Green tea and longevity: health benefits


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Green tea and longevity: health benefits

  1. 1. GREEN TEA AND LONGEVITY: HEALTH BENEFITS OF GREEN TEAMiss. Latika Yadav ( research scholar) Foods and Nutrition, Dept. of Foods & Nutrition, college of H.Sc, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology(MPUAT), Udaipur-313001, Rajasthan.
  3. 3. INTRODUCTIONTea the most consumed popular super - Beverage of theMillennium has and continues to play an important role inalmost all world cultures and customs made to both regional& individual contrasting taste and preferences & moods.some make it sweet , some bitter, some stout, somemellow, some strong, some light, some make fragrantteas, some spicy , some with flavor & some simply black.Tea is a low calorie refreshing drink , now recognized formany health benefits & medicinal value Tea‟s flavor, quality and character are completely dependent on the region, plant variety, the altitude, soil conditions, the climate in which it is grown, method of cultivation followed & nature of shade.
  4. 4. Tea an evergreen plant is a member of the CamelliaSinensis that is native to China, and northern India.There are two main varieties of the tea plant.1. The small leaf variety, known as Camellia sinensis, thrives in the cool, high mountain regions primarily of China, India, Sri Lanka and Japan.2. The broad leaf variety, known as Camellia assamica, grows best in the moist, tropical climates found in Northeast India . Camellia sinensisTea ideally grows at a height of 2400m (8000 ft) abovesea level in acidic soil, a warm, humid climate with atleast 50 inches of well-distributed rain per annum & longsunlight days are the ideal conditions for it to flourish as aplantation crop. Camellia assamica
  5. 5. ORIGIN OF TEATea origins – China (4th century AD).350 A.D. Kuo P‟o‟ – described tea as, “a beveragemade from boiled leaves.”People - interior part of China pressed tea into brick“currency” to barter with other tribes.From 350 to 600 A.D., the demand for teadramatically increased and outstripped the supply ofwild tea trees.Farmers began to grow tea plants in the Szechwandistrict – soon spread to whole China.Western world – tea introduced by Venetian writerRamusio (16th century).1st public sale of Tea – England - Thomas Garway in1657.
  6. 6. MAJOR TEA PRODUCING REGIONS IN INDIAMajor 3 Tea producing regions:1. Darjeeling (North-Eastern India)2. Assam (far North-East India)3. Nilgiri (South India)All 3 differ in style and flavour.
  7. 7. 1. DARJEELING TEA•Found in the foothills of Himalayas.•Grows at altitudes of 600m to 2000m.•Cool moist climate, rainfall and sloping hilly terrain– give the „Muscatel Flavor‟ to the Tea.•Called „Champagne of Teas‟ – finest and mostuniquely flavored.•Darjeeling tea is a tea from the Darjeelingdistrict in West Bengal, India.•When properly brewed, it yields a thin-bodied, light-colored infusion with a floral aroma.• Darjeeling is normally made from the small-leavedChinese variety of Camellia sinensis var. sinensis.
  8. 8. •Traditionally, Darjeeling tea is made as black tea;however, Darjeeling oolong and green teas are becomingmore commonly produced and easier to find, and a growingnumber of estates are also producing white teas. 1. BLACKTEA 3. OOLONG TEA 4. GREEN TEA 2. WHITE TEA
  9. 9. 2. ASSAM TEA•Assam is a black tea named after theregion of its production, Assam, in India.•Assam tea is manufactured specificallyfrom theplant Camelliasinensis var. assamica (Masters).This tea, most of which is grown at ornear sea level, is known for itsbody, briskness, malty flavor, andstrong, bright color.• Assam teas, or blends containingAssam, are often sold as "breakfast"teas. English Breakfast tea, Irish Breakfasttea, and Scottish Breakfast Tea arecommon generic names. ASSAM TEA LOGO
  10. 10. •The tropical climate contributes to Assams unique malty taste, a feature forwhich this tea is well known.•Assam generally denotes the distinctive black teas from Assam, the regionproduces smaller quantities of green and white teas as well with their owndistinctive characteristics.•Assam has been the second commercial tea production region after southernChina. ASSAM BLACK TEA ASSAM OOLONG TEAASSAM GREEN TEA ASSAM WHITE TEA
  11. 11. 3. NILGIRI TEA•Blue Mountains of Nilgiri in SouthIndia.•Tea grown at an elevation of 1000m to2500m.•Rainfall varies from 60 inches to 90inches annually.•Fine, elegant flavor and brisk liquor.•The combination of fragrance andbriskness makes Nilgiri a truly uniquetea in the world. NILGIRI TEA LOGO
  13. 13. INDIAN TEA•„Tea‟ means the plant Camellia Sinensis (L) as well asall varieties of the product known commercially as teamade from the leaves of the plant Camellia Sinensis (L)including green tea.•Tea which is available in the market is in fact „MadeTea‟.•Green leaves, in the process of manufacturing „MadeTea‟ or „Tea‟ also generates by-product known as „TeaWaste‟. INDIAN TEA•This „Tea Waste‟ is unfit for human consumption and LOGOhas two uses viz.i) for manufacture of caffeine ; andii) for using as manure in the tea field.
  14. 14. TEA DEFINITIONIn order to prevent tea from any possible adulteration, the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 is in existence. Tea therefore shall conform to the following specifications as indicated in the PFA Act, 1954.a) Total ash determined on tea dried to a constant 4.0 to 8.0 percent by weightweight at 100° Cb) Total ash soluble in boiling distilled water Not less than 40.0 percent of total ashc) Ash insoluble in HCL Not more than 1.0 percent by weight on dry basisd) Extract obtained by boiling dry tea (dried to Not less than 32.0 percentconstant weight at 100° C) with 100 parts ofdistilled water for one hour under refluxe) Alkalinity of soluble ash Not less than 1.0 percent and not more than 2.2f) Crude fibre determined on tea dried to constant Not more than 17.0 percentweight at 100° C
  15. 15. TYPES OF TEA 1. BLACK TEA 2. WHITE TEA 3. GREEN TEA 4. OOLONG TEA 1. Black Tea•They are the most common teas accounting for more than 90% of all the teasbrewed & sold in the world.• A fully fermented tea popularly known as English Tea. The fermentationprocess brings out its color, flavor and brisk characteristics.• It is withered, fully oxidized and dried.• Black tea is generally stronger in flavor.
  16. 16. •Black tea is known as red tea based on the description of the color of theliquid in which the leaves are oxidized referring to post-fermented teas.While green tea usually loses its flavor within a year, black tea retains itsflavor for longer tea is of two types :• Orthodox tea• CTC tea.•Orthodox teas are manufactured with the help of orthodox roller in theprocess of rolling while CTC machine is used in rolling process inmanufacturing CTC teas. CTC stands for Crushing, Tearing & Curling.
  17. 17. 2. WHITE TEA•Gets its name from its silver-colored dried buds withtheir white, thread-like growths.•They are lightly steamed, sun-dried or pan-fried in largesteel pans. The leaves are moved about in a circularmotion by hand to insure evenness in dryingand uniformity in color. They brew pale liquor, whichis delicate in flavor.•They are prized for their rarity and subtle character.•It is a rare form of green tea buds or blossoms harvestedonly during the three day blossoming season of the teaplant.•White Tea will have a higher Flavonoid or Antioxidantproperty and since these are sun-dried they have a highvitamin content greater nutritive and therapeutic valuethan the conventional black tea.
  18. 18. 3. GREEN TEA 4. OOLONG TEA•They are not steamed, but dried •OOLONGS "means" black dragon alsowithout being permitted to oxidize. known as wu-long and the tea is a whole-Thus, they maintain their green leaf tea, which is only partiallycolor. fermented.•Green tea is closer to white tea •A traditional Chinese tea somewherethan black tea as it is non- between green and black in color andoxidized. taste. The leaves cannot be broken or•The difference between white and crushed, as full oxidation would occur, sogreen tea is that green tea uses they must only be bruised It is consideredrolled leaves and not the buds. the most difficult tea to process since it is•The grassy taste of green tea is only partially oxidized, and dried.very similar to that of white tea andgreen tea is low in caffeine and high •This gives it a delicate, twisted leafin antioxidants compared to black appearance that is usually greenish-browntea. in colour.
  19. 19. 1.PLUCKING 2. WITHERING• The smallest shoots, comprising of • During this process, the green two leaves and a bud are plucked. It leaves are evenly spread on requires 22,000 such shoots, all troughs, through which hot & plucked by hand - to produce 1 Kg. of cold air are blown in a regulated Tea. In attaining this high plucking manner. standard, the hilly terrain, makes the task even more difficult. • The object is to remove moisture in the leaf slowly over a period• The special Darjeeling flavors is generated from the very fine plucking of 14 - 16 hours. standard.
  20. 20. 3. STEAMING•To halt the oxidizing and fermentation actionof enzymes on the leaves, preserve their greencolor and remove the "grassy" odor, the tealeaves are steamed using non-pressurizedsteam. The length of the steaming process issaid to be a key determinant in the teasflavor, aroma and color.•The steaming process has a significant effecton the tea color and quality. The longer thesteaming time, the more easily the tea leavescellular membrane breaks down during laterprocessing. This in turn leads to cloudiness inthe teas color.• longer-steamed leaves have a brighter lusterwhile astringency and fragrance is reduced.
  22. 22. 3.COOLING 4. PRESSINGIf the steamed tea leaves areleft at high temperature, they To enhance luster, color, flavorwill lose their bright color and and aroma, and shorten the firsttheir flavor and aroma will be rolling stage, the leaves arespoiled. For these reasons, to pressed while being exposed topreserve the teas luster and dry, hot air from a fan tocolor as well as flavor and remove moisture. (This processaroma, air is blown over the removes steam dew from thesteamed leaves to rapidly cool leaves surface and increasesthem to normal room the drying effect.)temperature.
  23. 23. 5. ROLLING SECOND. ROLLING FINAL ROLLING TWISTING Since the tea leaves ROLLING wither after rolling To give the tea The leaves are and twisting and are To soften the leaves pressed in a bundle leaves their and lower the still relatively high characteristic without applying in moisture and internal moisture heat to break up needle shape, they content, hot, dry air uneven in size and are rolled in one their structure and shape, they are is blown over the make it easier for direction leaves while rolled while having only, similar to the the components of hot, dry air blown applying pressure the tea leaves to be action of manual and appropriate on them. They are rolling, while released when it is then dried and friction and made into tea. further reducing compression disentangled ready moisture content for final rolling.
  24. 24. 6. DRYING 7. SORTING 9. SELLING 8. TASTING &PACKAGINGThe leaves have amoisture content of This is the final Selling is doneapproximately 10- stage, where the tea Tasting is done by through auction13% after final is graded according special tasters to system. Therolling, and this is to the size and differentiate and auctioneerreduced to 5% with packed in specially bring out the best decides thehot-air drying. This designed foil lined one. selling price ofallows long-term packages. the and furtherdraws out theirdistinctive aroma.
  25. 25. Important Principles for Preparing Delicious Green Tea•preparation will vary according to such factors as local customs, personaltastes, occasion, time of day or season.•When preparing tea, the type of water used, water temperature, time the teais left to infuse and the amount of tea leaves used are some of the main pointsin determining the flavor and aroma of the tea.•To prepare the “perfect”cup of tea, it is best to choose a preparation methodthat suits the particular characteristics of the tea being prepared.
  26. 26. PRIMARY FACTORS AFFECTING TEA QUALITY • The quality of „tea‟ depends primarily on: 1. the nature and chemical composition of the plucked leaf 2. the type of bush, 3. the growing conditions and 4. the kind of plucked leaf like coarseness and fineness etc. SECONDARY FACTORS AFFECTING TEA QUALITY• The factors affecting tea quality apart from those involved in processing can be distinguished in 3 groups:(i) Tea quality is primarily determined by the genetic properties of the tea planting and those of the tea bush in particular.(ii) Both soil and climate are influencing the quality of tea. Climatic condition including temperature, humidity, sunshine duration, rainfall are important in determining quality.(iii) Field operation like fertilizing, shading, plucking round and plucking standard are also playing the important role in determining the quality of tea.
  27. 27. MAJOR COMPONENTS AND HEALTH BENEFITS OF GREEN TEAGreen tea offers an array of unique taste sensations, includingastringency, bitterness and full-bodied flavor. Green tea also comprises a largenumber of components that are said to be beneficial to human health. Thesecomponents have a diverse range of effects. Component Effect Catechins Decreases blood cholesterol (Astringency component in tea) Body fat reduction Cancer prevention effect Antioxidant Tooth decay prevention, antibacterial effect Anti-influenza effect Inhibits high blood pressure Anti-hyperglycemic effect Bad breath prevention (deodorizing effect) Caffeine Increases alertness (Bitterness component in tea) (decreases tiredness and drowsiness) Increases stamina Mild diuretic
  28. 28. Theanine Neuronal cell protection(Full-bodied flavor component in tea) Relaxation effect (promotes α wave production) Lowering of blood pressureVitamins Vitamin C Maintenance of healthy skin and mucus membrane (collagen formation) Antioxidant Vitamin B2 Maintenance of healthy skin and mucus membrane β-carotene Maintenance of nighttime vision Vitamin E AntioxidantSaponins Lowering of blood pressure Anti-influenza effectFluorine Prevention of tooth decayMinerals Biological regulators(Potassium, calcium, phosphorus,manganese, etc.)Chlorophyll Deodorizing effect
  29. 29. MAJOR COMPONENTS AMOUNTSCATECHIN 10-18% /100gmCAFFEINE 0.02%/100gmTHEANINE 1.5-3%/100gmVIT. A 1-.6mg/100gTIAMINE 1-.6mg/100gRIBOFLAVIN .8-1.4mg/100gVIT. C 250mg/100gVIT. E 50-70mg/100gmFLOURIDE 90-350ppmVIT. K .06mcg (a cup)CHLOROPHYLL 10-25mg/100g
  30. 30. CATECHIN•Catechin is a tannin peculiar to green tea because the black tea fermentationprocess reduces catechins in black tea. Catechin is a powerful, water soluablepolyphenol and antioxidant that is easily oxidized.•They can also be called green tea polyphenols (GTP or GTPs). The categoryincludes epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechingallate (ECG) and epicatechin (EC). Of which, EGCG accounts for more than40% of the total content.•Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is the most powerful of these catechins.EGCG as an antioxidant is about 25-100 times more potent than vit.C and E.•Tannin in green tea is mostly catechin and is a key component in its tasteproviding the astringency. The amount of catechin tends to increase as the seasonprogresses. Spring tea (first crop) contains 12-13% catechin (13-17% as tannin)while summer tea (third crop) contains 13-14% (17-21% as tannin).•One cup of green tea provides 10-40 mg catechin.
  31. 31. CAFFEINE•A cup of green tea contains about 20 to 30 mg of caffeine, a stimulantaffecting the central nervous system. It is an important quality in green teaproviding some of its astringency.•One study compared the content of dry matter from tea leaves and foundGreen Tea had 10-20mg per 1 gram dried matter. Black Tea had 22-28mgper 1 gram dried matter. Caffeine Content Comparisons - Various Beverages 1. Coffee (5 oz.cup)= 40 - 170 mg in a cup 2. Black Tea (1 tea bag - 8 oz. cup)= 25 to 110 mg in a cup 3. Oolong Tea (1 tea bag - 8 oz. cup)= 12 - 55 mg in a cup 4. Green Tea (1 tea bag - 8 oz. cup)= 8 - 30 mg in a cup 5. White Tea (1 tea bag - 8 oz. cup)= 6 - 25 mg in a cup 6. Decaf Tea (1 tea bag - 8 oz. cup)=1 - 4 mg in a cup One ounce – abbreviated oz - is 30ml.A cup is 8 oz (240ml.)
  32. 32. HOW MUCH CAFFEINE IS SAFE?•250–300 mg of caffeine a day is a moderate amount. That is as much caffeinethat is in three cups of coffee (8oz each cup).•At high doses, typically greater than 300 mg, caffeine can both cause andworsen anxiety.•Caffeine overdose can result in a state of central nervous system over-stimulation called caffeine intoxication or colloquially the "caffeine jitters".• The symptoms of caffeine intoxication includerestlessness, anxiety, excitement, insomnia, flushing of the face, increasedurination, gastrointestinal disturbance, muscle twitching, a rambling flow ofthought and speech, irritability , irregular or rapid heart beat.
  33. 33. FLOURIDE•The tea plant, Camellia sinensis, naturally absorbs fluoride from theenvironment more effectively than other plants. And as it ages, more fluorideis absorbed by the leaves, so the younger leaves have less fluoride than theolder leaves.•Green tea contains 40-1900 ppm (parts per million) of fluorin.• While in 1976 a Belgian analysis showed content of between 50 and 125ppm fluoride in 15 varieties of tea .•A major Canadian study published in 1995 reports average fluoride contentin tea to be 4.57 mg/l in the 1980s .•A website by a pro-fluoridation infant medical group lists a cup of black teato contain 7.8 mgs of fluoride.• Some British and African studies from the 1990s showed a daily fluorideintake of between 5.8 mgs and 9 mgs a day from tea alone.
  34. 34. • The level of fluoride at 1 part-per-million (ppm) = 1 mg/l was set in the40s when TOTAL intake was considered to be only about 1 mg/day inareas with fluoridated water.•The fact that fluorides accumulate in the body is the reason why aMCL (Maximum Contaminant Level) for fluoride content in water needs tobe set by the US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) - by law under theUS Surgeon General. This is to be done specifically to avoid a conditionknown as Crippling Skeletal Fluorosis (CSF).•Virtually every company selling green tea advertises its high fluoridecontent as "beneficial" in preventing cavities, promulgating the misleadingand false data supplied for the last 50 years by the ADA/CDA and otherdental health trade organizations, as well as various public health agencies.There are NO double-blind studies anywhere proving the efficacy offluoride as a caries preventative and no studies documenting safety at anyintake level.
  35. 35. GREEN TEA EFFECTS ON STROKE •Study of 550 men revealed that: •Drinking >5 cups tea/day, reduced the like hood of stroke by 69%. •Flavornoids and polyphenols are antioxidants that thought to be beneficial in prevent stroke GREEN TEA EFFECTS ON ATHEROSCLEROSISGreen tea has been shown to effectively lower risk ofatherosclerosis by lowering LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, lipidperoxides (free radicals that damage LDL cholesterol and otherlipids or fats) and fibrinogen (a protein in the blood involved inthe formation of blood clots), while improving the ratio of LDL(bad) to HDL (good) cholesterol.In animal studies in which green tea was given in humanequivalent doses to hamsters, atherosclerosis was inhibited 26-46% in those receiving the lower dose (equivalent in humans to 3-4 cups per day) , and 48-63% in those receiving the higher dose(10 cups a day in humans).
  36. 36. GREEN TEA EFFECTS ON BREAST CANCER •Study in Japan (July 2001) •Breast cancer patients drinking >3 cups/day reduced the frequency of recurrence. •Polyphenols are fights breast cancer by clean out toxic free radicals from our bodies. •Study in rates showing those who drank green tea instead of plain water had a reduction in tumor size (Journal of Cellular Biochemistry)One of these mechanisms is green teas ability to inhibit angiogenesis, thedevelopment of new blood vessels. Cancer cells, which are constantlyattempting to divide and spread, have an endless appetite that can only betemporarily quieted by increasing the number of blood vessels that supplythem with nutrients. By inhibiting angiogenesis, green tea helps starve cancer.
  37. 37. GREEN TEA EFFECTS ON SKIN CANCER •Mice were used and exposed to UV radiation to promote skin cancer. Some of the mice were coated with a cream heavy with caffeine. • These caffeinated mice developed 72 % fewer tumors than those not treated by caffeine •The caffeine did not just prevent the tumors from forming, it actually killed the cancer cells. •There is Limited research into of topical treatments for Humans. (Tea extract of polyphenols). The results are promising.
  38. 38. GREEN TEA EFFECTS ON GREEN TEA EFFECTS ON PARKINSON’S DISEASE LIVER DISEASE A Hawaiian study in May •A study examined 600 people in2000, shown: (30 years) May 2004 found:•8,000 Japanese/American men •A link between caffeine intake anddrank >3 cups pf green tea/daywere 5 times less likely to develop a reduced incidence of liver damageP.D. •Those who drank larger quantities•Polyphenols act within the brain of green tea were less likely toto improve the flow of dopamine develop liver diseasebetween portions of the brain. •The mechanism for this protection•P.D. is caused by lack ofdopamine in one part of the brain . is that caffeine blocks a receptor inPolyphenols helps prevent the the liver that may have protectivedepletion. properties.
  39. 39. GREEN TEA EFFECTS ON One of the mechanisms through which green tea improves insulin DIABETES sensitivity has recently been identified in laboratory studies that show that epigallocatechin 3-gallate(August 2004 issue of BMC (EGCG) does a good deal more toPharmacology)animal study compared prevent type 2 diabetes than lowerthe effects of a Western diet, avegetarian diet and a Japanese diet, each the production of free radicals.with or without green tea. Blood sugar EGCG also works on the geneticconcentrations were highest in the level, causing a reduction in theanimals on the Western diet followed by number of messenger RNAs thatthe Vegetarian diet with the Japanese direct liver cells to produce thediet producing the lowest blood sugars. enzymes involved in the creation ofRats on the Japanese diet that also weregiven green tea had the lowest glucose (sugar).triglycerides and cholesterol as well asthe highest ratio of beneficial omega-3fatty acids to potentially inflammatoryomega-6 fatty acids. The researchersconcluded that Japanese eating habitscombined with drinking green tea mighthelp prevent type 2 diabetes.
  40. 40. GREEN TEA EFFECTS ON PERIODONTAL DISEASEgreen tea short circuits the damaging effects ofthe bacteria most responsible for gumdisease,Porphyromonas gingivalis. P.gingivalis causes gum damage by producingtoxic byproducts such as phenylacetic acid andby stimulating the activity and production ofenzymes called metalloproteinases(MMPs), which destroy both the mineral andorganic constituents that make up the matrixof our bones. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate(EGCG) inhibits P. gingivalis production ofboth phenylacetic acid and MMPs.
  41. 41. WEIGHT LOSS BY GREEN TEA •University of Geneva found the Catechin may trigger weight loss by stimulating the body to burn calories and decreasing body fat. •1210 Epidemiologically samples drank green tea for 3 months or more •Resulted in 19.6 % reducing in BF % and •2.1 % reducing in WHR •Increases noradrenaline which activates of brown fat tissue to fighting white fat located around our waistline, hips and thighs. -American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Nov.1999
  42. 42. GREEN TEA EFFECTS ON THE IMMUNE SYSTEM•L-theanine from tea reacts in the liver to create another chemical thatis involved in the production of T-Cells•T-cells are a large part of our bodies response mechanism to bacterialinfection.•Both black and green tea contains L-theanine•Drink 5 cups/day could markedly improve your bodies response toinfectious diseases.
  43. 43. How much green tea should you drink?•Herbs for Health magazine cites a Japanese report stating:Men drinking 10 cups of green tea/day stayed cancer free for 3 years longerthan men drinking <3 cups. (80-100 mg polyphenols/cup).•Clevelands Western Reserve University:Drinking > 4 cups of green tea /day help prevent rheumatoid arthritis orreduced symptoms in individuals already suffering from the disease.•Saltama Cancer Research Institute:Drinking 5 cups/day of green tea, fewer recurrences of breast cancer anddisease spreading less quickly.
  44. 44. TEA TASTING• The made tea of an estate, is tested by the commercial tasters (generally known as broker) for determining the quality and its value.• Tea tasting is aimed at describing and evaluating teas in the form of individual grades or as blended product.• When tasting tea, use both your taste buds and your sense of smell to discern flavor and quality.• Professional tea tasters slurp the tea with a loud sucking noise and quickly swish it around their mouth to get a sense of the teas body and flavor profile drawing the aroma back into his mouth and up into the olfactory nerves. The taster, thereby, tastes feels and smells the liquid. They then spit out the tea as they quickly move down the line, tasting several teas one after another.
  45. 45. • The description and evaluation include the appearance of the dry tea, of the infused leaf and of the infusion obtained by brewing the tea with boiling water, the taste characteristics of the infusion, commonly called the liquor, etc.• During tasting the various characteristics that make up a tea liquor viz. briskness, strength, colour, body, quality and aroma or flavour, are assessed individually.
  46. 46. MARKETING OF TEA 1. PRIMARY MARKETING• Teas grown in the tea estates reaches to the traders of either domestic or of importing countries.• The tea planter has the following four options to dispose the output through sale: i) Sales through Indian auction. ii) Sales through overseas auction by sending teas on consignment basis. iii) Sales as „direct export‟ to the importer of importing countries. iv) „Ex-garden‟ sales.
  47. 47. 2. SECONDARY MARKETING (WITH REFERENCE TO INDIA)• Teas from the traders reaches to consumers of either domestic or overseas.• Indian Traders who purchase tea through Indian auctions or directly from the tea planters have the following options:a) Export in bulk packages in original form and/or export in bulk packages in blended form.b) Export after further processing as tea bags and/or packaging in consumer packs.c) Sale to Wholesaler/Retailer in loose form to reach Indian consumers.d) Sale to Wholesaler/Retailer in packet form after packaging in consumer packs to reach Indian consumers.
  48. 48. TEA BOARD OF INDIA• The present Tea Board is functioning as a statutory body of the Central Government under the Ministry of Commerce.• All teas produced in the tea growing areas of India are administered by the Tea Board of India under the Tea Act, 1953.• It is not involved in the manufacture of any product.• Tea falls under control of Union Government.• Tea Board formed in 1903 through Tea Cess Bill. The Bill provided for levying a cess on tea exports - the proceeds of which were to be used for the promotion of Indian tea both within and outside India.• The present Tea Board set up under section 4 of the Tea Act 1953 was constituted on 1st April 1954.
  49. 49. FUNCTIONS OF TEA BOARDa) Rendering financial and technical assistance for cultivation, manufacture and marketing of tea.b) Export Promotionc) Aiding Research and Development activities for augmentation of tea production and improvement of tea quality.d) Extend financial assistance in a limited way to the plantation workers and their wards through labor welfare schemes.e) To encourage and assist both financially and technically the unorganized small growers sector.f) Collection and maintenance of Statistical data and publication.
  50. 50. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTIES OF TEA BOARD OF INDIA• The objective of the Tea Board, under the Darjeeling Certification Trade Mark Protection Scheme, is to put in place a mechanism to ensure the supply chain integrity for DARJEELING tea.• three above marks are widely known as Specialty Tea Logos or Certificate Trade Marks.• The CTM Logos have been registered under Trademark Laws of various international jurisdictions.
  51. 51. GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATION• A GI is a name, sign used on goods to indicate and certify that these originate from a specific geographical origin and possess certain characteristics, qualities, or reputation that are essentially attributable to the stated geographical origin.• Darjeeling tea has a distinctive and naturally occurring quality and flavor which has won accolades all over the world.• Tea Board is the owner of all intellectual property rights (IPR) in the Darjeeling word and logo, both in common law and under the provisions of the Trade Marks Act 1999, Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration & Protection) Act, 1999 and Copyright Act, 1957.
  52. 52. CERTIFICATION TRADE MARK• Trade mark indicates trade origin. It serves the purpose of distinguishing the goods of one trader from those of other traders.• A certification trade mark(CTM) is to indicate that the goods on which it is impressed have been certified by some competent person in respect of some characteristic of the goods like origin, composition, mode of manufacture, or quality.• Three main features of CTM: • it must be adapted to serve the special purpose. • the person certifying the goods as to any particular quality or characteristic or origin must be competent for the purpose. • the use of such mark must be regulated by suitably framed rules to prevent its abuse.
  53. 53. REFERENCES