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Islam
What is Islam? <ul><li>Islam means ‘submission’, ‘obedience’, ‘peace’, ‘harmony’ </li></ul><ul><li>Second largest and fast...
What do Muslims believe? <ul><li>Allah - Arabic word for the God </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Almighty, omniscient, perfect, one ...
Who was Muhammad? <ul><li>Born Makkah 570 CE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orphan, brought up by uncle Abu Talib </li></ul></ul><u...
How was Muhammad called? <ul><li>Night of Power </li></ul><ul><li>40 years old 611 CE  </li></ul><ul><li>Angel Jibril </li...
How was he received? <ul><li>613 CE preached publically </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Idolatry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviou...
Year of sorrow 619 <ul><li>Khadijah dies </li></ul><ul><li>Abu Talib dies </li></ul><ul><li>Abu Lahab refuses to protect h...
What was the night journey? <ul><li>Travelled to ‘the farthest mosque (Al-Aqsa mosque in Jerusalem) </li></ul><ul><li>From...
The Rock <ul><li>God told Abraham to offer his son as a burnt offering on Mount Moriah </li></ul><ul><li>The Bible says th...
Holy site for Jews and Muslims <ul><li>On this rock the Jewish Temple was built  </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims believe that on...
Hijra 622  <ul><li>Emigration to Medina </li></ul><ul><ul><li>12 clans invited to become arbitrator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Conflict with Makkah <ul><li>Raided caravans </li></ul><ul><li>Battle Badr 624 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Victorious </li></ul>...
Conquered Makkah 630 <ul><li>Most Makkans converted </li></ul><ul><li>Amnesty for past offences </li></ul><ul><li>Idols in...
Last sermon and death <ul><li>Preached last sermon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Islam perfect religion </li></ul></ul>Mosque of t...
Muhammad’s last sermon <ul><li>O People! It is true that you have certain rights in regard to your women, but they also ha...
Last sermon continued <ul><li>All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab ...
Last sermon - conclusion <ul><li>Remember one day you will appear before Allah and answer for your deeds. So beware, do no...
Muhammad’s wives and family <ul><li>Khadijah  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Married 25 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 daughter...
Muhammad’s legacy <ul><li>Rebel in Makkah </li></ul><ul><li>Statesman in Medina </li></ul><ul><li>Transformed society </li...
What is the Qur’an? <ul><li>Means ‘recitation’ </li></ul><ul><li>Dictated by Jibril </li></ul><ul><li>Chapters - surahs </...
Five pillars of Islam Qur’an The House of Islam Ummah  Shahada  Salah  Zakah  Sawm  Hajj
1. Shahadah <ul><li>“There is no god but Allah; and Muhammad is the messanger of Allah” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To become a ...
2. Salah  <ul><li>Muhammad said, “If one of you had a river right by his door and he bathed in it five times a day, do you...
Preparation for prayer <ul><li>Wudu </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wash hands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rinse out mouth 3X </li></...
Salat  <ul><li>Cover heads </li></ul><ul><li>Niyah - intention </li></ul><ul><li>Face Makkah </li></ul><ul><li>Opening pra...
Rakahs  Cycle of standing, bowing and prostrating with prayers. Finish by blessing fellow Muslims on left and right; greet...
Friday prayers In mosque Sermon
Mosque <ul><li>Place of prostration </li></ul><ul><li>Prayer hall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minbar  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
3. Zakah <ul><li>Purification of wealth by payment of annual welfare due. Word implies wholesomeness and blessing with pot...
4. Hajj  <ul><li>Pilgrimage to Makkah once in a lifetime by all who can afford it </li></ul><ul><li>Re-established and ref...
Umrah <ul><li>Tawaf </li></ul><ul><li>Enter Sacred Mosque </li></ul><ul><li>Circle Ka’ba counter-clockwise 7 times </li></...
Al-Masjid al- Ḥ ar ā m The Sacred Mosque
Mina - 8th Dhul-Hijjah <ul><li>First offical day of Hajj </li></ul><ul><li>Travel to Mina where spend night in prayer </li...
Arafat - 9th Dhul Hijjah <ul><li>Gather before Mount of Mercy on Plain of Arafat and prayer of repentance all day </li></u...
10th Dhul-Hijjah <ul><li>Stoning the devil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Throw stones at 3 pillars or walls symbolising the devil ...
Eid-ul-Adha <ul><li>Feast of sacrifice </li></ul><ul><li>Remember Abraham willing to make supreme sacrifice </li></ul><ul>...
5. Sawm  <ul><li>Fasting during the month of Ramadan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appreciate God’s gifts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
What is Sharia?  <ul><li>The straight path to God </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes limit of acceptable behaviour </li></ul>...
Content of Sharia  <ul><li>Body of law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Family </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nation </li></ul></ul><ul><...
What is jihad? <ul><li>Jihad means ‘struggle in the way of Allah.’  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose is to establish peace </...
When can war be called jihad? <ul><li>Started by a religious leader </li></ul><ul><li>Backing of ummah </li></ul><ul><li>D...
Sunni-Shia division <ul><li>Disagreement about who should have inherited authority and leadership  </li></ul><ul><li>Shia ...
One empire after another <ul><li>Umayyad dynasty  (661-750) Sunni, Arab, capital Damascus. Later Spain </li></ul><ul><li>A...
Umayyad dynasty (661-750) <ul><li>Sunni Arab </li></ul><ul><li>Capital Damascus </li></ul><ul><li>Huge expansion of Islami...
Conquest of the Holy Land <ul><li>Caliph Umar conquered Palestine & Jerusalem from Byzantines in 638 </li></ul><ul><li>Al-...
Al-Aksa Mosque
Expansion of the Islamic Empire
Abbasid   dynasty (750-1258) <ul><li>Sunni/Shia </li></ul><ul><li>Arab/Persian </li></ul><ul><li>Capital Bagdad </li></ul>...
New rulers, new policies  <ul><li>Fatimid dynasty established in Egypt in 969 </li></ul><ul><li>Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr   d...
The Crusades <ul><li>There were 9 Crusades </li></ul><ul><li>Jerusalem captured in 1099 and its population massacred </li>...
Ottoman Empire  (1299 - 1923)   Ottoman Empire expanded into Europe until defeated at 2 nd  siege of Vienna 1683
Islam today
How does 9/11 fit in? <ul><li>Osama Bin Laden’s letter 11/24/2002 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Permission to fight (against...
“ Why are we fighting and  opposing you?”  <ul><li>“ Because you attacked us” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Palestine </li></ul></...
“ What are we calling you to, and what do we want from you?” <ul><li>“ The first thing that we are calling you to is Islam...
<ul><li>“ The second thing we call you to, is to stop your oppression, lies, immorality and debauchery that has spread amo...
<ul><li>“ What we call you to thirdly is to take an honest stance with yourselves”  </li></ul><ul><li>“ We also advise you...
Muslim contributions <ul><li>Learned, inherited and built upon knowledge from Greece and India </li></ul><ul><li>Science <...
More contributions <ul><li>Medicine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard textbooks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Historiography </li></...
 
Religious leaders <ul><li>Imam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leads prayers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mufti </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Isla...
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Islam powerpoint WH

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A presentation of Islam suitable for secondary school and above

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Islam powerpoint WH

  1. 1. Islam
  2. 2. What is Islam? <ul><li>Islam means ‘submission’, ‘obedience’, ‘peace’, ‘harmony’ </li></ul><ul><li>Second largest and fastest growing religion </li></ul><ul><li>Most populous Muslim country is Indonesia </li></ul><ul><li>Largest number of Muslims - India </li></ul>
  3. 3. What do Muslims believe? <ul><li>Allah - Arabic word for the God </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Almighty, omniscient, perfect, one </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shirk - believing God has a partner worst sin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Angels </li></ul><ul><li>God’s revealed books </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Torah, Psalms, Gospels, Qur’an </li></ul></ul><ul><li>God’s prophets and messengers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, Muhammad </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Day of Judgement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resurrection, return of Jesus, judgement </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Who was Muhammad? <ul><li>Born Makkah 570 CE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orphan, brought up by uncle Abu Talib </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nickname ‘Al-Amin’ - trustworthy one </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replaced stone in Ka’ba </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Married Khadijah </li></ul><ul><li>Prayed at Mount Hira </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rich oppressing the poor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gambling, drunkeness, violence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women and children being mistreated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Idol worship in Ka’ba </li></ul></ul>Replacing the stone
  5. 5. How was Muhammad called? <ul><li>Night of Power </li></ul><ul><li>40 years old 611 CE </li></ul><ul><li>Angel Jibril </li></ul><ul><li>Told him to read </li></ul><ul><li>Messanger of God </li></ul><ul><li>Khadijah believed </li></ul><ul><li>First followers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cousin Ali </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Friend Abu Bakr </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freed slave Zayd </li></ul></ul>Cave on Mount Hira
  6. 6. How was he received? <ul><li>613 CE preached publically </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Idolatry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviour </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Persecuted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Threat to trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenging ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Persecution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Followers killed and tortured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sent 83 Muslims to Abyssinia (Ethiopia) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protected by uncle Abu Talib </li></ul>Praying at the Ka’ba
  7. 7. Year of sorrow 619 <ul><li>Khadijah dies </li></ul><ul><li>Abu Talib dies </li></ul><ul><li>Abu Lahab refuses to protect him </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Life in danger </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Visited Taif </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rejected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stoned </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Refugee in Makkah </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Muslim protects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emigration to Medina </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Makkans oposed </li></ul></ul>Road to Taif
  8. 8. What was the night journey? <ul><li>Travelled to ‘the farthest mosque (Al-Aqsa mosque in Jerusalem) </li></ul><ul><li>From the Rock he toured heaven and hell. </li></ul><ul><li>7th heaven met and led prophets in prayer </li></ul><ul><li>Throne of Allah </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Pray 50 times a day’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced to 5 times </li></ul></ul>Flying on Buraq
  9. 9. The Rock <ul><li>God told Abraham to offer his son as a burnt offering on Mount Moriah </li></ul><ul><li>The Bible says this son was Isaac </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims believe it was Ishmael </li></ul>The Rock
  10. 10. Holy site for Jews and Muslims <ul><li>On this rock the Jewish Temple was built </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims believe that on his Night Journey Muhammad went to visit heaven from this rock </li></ul><ul><li>Now it is covered by the Dome of the Rock shrine </li></ul>Model of Solomon’s Temple Dome of the Rock
  11. 11. Hijra 622 <ul><li>Emigration to Medina </li></ul><ul><ul><li>12 clans invited to become arbitrator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Escaped from Makkah </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Year 1 of Muslim calendar - 1 AH </li></ul><ul><li>Constitution of Medina </li></ul>
  12. 12. Conflict with Makkah <ul><li>Raided caravans </li></ul><ul><li>Battle Badr 624 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Victorious </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Battle Uhud </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defeated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two Jewish tribes expelled from Medina </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Seige of Medina </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jewish tribe punished </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treaty of Hudaybiyyah 628 </li></ul>
  13. 13. Conquered Makkah 630 <ul><li>Most Makkans converted </li></ul><ul><li>Amnesty for past offences </li></ul><ul><li>Idols in the Ka’ba destroyed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Icon of Mary and Jesus protected </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pagans offered Islam or the sword </li></ul><ul><li>Jews, Christians dhimmi status </li></ul>Muhammad, companions and angels advance on Makkah
  14. 14. Last sermon and death <ul><li>Preached last sermon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Islam perfect religion </li></ul></ul>Mosque of the Prophet on the site of his house in Medina  Died in Medina
  15. 15. Muhammad’s last sermon <ul><li>O People! It is true that you have certain rights in regard to your women, but they also have rights over you. Remember that you have taken them as your wives, only under Allah's trust and with His permission. If they abide by your right then to them belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. Do treat your women well and be kind to them, for they are your partners and committed helpers. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Last sermon continued <ul><li>All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over a black, nor a black has any superiority over a white - except by piety and good action. Learn that every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim and that the Muslims constitute one brotherhood. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Last sermon - conclusion <ul><li>Remember one day you will appear before Allah and answer for your deeds. So beware, do not stray from the path of righteousness after I am gone. People, no prophet or apostle will come after me and no new faith will be born. I leave behind me two things, the Qur’an and the Sunnah and if you follow these you will never go astray. </li></ul><ul><li>This day, I have perfected your religion for you, and have completed my favour upon you, and have chosen Islam for your religion. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Muhammad’s wives and family <ul><li>Khadijah </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Married 25 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 daughters, 2 sons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Before Hijra </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sawda (55 divorcee) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aisha (6) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After Hijra </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10 wives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Widows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alliance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safiyah (Jew) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Mothers of Belivers” </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad did housework </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue with wives </li></ul><ul><li>Wives important role </li></ul>Muhammad and Aisha
  19. 19. Muhammad’s legacy <ul><li>Rebel in Makkah </li></ul><ul><li>Statesman in Medina </li></ul><ul><li>Transformed society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Position of women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Welfare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Justice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ended feuding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condemned infanticide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved slaves status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restricted polygamy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ummah transcending tribal identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>United Arab tribes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Values and virtues </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. What is the Qur’an? <ul><li>Means ‘recitation’ </li></ul><ul><li>Dictated by Jibril </li></ul><ul><li>Chapters - surahs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Longest 1st </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Arabic </li></ul><ul><li>Miracle </li></ul><ul><li>Hafiz </li></ul>
  21. 21. Five pillars of Islam Qur’an The House of Islam Ummah Shahada Salah Zakah Sawm Hajj
  22. 22. 1. Shahadah <ul><li>“There is no god but Allah; and Muhammad is the messanger of Allah” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To become a Muslim recite this statement with a sincere heart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion of this, the Adhan (call to prayer), whispered into new born baby and is last utterance before dying </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. 2. Salah <ul><li>Muhammad said, “If one of you had a river right by his door and he bathed in it five times a day, do you think there would be any dirt left on him?” They said, “Not a trace.” He said, “That is how it is with the five prayers; by means of them God washes away all sins.” </li></ul><ul><li>Compulsary prayers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fajr - between dawn and sunrise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zuhr - after mid-day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asr - between late afternoon and sunset </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maghrib - between sunset and end of day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isha - night and before dawn </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Preparation for prayer <ul><li>Wudu </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wash hands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rinse out mouth 3X </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sniff water in nostrils 3X </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wash face 3X </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wash right then left arm 3X </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wipe hair, neck and ears with wet hands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wash right then left foot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shahada </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outward cleanliness symbolises inner purity of heart and soul necessary to enter presence of God who is holy </li></ul>
  25. 25. Salat <ul><li>Cover heads </li></ul><ul><li>Niyah - intention </li></ul><ul><li>Face Makkah </li></ul><ul><li>Opening prayer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allah Akbar, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the name of Allah, Most gracious, Most merciful, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Praise be to Allah, the Cherisher and Sustainer of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the Worlds, Most Gracious, Most Merciful Master of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the Day of Judgement, Thee do we worship and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>thine aid do we seek. Show us the straight way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(sharia). The way of those on whom Thou hast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bestowed Thy grace, those whose portion is not </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wrath and those who go not astray. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Rakahs Cycle of standing, bowing and prostrating with prayers. Finish by blessing fellow Muslims on left and right; greeting angels which record good and bad deeds.
  27. 27. Friday prayers In mosque Sermon
  28. 28. Mosque <ul><li>Place of prostration </li></ul><ul><li>Prayer hall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minbar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mihrab - Quiblah wall </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Minaret </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muezzin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dome </li></ul><ul><li>Calligraphy </li></ul><ul><li>Place for washing </li></ul><ul><li>Imam </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul>
  29. 29. 3. Zakah <ul><li>Purification of wealth by payment of annual welfare due. Word implies wholesomeness and blessing with potential for growth and fruit </li></ul><ul><li>2 1/2% of surplus income </li></ul><ul><li>Joyful duty, way of worshipping Allah </li></ul><ul><li>Purification of self from greed </li></ul><ul><li>Poor receive as a right </li></ul><ul><li>Supports Muslim unity and brotherhood </li></ul><ul><li>Part of economic system of redistribution </li></ul>
  30. 30. 4. Hajj <ul><li>Pilgrimage to Makkah once in a lifetime by all who can afford it </li></ul><ul><li>Re-established and reformed by Muhammad </li></ul><ul><li>8th-13th of Dhul-Hijjah </li></ul><ul><li>Ihram - white seamless garment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All the same in front of God </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purity of lifestyle and thoughts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recite Talbiyah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Here I am, O Allah, here I am! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Umrah <ul><li>Tawaf </li></ul><ul><li>Enter Sacred Mosque </li></ul><ul><li>Circle Ka’ba counter-clockwise 7 times </li></ul><ul><li>Kiss or point to the black stone </li></ul><ul><li>Run or walk between the hills of Safa and Marwah </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hagar ran between hills looking for water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drink water from Zamzam well </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Angel Jibril revealed location </li></ul></ul>Zamzam well
  32. 32. Al-Masjid al- Ḥ ar ā m The Sacred Mosque
  33. 33. Mina - 8th Dhul-Hijjah <ul><li>First offical day of Hajj </li></ul><ul><li>Travel to Mina where spend night in prayer </li></ul>
  34. 34. Arafat - 9th Dhul Hijjah <ul><li>Gather before Mount of Mercy on Plain of Arafat and prayer of repentance all day </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where God forgave Adam and Eve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arafat means ‘recognition’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where Muhammad preached last sermon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Travel to Muzdalifah </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pray </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collect 49 pebbles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rest in open air </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. 10th Dhul-Hijjah <ul><li>Stoning the devil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Throw stones at 3 pillars or walls symbolising the devil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abraham tempted not to sacrifice his son </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Eid-ul-Adha <ul><li>Feast of sacrifice </li></ul><ul><li>Remember Abraham willing to make supreme sacrifice </li></ul><ul><li>Sacrifice sheep, goat or camel </li></ul><ul><li>Shave heads or trim hair and beards </li></ul><ul><li>Hajji or hajjah </li></ul>Sacrificing a sheep in Afganistan
  37. 37. 5. Sawm <ul><li>Fasting during the month of Ramadan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appreciate God’s gifts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obedience, submission and worship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience what like to be hungry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop compassion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dawn tilll dusk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No food or water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eid-ul-Fitr </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Celebrate end of fast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visit graves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give gifts </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. What is Sharia? <ul><li>The straight path to God </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes limit of acceptable behaviour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sin - offence against God. Crossing boundary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shirk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zalim </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lying, cursing, envy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only God can forgive sin if sincerely repent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judgement day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Punishment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deterrance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reform of criminal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect society </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Content of Sharia <ul><li>Body of law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Family </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dhimmi status for non-Muslims </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International law </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Authority for law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Qur’an </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunnah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hadith </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Practices of the Prophet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schools of law </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. What is jihad? <ul><li>Jihad means ‘struggle in the way of Allah.’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose is to establish peace </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Greater jihad </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perfect self before changing society </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lesser jihad </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Struggle to remove evil, injustice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speak out against injustice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defend Islam from attack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spead Islam by creating environment where easier to convert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Majahid - person who dies doing jihad </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. When can war be called jihad? <ul><li>Started by a religious leader </li></ul><ul><li>Backing of ummah </li></ul><ul><li>Defensive </li></ul><ul><li>Peaceful means exhausted </li></ul><ul><li>Not to gain converts </li></ul><ul><li>Religious sites protected </li></ul><ul><li>Innocent not at risk </li></ul><ul><li>Not to gain land or power </li></ul><ul><li>Environment protected </li></ul>
  42. 42. Sunni-Shia division <ul><li>Disagreement about who should have inherited authority and leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Shia believed ruler should be from family of the Prophet. Mostly in Persia/Iran & Iraq </li></ul><ul><li>Sunni believed ruler could be any qualified person. Arabs and most Muslim countries </li></ul><ul><li>Some differences in practice and belief </li></ul>
  43. 43. One empire after another <ul><li>Umayyad dynasty (661-750) Sunni, Arab, capital Damascus. Later Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Abbasid dynasty (750-1258) Sunni/Shia, Arab/Persian, capital Bagdad. Power fractured amongst regional dynasties </li></ul><ul><li>Ottoman Empire (1299-1922) </li></ul><ul><li>Safavid dynasty (1501-1722) based in Persia </li></ul>
  44. 44. Umayyad dynasty (661-750) <ul><li>Sunni Arab </li></ul><ul><li>Capital Damascus </li></ul><ul><li>Huge expansion of Islamic lands </li></ul><ul><li>Continued in Spain until 1031 </li></ul>
  45. 45. Conquest of the Holy Land <ul><li>Caliph Umar conquered Palestine & Jerusalem from Byzantines in 638 </li></ul><ul><li>Al-Aksa Mosque built 674 </li></ul><ul><li>Dome of the Rock built in 687 </li></ul><ul><li>Jewish and Christian pilgrims allowed to freely visit holy sites </li></ul>Caliph Umar enters Jerusalem
  46. 46. Al-Aksa Mosque
  47. 47. Expansion of the Islamic Empire
  48. 48. Abbasid dynasty (750-1258) <ul><li>Sunni/Shia </li></ul><ul><li>Arab/Persian </li></ul><ul><li>Capital Bagdad </li></ul><ul><li>Power fractured amongst regional dynasties </li></ul><ul><li>Dynasty ended with the sack of Bagdad by the Mongols </li></ul>
  49. 49. New rulers, new policies <ul><li>Fatimid dynasty established in Egypt in 969 </li></ul><ul><li>Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr destroyed Church of the Holy Sepulchre in 1009 </li></ul><ul><li>Seljuk Turks defeated Byzantines at Battle of Manzikert in 1071 and seized Anatolia </li></ul><ul><li>Christian pilgrim routes threatened </li></ul><ul><li>Crusade to retake Jerusalem and protect pilgrims preached by Pope Urban II in 1095 </li></ul>
  50. 50. The Crusades <ul><li>There were 9 Crusades </li></ul><ul><li>Jerusalem captured in 1099 and its population massacred </li></ul><ul><li>Saladin recaptured Jerusalem in 1187 </li></ul><ul><li>Crusader rule in Syria ended 1291 </li></ul><ul><li>Constantinople conquered by Ottomans in 1453 </li></ul>
  51. 51. Ottoman Empire (1299 - 1923) Ottoman Empire expanded into Europe until defeated at 2 nd siege of Vienna 1683
  52. 52. Islam today
  53. 53. How does 9/11 fit in? <ul><li>Osama Bin Laden’s letter 11/24/2002 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Permission to fight (against disbelievers) is given to those (believers) who are fought against, because they have been wronged and surely, Allah is able to give them (believers) victory&quot; [Quran 22:39] </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. “ Why are we fighting and opposing you?” <ul><li>“ Because you attacked us” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Palestine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Somalia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support governments which oppress us </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support the Jews in false claim to Israel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steal oil at low prices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iraqi children starving </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ We have the right to resist” </li></ul><ul><li>“ No civilians because US is a democracy” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaders elected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxes fund the military </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. “ What are we calling you to, and what do we want from you?” <ul><li>“ The first thing that we are calling you to is Islam” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ The religion of the Unification of God sincerity, the best of manners, righteousness, mercy, honour, purity, and piety’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ It is the religion of showing kindness to others, establishing justice between them, granting them their rights, and defending the oppressed and the persecuted’ </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. <ul><li>“ The second thing we call you to, is to stop your oppression, lies, immorality and debauchery that has spread among you” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ We call you to be a people of manners, principles, honour, and purity; to reject the immoral acts of fornication, homosexuality, intoxicants, gambling's, and trading with interest’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invent own laws, exploit women, atom bomb, hypocrisy, </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. <ul><li>“ What we call you to thirdly is to take an honest stance with yourselves” </li></ul><ul><li>“ We also advise you to stop supporting Israel” </li></ul><ul><li>“ We also advise you to pack your luggage and get out of our lands” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Sixthly, we call upon you to end your support of the corrupt leaders in our countries” </li></ul><ul><li>“ We also call you to deal with us and interact with us on the basis of mutual interests and benefits” </li></ul>
  58. 58. Muslim contributions <ul><li>Learned, inherited and built upon knowledge from Greece and India </li></ul><ul><li>Science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemistry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Al-Chemy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Horticulture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Botany </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Mathematics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Algebra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Numbers </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. More contributions <ul><li>Medicine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard textbooks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Historiography </li></ul><ul><li>Geography </li></ul><ul><li>Commerce </li></ul><ul><li>Libraries </li></ul><ul><li>University </li></ul><ul><li>Art </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Inventions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telescope, pendulum, watch </li></ul></ul>Islamic tile
  60. 61. Religious leaders <ul><li>Imam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leads prayers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mufti </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Islamic scholar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues fatwas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ayatollah </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shia scholar leader </li></ul></ul>
  61. 62. Dress

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