Viticulture (from the Latin word for vine) is the science, production and study of grapes which deals with the series of events that occur in the vineyard. When the grapes are used for winemaking, it is also known as viniculture.
The press wine tends to be dark, harsh and unpalatable, and is mixed with free-run wine to produce something decent.
Fining, a process that calls for the addition of substances that cause the solids in the liquid to adhere to one another and sink to the bottom of the vat Filtration- Running the liquid through coarse and fine filters
While this can add body to some wines, keep in mind that the “woody” flavor isn’t suited to all types of wine, hence the use of metal vatsIf a winemaker chooses to age the wine in wooden casks, he will be allowing the wine to pick up flavors from the wood, adding greater depth to its flavors..
although alternative wine clossure such as synthetic corks and screwcaps, which are less subject to cork taint, are becoming increasingly popular.
Introduction to Wine• Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from fermented fruit juice.• Grape wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast.• Types of wines – Red wine – White wine• Classification of wines – Sparkling wine – Desert wine – Ice wine – Fortified wine – Table wine• Health benefits
Wine Production1. Viticulture Factors which inflence grape’s flavor: •climate of the vineyard’s region •drainage around the vines •humidity of the region •sun exposure. •soil quality
2. Harvesting •Grappes are picked up by hand or mechanically •Descision of harvest informed by level of sugar and acid •weather forecasts
3. Stemming/Crushing Stemming is the separation of the stems and grapes (which are sends to the press) Crushing: A horizontal press squeezes the broken grapes, separating the fresh juice (must) from the skins (marc) After crushing starts the fermentation process.
4. Fermentation•sugar and acids that naturallyreact with wild yeasts•Vineyard adding their ownyeasts•fermentation can take from 10to 30 days to convert naturalsugar to alcohol.5. DrainingLiquid wine is drained from the vat without being pressed and go intobarrels (free-run wine). The remaining pulp retains about 20% of thewine.
6. Pressing The remaing pulp, after draining, is pressed to squeeze out the press wine.7. MixingThe free-run wine and press wine, always from the same source, are mixedtogether in appropriate ratios to obtain the desired balance.
8. Clarification Stabilisation of fermentation. Remaining solids are removed. Clarification done in numerous ways: 1. Fining 2. Filtration 3. Siphoning the liquid off the top of the fermenting vats after the solids have settled to the bottom 4. Floatation
9. Aging • The final stage in vinification is aging the wine. • At this point, the clarified wine is transferred into either wooden barrels or metal vats in which the wine is allowed to further mature and develop flavors.
10. Bottleing• A dose of sulfite is added to helppreserve the wine and preventunwanted fermentation in thebottle.• The wine bottles then aretraditionally sealed with a cork,