Islam after mohammed


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Islam after mohammed

  1. 1. Islam After Muhammad
  2. 2. The First Caliphs The word 'Caliph' means Successor to the Messenger of God, the Holy Prophet Muhammad .
  3. 3. The Rightly Guided Caliphs The First Caliph, Abu Bakr (632-634 A.C.) The Second Caliph, 'Umar (634-644 A.C.) The Third Caliph, Uthman (644-656 A.C.) The Fourth Caliph, Ali (656-661 A.C.)
  4. 4. Islam Divides: Sunni and Shia Muslims Who should succeed Prophet Muhammad? Sunnis, believed in appointing the successor under Arab tribal tradition Shias, believed Muhammad's successor should be from his family, and backed Ali Muhammad's cousin - who was also his sonin-law.
  5. 5. Growing Empire      Defeated Persia in A.D. 637 (Iraq/Iran) Captured Jerusalem in A.D. 638 Conquered Central Asia, northern India, and northern Africa Early caliphs came from the Umayyad family. They moved their capital from Medina to Damascus
  6. 6. The Spread of Islam
  7. 7. Growing Empire Many different factors contributed to the growth of the Islamic empire: 1. The Muslims defeated many empires around the Arabian peninsula 2. They made treaties with conquered people ◦ Included rules for Jews and Christians
  8. 8. Trade Helps Islam Spread Due to Arabia’s crossroads location, Muslim merchants had easy access to South Asia, Europe, and Africa Merchants spread Islamic beliefs to India, Africa, Malaysia, and Indonesia
  9. 9. Muslims in Europe • • • • Muslims invade Spain in A.D. 711 The army moved on into France The Battle of Tours Muslims rule parts of Spain for the next 700 years
  10. 10. New Products Trade brought new products to Muslim lands ◦ Paper and gunpowder- came from China ◦ Cotton, rice, and oranges- came from India, China, and Southeast Asia ◦ Ivory, cloves, and slaves- came from Africa
  11. 11. The Growth of Cities In addition to bringing people, products, and ideas together, trade also created wealth, and cultural advancement  Two major cities:  1) Baghdad (Iraq) 2) Cordoba (Spain)
  12. 12. Baghdad (Iraq) 1. 2. 3. 4. • • • • • • Became the capital of the Islamic Empire in 762 Major trading and agricultural center Known as “the round city” because walls surrounded it. Cultural center Hospital Observatory Libraries University Many artists Many writers
  13. 13. Cordoba (Spain) 1. 2. • • • • 3. • • Became the capital of what is now Spain in A.D. 756 By the 900’s, Cordoba became the largest most advanced city in Europe Mansions and mosques Busy markets and shops Aqueducts Public water and lighting Center of learning University Arabic was the language of scholars