Islam

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Islam

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Islam

  1. 1. Islam
  2. 2. The Islamic World is not at all a monolithic entity
  3. 3. A Bit About Arabic <ul><li>Semitic Languages based on three-letter roots </li></ul><ul><li>Example: s-l-m, connotes wisdom, harmony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salaam, peace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suleiman (Solomon) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islam (submission to divine will) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslim (one who submits to divine will) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. A Bit About Arabic <ul><li>European languages modify words mostly through suffixes </li></ul><ul><li>Arabic relies extensively on prefixes as well </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hence there are no simple alphabetical dictionaries of Arabic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Arabic has numerous sounds not found in English </li></ul><ul><li>Arabic omits most short vowels in print </li></ul><ul><li>Arabic does not distinguish o and u clearly, or e and i. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no single way to transliterate Arabic and English </li></ul>
  5. 5. Imagine Rome Never Fell ….
  6. 6. Imagine Rome Never Fell …. <ul><li>Now imagine all those people, as loyal Catholics, insisted they were still speaking Latin </li></ul><ul><li>That’s very much the story with Arabic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Written Arabic isn’t spoken </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spoken Arabic isn’t written </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arabic is the language of the Koran and all Arabic speakers insist they speak Arabic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linguists would (and some do) subdivide Arabic into 5-6 distinct languages </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Arabia in Mohammed's time <ul><li>Various tribal religions </li></ul><ul><li>Jewish communities </li></ul><ul><li>Christian communities, usually splinter sects </li></ul>
  8. 8. Mohammed <ul><li>Born about 570 in Mecca </li></ul><ul><li>About 610, claims to receive visions and messages. </li></ul><ul><li>These collected and written down about 650 as the Koran. </li></ul><ul><li>Flees to Medina, 622 (hegira) </li></ul><ul><li>Return to Mecca, 630 </li></ul><ul><li>Unified Arabia by the time of his death in 632 </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Pillars of Islam <ul><li>1. Creed </li></ul><ul><li>2. Five daily prayers </li></ul><ul><li>3. Alms </li></ul><ul><li>4. Fasting during Ramadan </li></ul><ul><li>5. Pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj) Haji denotes one who has made the Hajj </li></ul><ul><li>Some authorities add a sixth pillar: 6. Jihad or Holy War in defense of Islam. Means active opposition to evil and injustice, more than literal warfare. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Sources of Islamic Doctrine <ul><li>Koran (from root meaning read or study) </li></ul><ul><li>Hadith (tradition): traditional sayings of Mohammed and other early followers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tradition of the Mahdi </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sharia (way): Codified Islamic Law </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Koran <ul><li>About as long as the New Testament </li></ul><ul><li>114 suras , arranged from longest to shortest </li></ul><ul><li>Most suras are collections of Mohammed’s teachings with no overall theme </li></ul><ul><li>Suras are labeled by distinctive or unusual words found in each </li></ul><ul><li>No historical chapters </li></ul><ul><li>Considered the definitive form of Arabic </li></ul><ul><li>Strictly speaking, cannot be translated, only paraphrased </li></ul>
  12. 12. The spread of Islam <ul><li>Inherent appeal </li></ul><ul><li>Simplicity </li></ul><ul><li>Equality </li></ul><ul><li>Rights for Women </li></ul><ul><li>High moral teachings </li></ul><ul><li>Jihad </li></ul><ul><li>Military skill </li></ul><ul><li>Good government </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion Incentives </li></ul><ul><li>Tax on &quot;People of the Book” - Originally Christians and Jews, later Hindus and certain other groups as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Forced conversion of pagans </li></ul><ul><li>Trade </li></ul><ul><li>Indonesia and sub-Saharan Africa </li></ul>
  13. 13. The spread of Islam
  14. 14. The World of Islam
  15. 15. Schism about 700 A.D. <ul><li>Reasons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Succession to Caliphate ( Kalifa , successor; successor of Mohammed) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporation of non-Koranic elements into Islam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worldliness of Caliphs, discrimination against non-Arab Muslims </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shiites ( shia : party or faction) about 10% (mostly Iran) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fundamentalist? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sunnites ( Sunna : beaten path) about 90% </li></ul>
  16. 16. Effects of Islam <ul><li>Preserve classical learning </li></ul><ul><li>Innovations in astronomy and mathematics </li></ul><ul><li>Link between East and West </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Arabic&quot; numbers from India </li></ul><ul><li>Trigonometry also from India </li></ul><ul><li>Sanctuary for Judaism </li></ul>
  17. 17. A Few Arabic Contributions <ul><li>Alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Alkali </li></ul><ul><li>Alchemy </li></ul><ul><li>Benzine </li></ul><ul><li>Boron </li></ul><ul><li>Zircon </li></ul><ul><li>Jar </li></ul><ul><li>Alfalfa </li></ul><ul><li>Algorithm </li></ul><ul><li>Algebra </li></ul><ul><li>Almanac </li></ul><ul><li>Azimuth </li></ul><ul><li>Alidade </li></ul><ul><li>Most Star Names </li></ul>
  18. 18. Star Names
  19. 19. The Spanish Connection <ul><li>Wadi-al-yahara (Valley of Flowing Water)  Guadalajara </li></ul><ul><li>Al-ghattas (type of sea bird)  Alcatraz (pelican) </li></ul><ul><li>Al-amir-al-bahr (lord of the sea)  Almirante  Admiral </li></ul><ul><li>Jebel Tariq (Tariq’s mountain)  Gibraltar </li></ul><ul><li>Much “Spanish” architecture is actually Arabic </li></ul>
  20. 20. Islam Penetrates Europe
  21. 21. Islam Penetrates Europe
  22. 22. The Islamic World Today <ul><li>OIL! </li></ul><ul><li>Sunnite vs. Shiite </li></ul><ul><li>Secularism vs. Dogmatism </li></ul><ul><li>Russian Southward Expansionism. Began in 1700's. Temporarily(?) halted by collapse of Soviet Union. </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorism: Shiite is not a synonym for &quot;terrorist&quot; or &quot;extremist.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Israel and the Palestinian Problem </li></ul>

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