Alcoholic beverages


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Alcoholic beverages

  1. 1. Classificatio n Of Alcoholic
  2. 2. ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES An alcoholic beverage is a drink that typically contains 3%– 60% ethanol, commonly known as alcohol. Alcoholic beverages are divided into three classes: beers, wines, and spirits (distilled beverages). They are legally consumed in most countries around the world. More than 100 countries have laws regulating their production, sale, and consumption.
  3. 3. FERMENTATION PROCESS Fermentation is a metabolic process that converts sugar to acids, gases and/or alcohol. YEAST SUGAR ALCOHOL + CO2 The dominant types of yeast used to make beer are Saccharomyces cerevisiae, known as ale yeast, and Saccharomyces uvarum, known as lager yeast.
  4. 4. BEER Beer is an alcoholic beverage produced by the saccharification of starch and fermentation of the resulting sugar. The starch and saccharification enzymes are often derived from malted cereal grains, most commonly malted barley and malted wheat. Most beer is also flavored with hops, which add bitterness and act as a natural preservative, though other flavorings such as herbs or fruit may occasionally be included. The preparation of beer is called brewing. The strength of beer is usually around 4% to 6% alcohol by volume although it may vary between 0.5% (de-alcoholized) and 20%, with some breweries creating examples of 40% and above in recent years.
  5. 5. THE BREWING PROCESS Four different raw materials are required for beer brewing: •Water •Malt •Hops •Yeast Malt Malt is being produced from grain, mostly barley. •First of all, the barley from the fields is being thoroughly cleansed. •Now, the barley is ready for germination in warm and humid air lasting until the malt sprouts reach about the same length as the grain itself. During this process, valuable enzymes and malt sugar are being generated.
  6. 6. •For long durability, the grain is being dried over hot air on the called ”kiln“. The higher the kiln temperature the more malt sugar is converted into caramel. •The more sugar is converted into caramel, the darker the malt and the brewed beer made out of it. •The alcoholic content of beer only depends on the blend ratio of malt and water not on the color - light or dark - of the beer. Brewing water For the beer production it is of main importance that the brewing water is clean and free of impurities.
  7. 7. Hops Besides the convenient flavor, the hops performs further important tasks during beer production. •Due to its natural content of essential oils (as to be found in remedy herbs like camomile and eucalyptus), the hops protects the beer against deterioration. •Basically, one differentiates between aroma hops and bitter hops, the latter mainly being used due to its considerably lower price even though aroma hops is of higher quality. Yeast In the course of fermentation, the purpose of the yeast is to convert the malt sugar which has dissolved during mixing of malt and water in the brew house into alcohol and CO2
  8. 8. •There are two major yeast types, the top fermented and the bottom fermented yeast. •During fermentation, the top fermented yeast ascends to the beer surface and forms a thick foam layer (hence the name). The optimum fermentation temperature for top fermented yeast is approximately 20 C. •The bottom fermented yeast deposes during fermentation on the bottom (hence the name). The optimum fermentation temperature for bottom fermented yeast is approximately 10 C being used for almost any common beer. •The main difference between the beers produced from either yeast variety is that top fermented beers bear a flowery and fruity taste.
  9. 9. THE BEER PRODUCTION The beer production consist of 9 steps: •Grinding •Mashing •Lautering •Wort boiling •Cooling •Fermentation •Storage •Filtration •Filling
  10. 10. Grinding The grinding is a coarse milling, even better a crushing of the relatively mellow malt grain. In doing so, it must be observed that the outer shell of the malt grain, the so called husk, remains nearly intact. In step 3 "lautering", these husks serve as a natural filter layer. Mashing •The word mashing originally derives from "mixing". In this context, the beer production starts with mixing the grist of step 1 with warm brewing water. •The water being applied for mashing-in is called "main mash water" in contrary to the so called "second wort" during "lautering" in step 3.
  11. 11. •This grist-water-mixture is gradually being heated in the "brew vessel". According to individual recipe, the temperature must be hold correspondingly long at each temperature step. •During this so called "rest", the starch contained in the malt grain is being converted into malt sugar and valuable amino acids develop from indigestible proteins. •The result of the entire mashing process of approximately three hours is a hazy liquid containing dissolved malt sugar but also unsolved malt particles, for example husks. Lautering "Lautering" means the separation of the hazy mash particles from the clear ("lautering" = old-fashioned word for "clarifying") liquid.
  12. 12. •This process can be compared to filtering coffee where the coffee grounds are being restrained and a clear fluid containing the dissolved coffee particles runs through the filter. The more water is being poured over the coffee grounds, the more exhaustive the diffusion whereby the running off coffee becomes more and more watery. The lautering starts with the transfer of the entire mash into the "lauter tun". •The lauter tun is the second copper vessel in the brew house equipped with a false bottom with thin slits approximately 1,5 cm above the original bottom. •Since the husks are heavier than the other mash particles, they depose at the false bottom thus forming a natural filter layer. The false bottom only serves as a support of this "husk filter".
  13. 13. •The brewer calls the thereby almost clear running-off sugar water "wort". As soon as the wort ran-off entirely, the solid mash particles remain within the lauter tun, called "spent grains". In the beginning, these spent grains still contain a fair amount of malt sugar being rinsed out with hot water. The water being applied for this purpose is called "second wort" and is being poured over the spent grains without destroying (as happening for example by stirring) their layering. •The lautering must be done very carefully because if the wort would run-off freely (like when making coffee), the developing suction would contract the husk layer to almost impermeable extent. For this reason, the lauter tun is equipped with a shut-off valve at the bottom for subtle adjustment of the wort drain. •After approximately three hours, the lautering result is the wort - a clear, amber sugar water also containing flavors and many other dissolved substances (for example protein) highly significant for the proper development and taste of the beer.
  14. 14. •Because the sugar concentration of the wort determines the later alcoholic content of the beer, the concentration is measured with a calibrated spindle. The measured sugar concentration is increased during boiling (see step 4) due to the thereby evaporating water. In case the wort is relatively "thin", the boiling time must be prolonged in order to later reach the desired alcoholic content. Wort boiling The entire run-off wort is being re-collected in the brew vessel and boiled together with the hops for at least one hour. The wort must be boiled until the desired sugar concentration is reached due to evaporating water. •During boiling, also the composition of the wort changes whereby insolvable components like for example hops oils are being dissolved, others simply drop out or evaporate in form of solid components, the so called "break".
  15. 15. •The sugar concentration of the wort after boiling is the well-known "original extract". Since the original extract is converted into alcohol during fermentation, the later alcoholic content of the beer directly depends on the original extract •By the time enough water has evaporated, the wort with the whole hops will again be transferred to the lauter tun. The decocted whole hops and the break remain on the false bottom whereas the wort runs- off at the bottom now bearing a distinctive taste of hops. Cooling Now, the boiling hot wort must be cooled down to the starting temperature of the yeast. •From this point of time, an extremely neat and clean operation is required because otherwise lactic acid bacteria's instead of the yeast might start the fermentation of the wort.
  16. 16. These lactic acid bacteria's convert the sugar into lactic acid and not into alcohol like the yeast does. Thereby the beer turns sour and therefore becomes denaturized. Lactic acid bacteria's are not harmful to humans in any way. Looking at other food items (yoghurt, cheese, sauerkraut, sourdough etc.), they are even very valuable organisms. •For top fermentation, the wort is being cooled down to approx. 15 C, for bottom fermentation to approx. 5 C. These temperatures lie about 5 C below the optimum temperature of the respective yeast because fermentation ought to start slowly. •For cooling down the wort to approx. 20 C it is possible to use cold tap water. During this process, the tap water heats up to approx. 85 C and is available as hot water. In order to further cool down the wort, artificially cooled "ice water" of approx. 1 C is required.
  17. 17. Fermentation During fermentation, the yeast converts the sugar of the wort into alcohol, CO2 and heat. The wort turns into "green beer". •The fermentation ought to be performed slowly because otherwise a big quantity of indesirable fermentation by-products accumulate besides alcohol being the main causer for headaches after a long night. In order to produce high-quality beer, appropriate cooling ensures a fermentation period of approx. 8-10 days. •Since at this point sugar is converted into alcohol, the measured content of original extract continuously drops during fermentation. •The accumulated CO2 can freely escape from the open fermented. Because CO2 bubbles through the green beer, indesirable fermentation by-products negatively influencing the taste and digestibility of the beer are being washed out.
  18. 18. Through fermentation, a white foam builds up at the beer surface collapsing again at the end of the main fermentation. Storage During storage time, the residual sugar ferments to alcohol and CO2 For this purpose, the beer is being transferred from the open fermented to the closed storage tank. •The storage tank is being closed with a "bunging apparatus". By the use of this bunging apparatus, the desired CO2-content of the beer can be adjusted. Therefore, the now accumulating CO2 remains in the beer. •In order for the sugar to further ferment, the temperature ought to remain at approx. 5 C for a while. Afterwards, the beer is ready for slowly being cooled down to maturity temperature of 1 C.
  19. 19. •Under these temperatures, the green beer matures for several weeks . During this time, the beer almost completely purifies and finally reaches full maturity. Filtration During filtration the residual yeast is being filtered from the beer. For this purpose, the beer from the storage tank is being pressed through a Kieselguhr-filter layer under pressure. •The hereby secreted yeast remains in the filter together with the Kieselguhr and can be disposed after termination of the filtration process. •After filtration, the beer is being collected in the pressure tank and from there arrives at the filling facilities.
  20. 20. Filling During filling process, the filtered beer is being filled into bottles or kegs. Bottle filling In general, returnable bottles with swing stopper, so called "ricklayer‟s bottles", are being used. •First of all, the bottles must be manually cleaned with the aid of a bottle washing machine comparable to an industrial dishwasher. The bottles are being cleansed of yeast deposits and afterwards sterilized. •Next, the bottles are manually being removed from the machine and placed on a table for filling.
  21. 21. •For filling purpose, the brew master applies a hand operated is barometric filler. Each bottle is separately being removed from the table. The brew master ensures a careful filling of the beer without the development of foam and tight closure of the bottles with a ceramic seal. •Prior to packing the bottles into transport crates, each bottle receives a seal label indicating date of expiry and table of content. Afterwards, the bottles are ready for sale. •According to beer type, such filled beer can be stored up to 6 – 12 weeks until consumption.
  22. 22. TYPES OF BEER ALE Ale is a type of beer brewed from malted barley using a warm fermentation with a strain of brewers' yeast. The yeast will ferment the beer quickly, giving it a sweet, full bodied and fruity taste. Most ales contain hops, which help preserve the beer and impart a bitter herbal flavor that balances the sweetness of the malt. LAGER Lager is a type of beer that is fermented and conditioned at low temperatures. Pale lager is the most widely consumed and commercially available style of beer in the world. Bock, Pilsner and Märzen are all styles of lager. There are also dark lagers, such as Dunkel and Schwarzbier.
  23. 23. PORTER Porter is a dark style of beer originating in London in the 18th century, descended from brown beer, a well-hopped beer made from brown malt. STOUT Stout is a dark beer made using roasted malt or roasted barley, hops, water and yeast. Stouts were traditionally the generic term for the strongest or stoutest porters, typically 7% or 8%, produced by a brewery. DRAUGHT Draught beer, also spelt draft, is beer served from a cask or keg rather than from a bottle or can.
  24. 24. BEER BRANDS •Budweiser •Heineken •Corona Extra •Guinness •Efes Pilsen •Sam Adams •Yuengling •Kingfisher Premium Lager •San Miguel Pale Pilsen •Carlsberg •Foster's •Dogfish Head •Coors Light •Miller Lite •Hoegaarden
  25. 25. SERVICE OF BEER Hold the beer in one hand and the glass in the other. Tilt the glass at a 45-degree angle and start pouring a the beer down the side of the glass to get a feel for its foaminess. Continue pouring the beer as you gradually tilt the glass to an upright position. Finish pouring the beer into the middle of the glass at a rate sufficient to create an appropriate head, but not so quickly as to create a big foam up. Adjust the pouring rate to bring the beer level up to where you want it. The glass should never be filled to the brim with beer, but should have ample space for at least a finger or two of foamy head. It is fine to have a little foam protruding above the rim of the glass, but it should not overflow.
  26. 26. WINE Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from fermented grapes or other fruits. The natural chemical balance of grapes lets them ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients. Yeast consumes the sugars in the grapes and converts them into alcohol and carbon dioxide. Wines made from produce besides grapes are usually named after the product from which they are produced (for example, rice wine, pomegranate wine, apple wine and elderberry wine) and are generically called fruit wine.
  27. 27. Wine is usually made from one or more varieties of the European species such as Pinot noir, Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Gamay and Merlot. When one of these varieties is used as the predominant grape, the result is a "varietal" as opposed to a "blended" wine. Blended wines are not considered inferior to varietal wines, rather they are a different style of winemaking; some of the world's most highly regarded wines, from regions like Bordeaux and the Rhone Valley, are blended from different grape varieties.
  28. 28. TYPES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF WINES TABLE WINE Table wine is a wine term with two different meanings: a style of wine and a quality level within wine classification. In the United States, table wine primarily designates a wine style - ordinary wine which is neither fortified nor sparkling. SPARKLING WINE Sparkling wine is a wine with significant levels of carbon dioxide in it making it fizzy. The carbon dioxide may result from natural fermentation, either in a bottle, as with the méthode champenoise, in a large tank designed to withstand the pressures involved (as in the Charmat process), or as a result of carbon dioxide injection.
  29. 29. Sparkling wine is usually white or rosé but there are many examples of red sparkling wines such as Italian Brachetto and Australian sparkling Shiraz. The sweetness of sparkling wine can range from very dry "brut" styles to sweeter "doux" varieties. FORTIFIED WINE Fortified wine is wine with an added distilled beverage (usually brandy). Fortified wine is distinguished from spirits made from wine in that spirits are produced by means of distillation, while fortified wine is simply wine that has had a spirit added to it. Many different styles of fortified wine have been developed, including Port, Sherry, Madeira, Marsala, Commandaria wine.
  30. 30. AROMATIZED WINE Aromatized wines are wines that have natural herbs, roots, and/or spices added to give additional flavors. This practice is believed to have begun in ancient Greece around 350 BC. The additives were historically used to hide taste imperfections or to improve longevity; these have now evolved into classic modern day styles which include: Vermouth, Sangria, Wine coolers, and Maiwine from Germany.
  31. 31. RED WINE Red wine is a type of wine made from dark-colored (black) grape varieties. The actual color of the wine can range from intense violet, typical of young wines, through to brick red for mature wines and brown for older red wines. The juice from most black grapes is greenish-white; the red color comes from anthocyan pigments present in the skin of the grape; exceptions are the relatively uncommon teinturier varieties, which produce a red colored juice. Much of the red-wine production process therefore involves extraction of color and flavor components from the grape skin.
  32. 32. WHITE WINE White wine is a wine whose color can be straw-yellow, yellow-green, or yellow-gold colored. It is produced by the alcoholic fermentation of the non- colored pulp of grapes which may have a white or black skin. It is treated so as to maintain a yellow transparent color in the final product. The wide variety of white wines comes from the large number of varieties, methods of winemaking, and also the ratio of residual sugar. The white grapes from which white wine is mainly produced are green or yellow of which there are many so that white wine can be produced anywhere that grapes can be grown. Some varieties are well-known such as the Chardonnay , Sauvignon, and Riesling
  33. 33. ROSE WINE A rosé is a type of wine that incorporates some of the color from the grape skins, but not enough to qualify it as a red wine. It may be the oldest known type of wine, as it is the most straightforward to make with the skin contact method. The pink color can range from a pale "onion"-skin orange to a vivid near-purple, depending on the grape varieties used and winemaking techniques. There are three major ways to produce rosé wine: skin contact, saignée and blending. Rosé wines can be made still, semi-sparkling or sparkling and with a wide range of sweetness levels from bone-dry Provençal rosé to sweet White Zinfandels and blushes. Rosé wines are made from a wide variety of grapes and can be found all across the globe.
  34. 34. 5 Basic Wine Characteristics •Sweetness •Acidity •Tannin •Fruit •Body SWEETNESS Our human perception of sweet starts at the tip of our tongue. Often, the very first impression of a wine is its level of sweetness. To taste sweet, focus your attention on the taste buds on the tip of your tongue. Believe it or not, many dry wines can have a hint of sweetness to carry a larger impression of Body.
  35. 35. ACIDITY Tasting acidity is often confused with the taste of higher Alcohol. It is common for wines grown in cooler vintages to have higher acidity. Wines with higher acidity feel lighter weight because they come across as „spritzy.‟ If you prefer a wine that is more rich and round, you enjoy slightly less acidity. TANNIN Tannin in wine is the presence of phenolic compounds that add bitterness to a wine. Phenolics are found in the skins and seeds of wine grapes and can also be added to a wine with the use of aging in wood (oak). FRUIT Wines are often characterized by their main fruit flavors. Tasting for fruit flavors in a wine can help you better define your preferences.
  36. 36. Additionally, the level of fruitiness that you taste in a wine leads to very different growing regions. BODY Body is the result of many factors – from wine variety, where it‟s from, vintage, alcohol level and how it‟s made. Body is a snapshot of the overall impression of a wine. A high alcohol wine typically tastes fuller bodied than a light-alcohol wine.
  37. 37. BRAND NAMES WHITE WINES Gallo, California Concha y Toro, Chile Yellow Tail, Australia Hardys, Australia Beringer, California
  38. 38. RED WINES Pinot Noir Cabernet Sauvignon Merlot Wine Barbera Wine Malbec Wine French Beaujolais
  39. 39. ROSE WINES Valdo Prosecco NV Brut Rosé Pine Ridge 2009 Encantado Rosé Charity Case Rosé Rol Valentin Rosé The Mulderbush Rose
  40. 40. DISTILLATION PROCESS Distillation is a process of separating component substances from liquid mixtures through vaporization and condensation, based on different volatility of components in the mixture. Distillation is a unit operation, or a physical separation process, and not a chemical reaction. Distilled spirits are all alcoholic beverages in which the concentration of ethyl alcohol has been increased above that of the original fermented mixture by a method called distillation. The principle of alcoholic distillation is based upon the different boiling points of alcohol (78.5 C, or 173.3 F) and water (100 C, or 212 F). If a liquid containing ethyl alcohol is heated to a temperature above 78.5 C but below 100 C and the vapor coming off the liquid is condensed, the condensate will have a higher alcohol concentration, or strength.
  41. 41. POT STILL DISTILLATION A pot still is a type of still used in distilling spirits such as whisky or brandy. Heat is applied directly to the pot containing the wash (for whisky) or wine (for brandy). This is called a batch distillation. In the pot still, the alcohol and water vapor combine with esters and flow from the still through the condensing coil. There they condense into the first distillation liquid, the so-called "low wines". The low wines have a strength of about 25-35% alcohol by volume, and flow into a second still. It is then distilled a second time to produce the colorless spirit, collected at about 70% alcohol by volume.
  42. 42. PATENT STILL DISTILLATION A column still, also called a continuous still, patent still or Coffey still, is a variety of still consisting of two columns. The first column (called the analyzer) in a column still has steam rising and wash descending through several levels. The second column (called the rectifier) carries the alcohol from the wash, where it circulates until it can condense at the required strength.
  44. 44. WHISKEY Whisky or whiskey is a type of distilled alcoholic beverage made from fermented grain mash. Different grains are used for different varieties, including barley, malted barley, rye, malted rye, wheat, buckwheat and corn. Whisky is typically aged in wooden casks, made generally of charred white oak. Whisky is a strictly regulated spirit worldwide with many classes and types. The typical unifying characteristics of the different classes and types are the fermentation of grains, distillation, and aging in wooden barrels.
  45. 45. BRAND NAMES Blended Scotch whisky Black Dog Johnnie Walker Old Smuggler Vat 69 Single malt scotch Glenfiddich Imperial Indian single malts Amrut Paul John McDowell's Single Malt
  46. 46. Indian whisky Antiquity Signature Royal Stag Imperial Blue After Dark Blenders Pride Tennessee whiskey Jack Daniel's George Dickel Bourbon whiskey Vintage Bourbon Kentucky Gentleman Bourbon Supreme
  47. 47. BRANDY Brandy is a spirit produced by distilling wine. Brandy generally contains 35–60% alcohol by volume (70–120 US proof) and is typically taken as an after-dinner drink. Some brandies are aged in wooden casks, some are colored with caramel coloring to imitate the effect of aging, and some brandies are produced using a combination of both aging and coloring. Brandy is also produced from fermented fruits other than grapes, but these products are typically named eaux-de-vie, especially in France. In some countries, fruit flavoring or some other flavoring may be added to a spirit that is called "brandy".
  48. 48. BRAND NAMES Camus Asbach Uralt Courvoisier Rémy Martin Hennessy
  49. 49. Alambic Roullet A.E. Dor Honey Bee Paul Masson Meukow
  50. 50. RUM Rum is a distilled alcoholic beverage made from sugarcane byproducts, such as molasses, or directly from sugarcane juice, by a process of fermentation and distillation. The distillate, a clear liquid, is then usually aged in oak barrels. The majority of the world's rum production occurs in the Caribbean and Latin America. Rum is also produced in Austria, Spain, Australia, New Zealand, Fiji, Mexico, Hawaii, the Philippines, India, Reunion Island, Mauritius, South Africa, Taiwan, Japan, United States and Canada.
  51. 51. BRAND NAMES 1 Barrel Pyrat Cask 1623 Santa Teresa 1796 Old Monk Rum Prichards’ Fine Rum
  52. 52. Pusser’s British Navy Rum Ron Zacapa 23 Mount Gay Special Reserve El Dorado Black 33 OP
  53. 53. VODKA Vodka is a distilled beverage composed primarily of water and ethanol, sometimes with traces of impurities and flavorings. Traditionally, vodka is made by the distillation of fermented grains or potatoes, though some modern brands use other substances, such as fruits or sugar. Traditionally, vodka had an alcoholic content of 40% alcohol by volume. Vodka is traditionally drunk neat in the vodka belt countries of Eastern Europe and around the Baltic Sea. It is also commonly used in cocktails and mixed drinks, such as the vodka martini, vodka tonic, Screwdriver, Greyhound, Black or white Russian, Bloody Mary, and Sex on the Beach.
  54. 54. BRAND NAMES Grey Goose Crystal Head Vodka Finlandia Stolichnaya Absolut vodka
  55. 55. Smirnoff Belvedere Skyy Vodka Pinnacle Vodka Russian Standard
  56. 56. GIN Gin is a spirit which derives its predominant flavor from juniper berries. From its earliest origins in the Middle Ages, gin has evolved over the course of a millennium from a herbal medicine to an object of commerce in the spirits industry. Gin was developed on the basis of the older Jenever, and become widely popular in Great Britain when William of Orange, leader of the Dutch Republic, occupied the British throne with his wife Mary. Today, the gin category is one of the most popular and widely distributed range of spirits, and is represented by products of various origins, styles, and flavor profiles that all revolve around juniper as a common ingredient.
  59. 59. TEQUILA Tequila is a regional specific name for a distilled beverage made from the blue agave plant, primarily in the area surrounding the city of Tequila, 65 km (40 mi) northwest of Guadalajara, and in the highlands of the north western Mexican state of Jalisco. Although tequila is a kind of mezcal, modern tequila differs somewhat in the method of its production, in the use of only blue agave plants, as well as in its regional specificity. Tequila is most often made at a 38–40% alcohol content (76– 80 proof), but can be produced between 31 and 55% alcohol content (62 and 110 proof)
  60. 60. BRAND NAMES Casa Noble Don Julio Herradura Corralejo Cazadores
  61. 61. Patron Ocho El Tesoro Tequila Milagro Tres Generationes
  62. 62. LIQUEURS A liqueur is an alcoholic beverage made from a distilled spirit that has been flavored with fruit, cream, herbs, spices, flowers or nuts and bottled with added sugar or other sweetener (such as high-fructose corn syrup). Liqueurs are typically quite sweet; they are usually not aged for long after the ingredients are mixed, but may have resting periods during their production to allow flavors to marry. Most liqueurs have a lower alcohol content (15–30% ABV) than spirits, but some contain as much as 55% ABV.
  63. 63. BRAND NAMES Kahlua Crème de Cacao Bailey’s Irish Cream Curacao Amaretto
  64. 64. Rosilio Anisette Galliano Tia Maria Murtado