An alcoholic beverage is a drink that typically contains 3%–
60% ethanol, commonly known as alcohol. Alcoholic beverages are
divided into three classes: beers, wines, and spirits (distilled
They are legally consumed in most countries around the world. More
than 100 countries have laws regulating their production, sale, and
Fermentation is a metabolic process that converts sugar to acids,
gases and/or alcohol.
SUGAR ALCOHOL + CO2
The dominant types of yeast used to make beer are Saccharomyces
cerevisiae, known as ale yeast, and Saccharomyces uvarum, known
as lager yeast.
Beer is an alcoholic beverage produced by
the saccharification of starch and fermentation of the resulting sugar.
The starch and saccharification enzymes are often derived from malted
cereal grains, most commonly malted barley and malted wheat. Most
beer is also flavored with hops, which add bitterness and act as a
natural preservative, though other flavorings such as herbs or fruit may
occasionally be included. The preparation of beer is called brewing.
The strength of beer is usually around 4% to 6% alcohol by volume
although it may vary between 0.5% (de-alcoholized) and 20%, with
some breweries creating examples of 40% and above in recent years.
THE BREWING PROCESS
Four different raw materials are required for beer brewing:
Malt is being produced from grain, mostly barley.
•First of all, the barley from the fields is being thoroughly cleansed.
•Now, the barley is ready for germination in warm and humid air
lasting until the malt sprouts reach about the same length as the grain
itself. During this process, valuable enzymes and malt sugar are being
•For long durability, the grain is being dried over hot air on the called
”kiln“. The higher the kiln temperature the more malt sugar is
converted into caramel.
•The more sugar is converted into caramel, the darker the malt and the
brewed beer made out of it.
•The alcoholic content of beer only depends on the blend ratio of malt
and water not on the color - light or dark - of the beer.
For the beer production it is of main importance that the brewing
water is clean and free of impurities.
Besides the convenient flavor, the hops performs further important
tasks during beer production.
•Due to its natural content of essential oils (as to be found in remedy
herbs like camomile and eucalyptus), the hops protects the beer
•Basically, one differentiates between aroma hops and bitter hops, the
latter mainly being used due to its considerably lower price even
though aroma hops is of higher quality.
In the course of fermentation, the purpose of the yeast is to convert the
malt sugar which has dissolved during mixing of malt and water in the
brew house into alcohol and CO2
•There are two major yeast types, the top fermented and the bottom
•During fermentation, the top fermented yeast ascends to the beer
surface and forms a thick foam layer (hence the name). The optimum
fermentation temperature for top fermented yeast is approximately
•The bottom fermented yeast deposes during fermentation on the
bottom (hence the name). The optimum fermentation temperature for
bottom fermented yeast is approximately 10 C being used for almost
any common beer.
•The main difference between the beers produced from either yeast
variety is that top fermented beers bear a flowery and fruity taste.
THE BEER PRODUCTION
The beer production consist of 9 steps:
The grinding is a coarse milling, even better a crushing of the
relatively mellow malt grain. In doing so, it must be observed that the
outer shell of the malt grain, the so called husk, remains nearly intact.
In step 3 "lautering", these husks serve as a natural filter layer.
•The word mashing originally derives from "mixing".
In this context, the beer production starts with mixing the grist of step
1 with warm brewing water.
•The water being applied for mashing-in is called "main mash water"
in contrary to the so called "second wort" during "lautering" in step 3.
•This grist-water-mixture is gradually being heated in the "brew
vessel". According to individual recipe, the temperature must be hold
correspondingly long at each temperature step.
•During this so called "rest", the starch contained in the malt grain is
being converted into malt sugar and valuable amino acids develop
from indigestible proteins.
•The result of the entire mashing process of approximately three hours
is a hazy liquid containing dissolved malt sugar but also unsolved malt
particles, for example husks.
"Lautering" means the separation of the hazy mash particles from the
clear ("lautering" = old-fashioned word for "clarifying") liquid.
•This process can be compared to filtering coffee where the coffee
grounds are being restrained and a clear fluid containing the dissolved
coffee particles runs through the filter. The more water is being poured
over the coffee grounds, the more exhaustive the diffusion whereby
the running off coffee becomes more and more watery.
The lautering starts with the transfer of the entire mash into the "lauter
•The lauter tun is the second copper vessel in the brew house equipped
with a false bottom with thin slits approximately 1,5 cm above the
•Since the husks are heavier than the other mash particles, they depose
at the false bottom thus forming a natural filter layer. The false bottom
only serves as a support of this "husk filter".
•The brewer calls the thereby almost clear running-off sugar water
"wort". As soon as the wort ran-off entirely, the solid mash particles
remain within the lauter tun, called "spent grains". In the beginning,
these spent grains still contain a fair amount of malt sugar being rinsed
out with hot water. The water being applied for this purpose is called
"second wort" and is being poured over the spent grains without
destroying (as happening for example by stirring) their layering.
•The lautering must be done very carefully because if the wort would
run-off freely (like when making coffee), the developing suction
would contract the husk layer to almost impermeable extent. For this
reason, the lauter tun is equipped with a shut-off valve at the bottom
for subtle adjustment of the wort drain.
•After approximately three hours, the lautering result is the wort - a
clear, amber sugar water also containing flavors and many other
dissolved substances (for example protein) highly significant for the
proper development and taste of the beer.
•Because the sugar concentration of the wort determines the later
alcoholic content of the beer, the concentration is measured with a
calibrated spindle. The measured sugar concentration is increased
during boiling (see step 4) due to the thereby evaporating water. In
case the wort is relatively "thin", the boiling time must be prolonged in
order to later reach the desired alcoholic content.
The entire run-off wort is being re-collected in the brew vessel and
boiled together with the hops for at least one hour. The wort must be
boiled until the desired sugar concentration is reached due to
•During boiling, also the composition of the wort changes whereby
insolvable components like for example hops oils are being dissolved,
others simply drop out or evaporate in form of solid components, the
so called "break".
•The sugar concentration of the wort after boiling is the well-known
"original extract". Since the original extract is converted into alcohol
during fermentation, the later alcoholic content of the beer directly
depends on the original extract
•By the time enough water has evaporated, the wort with the whole
hops will again be transferred to the lauter tun. The decocted whole
hops and the break remain on the false bottom whereas the wort runs-
off at the bottom now bearing a distinctive taste of hops.
Now, the boiling hot wort must be cooled down to the starting
temperature of the yeast.
•From this point of time, an extremely neat and clean operation is
required because otherwise lactic acid bacteria's instead of the yeast
might start the fermentation of the wort.
These lactic acid bacteria's convert the sugar into lactic acid and not
into alcohol like the yeast does. Thereby the beer turns sour and
therefore becomes denaturized. Lactic acid bacteria's are not harmful
to humans in any way. Looking at other food items (yoghurt, cheese,
sauerkraut, sourdough etc.), they are even very valuable organisms.
•For top fermentation, the wort is being cooled down to approx. 15 C,
for bottom fermentation to approx. 5 C. These temperatures lie about
5 C below the optimum temperature of the respective yeast because
fermentation ought to start slowly.
•For cooling down the wort to approx. 20 C it is possible to use cold
tap water. During this process, the tap water heats up to approx. 85 C
and is available as hot water. In order to further cool down the wort,
artificially cooled "ice water" of approx. 1 C is required.
During fermentation, the yeast converts the sugar of the wort into
alcohol, CO2 and heat. The wort turns into "green beer".
•The fermentation ought to be performed slowly because otherwise a
big quantity of indesirable fermentation by-products accumulate
besides alcohol being the main causer for headaches after a long night.
In order to produce high-quality beer, appropriate cooling ensures a
fermentation period of approx. 8-10 days.
•Since at this point sugar is converted into alcohol, the measured
content of original extract continuously drops during fermentation.
•The accumulated CO2 can freely escape from the open fermented.
Because CO2 bubbles through the green beer, indesirable fermentation
by-products negatively influencing the taste and digestibility of the
beer are being washed out.
Through fermentation, a white foam builds up at the beer surface
collapsing again at the end of the main fermentation.
During storage time, the residual sugar ferments to alcohol and CO2
For this purpose, the beer is being transferred from the open fermented
to the closed storage tank.
•The storage tank is being closed with a "bunging apparatus". By the
use of this bunging apparatus, the desired CO2-content of the beer can
be adjusted. Therefore, the now accumulating CO2 remains in the
•In order for the sugar to further ferment, the temperature ought to
remain at approx. 5 C for a while. Afterwards, the beer is ready for
slowly being cooled down to maturity temperature of 1 C.
•Under these temperatures, the green beer matures for several weeks .
During this time, the beer almost completely purifies and finally
reaches full maturity.
During filtration the residual yeast is being filtered from the beer.
For this purpose, the beer from the storage tank is being pressed
through a Kieselguhr-filter layer under pressure.
•The hereby secreted yeast remains in the filter together with the
Kieselguhr and can be disposed after termination of the filtration
•After filtration, the beer is being collected in the pressure tank and
from there arrives at the filling facilities.
During filling process, the filtered beer is being filled into bottles or
In general, returnable bottles with swing stopper, so called "ricklayer‟s
bottles", are being used.
•First of all, the bottles must be manually cleaned with the aid of a
bottle washing machine comparable to an industrial dishwasher. The
bottles are being cleansed of yeast deposits and afterwards sterilized.
•Next, the bottles are manually being removed from the machine and
placed on a table for filling.
•For filling purpose, the brew master applies a hand operated is
barometric filler. Each bottle is separately being removed from the
table. The brew master ensures a careful filling of the beer without the
development of foam and tight closure of the bottles with a ceramic
•Prior to packing the bottles into transport crates, each bottle receives
a seal label indicating date of expiry and table of content. Afterwards,
the bottles are ready for sale.
•According to beer type, such filled beer can be stored up to 6 – 12
weeks until consumption.
TYPES OF BEER
Ale is a type of beer brewed from malted barley using a warm
fermentation with a strain of brewers' yeast. The yeast
will ferment the beer quickly, giving it a sweet, full bodied and fruity
taste. Most ales contain hops, which help preserve the beer and
impart a bitter herbal flavor that balances the sweetness of the malt.
Lager is a type of beer that is fermented and conditioned at low
temperatures. Pale lager is the most widely consumed and
commercially available style of beer in the
world. Bock, Pilsner and Märzen are all styles of lager. There are
also dark lagers, such as Dunkel and Schwarzbier.
Porter is a dark style of beer originating in London in the 18th
century, descended from brown beer, a well-hopped beer made from
Stout is a dark beer made using roasted malt or roasted barley, hops,
water and yeast. Stouts were traditionally the generic term for the
strongest or stoutest porters, typically 7% or 8%, produced by a
Draught beer, also spelt draft, is beer served from
a cask or keg rather than from a bottle or can.
•Kingfisher Premium Lager
•San Miguel Pale Pilsen
SERVICE OF BEER
Hold the beer in one hand and the glass in the other. Tilt the glass at a
45-degree angle and start pouring a the beer down the side of the glass
to get a feel for its foaminess. Continue pouring the beer as you
gradually tilt the glass to an upright position.
Finish pouring the beer into the middle of the glass at a rate sufficient
to create an appropriate head, but not so quickly as to create a big
foam up. Adjust the pouring rate to bring the beer level up to where
you want it.
The glass should never be filled to the brim with beer, but should have
ample space for at least a finger or two of foamy head. It is fine to
have a little foam protruding above the rim of the glass, but it should
Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from fermented grapes or other
fruits. The natural chemical balance of grapes lets them ferment
without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or
other nutrients. Yeast consumes the sugars in the grapes and converts
them into alcohol and carbon dioxide.
Wines made from produce besides grapes are usually named after the
product from which they are produced (for example, rice
wine, pomegranate wine, apple wine and elderberry wine) and are
generically called fruit wine.
Wine is usually made from one or more varieties of the
European species such as Pinot noir, Chardonnay, Cabernet
Sauvignon, Gamay and Merlot. When one of these varieties is used as
the predominant grape, the result is a "varietal" as opposed to a
Blended wines are not considered inferior to varietal wines, rather they
are a different style of winemaking; some of the world's most highly
regarded wines, from regions like Bordeaux and the Rhone Valley, are
blended from different grape varieties.
TYPES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF
Table wine is a wine term with two different meanings: a style
of wine and a quality level within wine classification.
In the United States, table wine primarily designates a wine style -
ordinary wine which is neither fortified nor sparkling.
Sparkling wine is a wine with significant levels of carbon dioxide in
it making it fizzy. The carbon dioxide may result from
natural fermentation, either in a bottle, as with the méthode
champenoise, in a large tank designed to withstand the pressures
involved (as in the Charmat process), or as a result of carbon dioxide
Sparkling wine is usually white or rosé but there are many examples
of red sparkling wines such as Italian Brachetto and Australian
sparkling Shiraz. The sweetness of sparkling wine can range from very
dry "brut" styles to sweeter "doux" varieties.
Fortified wine is wine with an added distilled
beverage (usually brandy). Fortified wine is distinguished
from spirits made from wine in that spirits are produced by means
of distillation, while fortified wine is simply wine that has had a spirit
added to it.
Many different styles of fortified wine have been developed,
including Port, Sherry, Madeira, Marsala, Commandaria wine.
Aromatized wines are wines that have natural herbs, roots, and/or
spices added to give additional flavors. This practice is believed to
have begun in ancient Greece around 350 BC.
The additives were historically used to hide taste imperfections or to
improve longevity; these have now evolved into classic modern day
styles which include: Vermouth, Sangria, Wine coolers, and Maiwine
Red wine is a type of wine made from dark-colored (black) grape
varieties. The actual color of the wine can range from intense violet,
typical of young wines, through to brick red for mature wines and
brown for older red wines.
The juice from most black grapes is greenish-white; the red color
comes from anthocyan pigments present in the skin of the grape;
exceptions are the relatively uncommon teinturier varieties, which
produce a red colored juice. Much of the red-wine production process
therefore involves extraction of color and flavor components from the
White wine is a wine whose color can be straw-yellow, yellow-green,
or yellow-gold colored.
It is produced by the alcoholic fermentation of the non-
colored pulp of grapes which may have a white or black skin. It is
treated so as to maintain a yellow transparent color in the final
product. The wide variety of white wines comes from the large
number of varieties, methods of winemaking, and also the ratio
of residual sugar.
The white grapes from which white wine is mainly produced are green
or yellow of which there are many so that white wine can be produced
anywhere that grapes can be grown. Some varieties are well-known
such as the Chardonnay , Sauvignon, and Riesling
A rosé is a type of wine that incorporates some of the color from the
grape skins, but not enough to qualify it as a red wine. It may be the
oldest known type of wine, as it is the most straightforward to make
with the skin contact method.
The pink color can range from a pale "onion"-skin orange to a vivid
near-purple, depending on the grape varieties used
and winemaking techniques. There are three major ways to produce
rosé wine: skin contact, saignée and blending.
Rosé wines can be made still, semi-sparkling or sparkling and with a
wide range of sweetness levels from bone-dry Provençal rosé to
sweet White Zinfandels and blushes. Rosé wines are made from a
wide variety of grapes and can be found all across the globe.
5 Basic Wine Characteristics
Our human perception of sweet starts at the tip of our tongue. Often,
the very first impression of a wine is its level of sweetness. To taste
sweet, focus your attention on the taste buds on the tip of your
tongue. Believe it or not, many dry wines can have a hint of
sweetness to carry a larger impression of Body.
Tasting acidity is often confused with the taste of higher Alcohol. It is
common for wines grown in cooler vintages to have higher acidity.
Wines with higher acidity feel lighter weight because they come
across as „spritzy.‟ If you prefer a wine that is more rich and round,
you enjoy slightly less acidity.
Tannin in wine is the presence of phenolic compounds that add
bitterness to a wine. Phenolics are found in the skins and seeds of wine
grapes and can also be added to a wine with the use of aging in wood
Wines are often characterized by their main fruit flavors. Tasting for
fruit flavors in a wine can help you better define your preferences.
Additionally, the level of fruitiness that you taste in a wine leads to
very different growing regions.
Body is the result of many factors – from wine variety, where it‟s
from, vintage, alcohol level and how it‟s made. Body is a snapshot of
the overall impression of a wine. A high alcohol wine typically tastes
fuller bodied than a light-alcohol wine.
Concha y Toro, Chile
Yellow Tail, Australia
Valdo Prosecco NV Brut Rosé
Pine Ridge 2009 Encantado
Charity Case Rosé
Rol Valentin Rosé
The Mulderbush Rose
Distillation is a process of separating component substances from
liquid mixtures through vaporization and condensation, based on
different volatility of components in the mixture. Distillation is a unit
operation, or a physical separation process, and not a chemical
Distilled spirits are all alcoholic beverages in which the concentration
of ethyl alcohol has been increased above that of the original
fermented mixture by a method called distillation. The principle of
alcoholic distillation is based upon the different boiling points of
alcohol (78.5 C, or 173.3 F) and water (100 C, or 212 F). If a
liquid containing ethyl alcohol is heated to a temperature above 78.5
C but below 100 C and the vapor coming off the liquid is condensed,
the condensate will have a higher alcohol concentration, or strength.
POT STILL DISTILLATION
A pot still is a type of still used in distilling spirits such as whisky
or brandy. Heat is applied directly to the pot containing
the wash (for whisky) or wine (for brandy). This is called a batch
In the pot still, the alcohol and water vapor combine with esters and
flow from the still through the condensing coil. There they condense
into the first distillation liquid, the so-called "low wines". The low
wines have a strength of about 25-35% alcohol by volume, and flow
into a second still. It is then distilled a second time to produce the
colorless spirit, collected at about 70% alcohol by volume.
PATENT STILL DISTILLATION
A column still, also called a continuous still, patent still or Coffey still,
is a variety of still consisting of two columns.
The first column (called the analyzer) in a column still has steam
rising and wash descending through several levels. The second column
(called the rectifier) carries the alcohol from the wash, where it
circulates until it can condense at the required strength.
Whisky or whiskey is a type of distilled alcoholic beverage made
from fermented grain mash. Different grains are used for different
varieties, including barley, malted barley, rye, malted
rye, wheat, buckwheat and corn. Whisky is typically aged in
wooden casks, made generally of charred white oak.
Whisky is a strictly regulated spirit worldwide with many classes and
types. The typical unifying characteristics of the different classes and
types are the fermentation of grains, distillation, and aging in wooden
Blended Scotch whisky
Single malt scotch
Indian single malts
McDowell's Single Malt
Brandy is a spirit produced by distilling wine. Brandy generally
contains 35–60% alcohol by volume (70–120 US proof) and is
typically taken as an after-dinner drink. Some brandies are aged
in wooden casks, some are colored with caramel coloring to imitate
the effect of aging, and some brandies are produced using a
combination of both aging and coloring.
Brandy is also produced from fermented fruits other than grapes, but
these products are typically named eaux-de-vie, especially in France.
In some countries, fruit flavoring or some other flavoring may be
added to a spirit that is called "brandy".
Rum is a distilled alcoholic beverage made
from sugarcane byproducts, such as molasses, or directly from
sugarcane juice, by a process of fermentation and distillation. The
distillate, a clear liquid, is then usually aged in oak barrels.
The majority of the world's rum production occurs in
the Caribbean and Latin America. Rum is also produced
in Austria, Spain, Australia, New Zealand, Fiji, Mexico, Hawaii, the
Philippines, India, Reunion Island, Mauritius, South
Africa, Taiwan, Japan, United States and Canada.
Pyrat Cask 1623
Santa Teresa 1796
Old Monk Rum
Prichards’ Fine Rum
Pusser’s British Navy Rum
Ron Zacapa 23
Mount Gay Special Reserve
Black 33 OP
Vodka is a distilled beverage composed primarily of water
and ethanol, sometimes with traces of impurities and flavorings.
Traditionally, vodka is made by the distillation of
fermented grains or potatoes, though some modern brands use other
substances, such as fruits or sugar.
Traditionally, vodka had an alcoholic content of 40% alcohol by
volume. Vodka is traditionally drunk neat in the vodka belt countries
of Eastern Europe and around the Baltic Sea. It is also commonly used
in cocktails and mixed drinks, such as the vodka martini, vodka
tonic, Screwdriver, Greyhound, Black or white Russian, Bloody Mary,
and Sex on the Beach.
Crystal Head Vodka
Gin is a spirit which derives its predominant flavor from juniper
berries. From its earliest origins in the Middle Ages, gin has evolved
over the course of a millennium from a herbal medicine to an object of
commerce in the spirits industry. Gin was developed on the basis of
the older Jenever, and become widely popular in Great Britain
when William of Orange, leader of the Dutch Republic, occupied the
British throne with his wife Mary.
Today, the gin category is one of the most popular and widely
distributed range of spirits, and is represented by products of various
origins, styles, and flavor profiles that all revolve around juniper as a
Tequila is a regional specific name for a distilled beverage made from
the blue agave plant, primarily in the area surrounding the city
of Tequila, 65 km (40 mi) northwest of Guadalajara, and in the
highlands of the north western Mexican state of Jalisco. Although
tequila is a kind of mezcal, modern tequila differs somewhat in the
method of its production, in the use of only blue agave plants, as well
as in its regional specificity.
Tequila is most often made at a 38–40% alcohol content (76–
80 proof), but can be produced between 31 and 55% alcohol content
(62 and 110 proof)
El Tesoro Tequila
A liqueur is an alcoholic beverage made from a distilled spirit that
has been flavored with fruit, cream, herbs, spices, flowers or nuts and
bottled with added sugar or other sweetener (such as high-fructose
Liqueurs are typically quite sweet; they are usually not aged for long
after the ingredients are mixed, but may have resting periods during
their production to allow flavors to marry.
Most liqueurs have a lower alcohol content (15–30% ABV) than
spirits, but some contain as much as 55% ABV.