain a faint but distinctive ‘grassy’ taste, and their green color. Process
  10. 10. ∗ Caffeine the stimulant 3-4%, theobromine (.017%) and theophylline (.013% ∗ Tannins ∗ Polyphenols – flavonoids, catechins ∗ Anittumor and antimutagenic ∗ Prevent tumor cell growth and division ∗ Green tea is 6 times better than black tea Chemistry of tea
  11. 11. The Chinese believe that tea was first drunk during the reign of Shen Nung (The Divine healer) during 2737 BC Japanese Tea Ceremony: During Sung Dynasty (960 -1120) ritualized the preparation and drinking of tea as contemplation. This was taken to Japan The tea ceremony according to Zen Buddhism is a means of achieving the ideal state of perfect harmony and tranquility Still very important; Japanese girls attend special classes; families spend large amounts of money to built tea huts and buy tea utensils. Stories of Tea
  12. 12. A harsh tea tax was placed on tea by King George III and in 1773 a serious upset occurred for British East India Company “Boston Tea Party” : By way of protest, a group of American colonists, disguised as Indians, threw a cargo of tea waiting to be unloaded into the harbor at Boston. Smuggling became common 19th century tea was only for rich By Victorian times taking afternoon tea became common Stories of Tea
  13. 13. Second only to petroleum, as a revenue earner, coffee is an immensely valuable commodity. This drink revives 1/3 of world’s population. Finns drinks on average 5 cups each day Japanese bath in coffee grounds for the health giving properties Turks scan the dregs of their coffee cups for omens of future Coffee
  14. 14. Native of Abyssinia By Ethiopians goatherds Noticed that their goats were unusually frisky after eating the ripe red berries of wild coffee bushes 2nd AD, local tribe men made small cakes from the pulverized fruits mixed with fat and grains to sustain them on long journeys and to relieve fatigue Made stimulant drink by fermenting berries and mixing with water. Arabs were the first to brew coffee Discovery
  15. 15. 13th century – coffee houses were established and the drink became very popular Quickly spread to turkey and the surrounding areas. Gesture of hospitality by offering a cup of strong black brew to visitors. Reached Europe around 1616 By 1675 it became a rage in London “penny universities” English stock exchange, the merchant banks and first insurance companies all had beginnings in coffee houses The spread
  16. 16. ∗ Coffea arabica (arabica coffee) – 75%, C. canephora (robusta coffee) 24% and C. liberica are grown commercially ∗ Family - Rubiaceae ∗ Three varieties are known ∗ Arabica ∗ Robusta ∗ Liberica The plant
  17. 17. Source of coffee is the seed that is part of a fleshy berry (sometimes called as cherry) Grows well at higher elevation. Plants are grown directly from seed. Harvesting after 3 -5 yrs and will produce coffee for 30 yrs. Small tree with glossy, evergreen leaves and white, sweet smelling flowers After fertilization, mature berries turning dark green to yellow then red. Inside the sweet pulpy outer layers are two coffee-seed surrounded by a delicate silvery seed coat. Cannot tolerate frost they are grown in tropical and sub-tropical countries with an average rainfall of at least 1.9 meters per annum Morphology
  18. 18.  Instant coffee making  Coarsely ground coffee is placed in sealed stainless percolators and brewed under pressure for several hrs.  Coffee aroma is added  The concentrate is either  sprayed under high pressure through fine nozzles into a very high towers. As the liquid falls back it dries into powder which is tumbled with steam to form granules OR  Freeze dried - Coffee brew is dried into thin sheets which is often cut into granules. Temperature is then raised under vacuum. This will water is “boiled – off” without the coffee getting wet. There is no heat damage or loss of aroma  Roasting – reduces the moisture and bring out aromatic oils  Very sophisticated-computer control mechanism is involved  Varieties: variety of coffee, region it is grown, preparation method and roasting time Processing
  19. 19. ∗ Caffeine (1-2%) ∗ Chlorogenic acid ∗ Tannins (3-5%) ∗ Sugars (15-17%) ∗ Fatty oils (10 -15%) ∗ Proteins (10 -15%) Coffee Chemistry
  20. 20. ∗ Chicory: Cichorium intybus ∗ Bittter fleshy taproot are ground and roasted for use either alone or miced with coffee ∗ Fig: Ficus carica ∗ Roasted and ground, Austrian and Bavarian coffees are well known for this addition ∗ Dandelion: Taraxacum officinale ∗ Roots have stimulant and tonic but o caffeine Substitutes
  21. 21. Cocoa and chocolate are prepared from the seeds of the cocoa tree A native of Mexico and found in South American rainforest It was chief drink of the Aztecs and other native Americans It was part of the diet of the plumed serpent God Quetzalcoatl. Cocoa beans were used as currency by Aztecs The use of cocoa by other than natives is of recent origin Cocoa
  22. 22. ∗ Theobroma cacao (meaning food of the Gods) ∗ Family - Sterculeaceae ∗ It is a small tree 15 – 25 ft, with numerous branches. The flowers and fruits re borne directly on the tree trunk. ∗ Mature at 4 – 5yrs. It flowers throughout the year, so one gets several crops annually Cocoa
  23. 23.  Source of cocoa is the seeds  The fruit is a large pod with mucilage pulp and 40 – 60 seeds  The pulp and seeds are scooped out of the fruit, cured and usually fermented  The seeds are piled in heaps in sweating boxes (houses or vats) for several days.  The beans become brownish, lose their bitter taste and develop aroma  They are then wasted and dried and polished to remove any dry pulp  The seeds are roasted in iron drums to develop flavor and increase the fat and protein content and lower tannins  The beans are passed under roller to remove the shells  The seeds are finally ground to an oily paste – the bitter chocolate  Sweet chocolate – by adding sugar and various spices  Milk chocolate – milk, sugar and other spices  Cocoa – 2/3rd fat is removed and the residue is powdered  The oil is cocoa butter Cocoa
  24. 24. Contains caffeine alkaloid called theobromine (1 -3%) – the stimulant Caffeine (.2 – 3%) It also has fat (35-40%) and starch (15%) It also contain phenyl ethylamine, a natural amphetamine found in human brain, which induces feeling of euphoria The level of this is claimed, decrease when one is in love- sick – explaining the craving of chocolate as a solace at such times Also has reputation as an aphrodisiac and Casanova is said to prefer this as an inducement to romance Chemistry
  25. 25. http://www.molon.de/galleries/Malaysia/WestCoast/Cocoa/
  26. 26. ∗ Cola nitida (Sterculiaceae) ∗ Native of west Africa ∗ Seeds contain caffeine and kolanin – a cardiac stimulant ∗ Coco-cola – has kola and cocoa; now cocoa leaf extract and caffeine is used Kola
  27. 27. http://www.henriettesherbal.com/pictures/p04/pages/cola-nitida.htm
  28. 28. Mate – Ilex paraguariensis Leaves are used after drying over fire and crushed into coarse pieces Traditionally drunk from a gourd. Has hot water and mate mixed, a straw is used. Guarana – Paullinia cupana Caffeine rich seeds are used. Seeds are roasted and crushed with cassava flour into a paste that is formed into rods A glass of guarana is made by scrapping the cylinder and mixing it with water Mate and guarana

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