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Islam:   History, values and culture Shahbaz Younis
PRESENTATION OUTLINE <ul><li>Introductory Remarks </li></ul><ul><li>Historical overview   </li></ul><ul><li>Islam as a mon...
Islam <ul><li>Founder: Muhammad Ibn (son of) Adballah </li></ul><ul><li>Born: 571 AD in Mecca, Arabia </li></ul><ul><li>De...
Quraiysh Qussaiy Abdmanaf Abdshams Hashem (Amneh+) Abdallah   Abutalib   Hamzeh  Alabbas   Abulahab  Alhareth   (661-750) ...
Historical Overview
• Mecca   • Medinah The Levant Mesopotamia The fertile Crescent H I j a z EGYPT ARABIA Dynasties of the  South
Middle East, 7th Century <ul><li>The Arabian Peninsula </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The source of Arabs and the Semitic race </li...
Byzantine Empire * Persian  Empire An Arabian  dynasty An Arabian  dynasty * •
<ul><li>571 Muhammad born in Mecca.  </li></ul><ul><li>610  First revelation in the Harraa cave (27 Ramadan).  </li></ul><...
Islam by the death of Mohammed 632
<ul><li>Abu-Bakr -  632-634 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first  elected  official. Wise leader, crisis manager </li></ul></ul...
Islam at 644, the year Omar died
The Ummayah Dynasty, 661-750 <ul><li>Empire center and capital move to Damascus </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion:  All N. Afric...
732, 100 Yrs after Mohammed
The Abbassides Dynasty, 750-1258 <ul><li>The center of the Empire moves to Iraq and Iran </li></ul><ul><li>Baghdad, built ...
Islam as Monotheistic Religion
<ul><li>Islam:   </li></ul><ul><li>” Surrender”,  related to ‘salaam’, or peace.  </li></ul><ul><li>Abraham, father of all...
<ul><li>The framework for Muslim life. Essential practices  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. The declaration of faith:  </li></ul>...
Jihad and the Conduct of War <ul><li>Islam is not addicted to war, and jihad is not one of its &quot;pillars” </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>Much of the Koran revealed in the context of an all-out war imposed on early  </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims by the pow...
Jihad and the Conduct of War <ul><li>Warfare is always evil.  Sometimes you have to fight to avoid persecution.  e.g., the...
Relation with other Faiths <ul><li>Like the Torah, the Quran permits retaliation eye for eye, tooth for tooth.  </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Islam did not impose itself by the sword. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;There must be no coercion in matters of fait...
<ul><li>Charity, Charity, Charity …. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On top of  the Zakat. Help the orphan, the poor, the ill, the l...
<ul><li>Right and Status of Women </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminated many pre-Islamic discriminatory practices </li></ul><ul><li...
Science and Civilization
<ul><li>A dedicated quest for knowledge and a burst of scientific innovation  </li></ul><ul><li>in a multi-ethnic and mult...
<ul><li>Medicine and Pharmacy </li></ul><ul><li>Chemistry and Physics </li></ul><ul><li>Mathmatics </li></ul><ul><li>Astro...
Medicine and Pharmacy <ul><li>Institutionalized and regulated the practice of Medicine and Pharmacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Abu-bakr Elrazzy ; 9th Century  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Father of Physicians, great clinician and experimentalist  <...
<ul><li>Arabic terms and methods of preparation for Alkali, Alcohol, Tartarate  </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered and prepared ...
<ul><li>Arabic numeral and the decimal system of numbers.  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right     Left.  English. But 1000 </li>...
<ul><li>Astrology (myth)    Astronomy (science) </li></ul><ul><li>Movement, path, and location of planets and stars </li>...
Sunni and Shiha <ul><li>Sunni </li></ul><ul><li>90% of Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>Follow the Quran and the Hadeeth as we ha...
Important Holidays <ul><li>Al-adhaa (the sacrifice)   </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolizes Abraham attempt to sacrifice his son Is...
Islam Today <ul><li>1.3 Billion worldwide, three continents  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0.3 Billion Arabs </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
<ul><li>Farouq Elbaz (Egypt), NASA, the moon mission </li></ul><ul><li>Ahmed H. Zewail (Egypt) Winner of the 1999 Nobel Pr...
Arab Americans <ul><li>Casey Kasem and Don Bustany (Lebanon) creators of radio's American  </li></ul><ul><li>Top 40 </li><...
<ul><li>“ History of the Arabs”, Philip Hitti </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Arab People”, Albert Hourany </li></ul><ul><li>“ Isl...
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Islam History, Value, Cultures

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Islam History, Value, Cultures

  1. 1. Islam: History, values and culture Shahbaz Younis
  2. 2. PRESENTATION OUTLINE <ul><li>Introductory Remarks </li></ul><ul><li>Historical overview </li></ul><ul><li>Islam as a monotheistic religion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the Quran </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>God or Allah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pillars and values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>social code and reforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>relation with other faiths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the Sunni and Shiha sects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Science and civilization </li></ul><ul><li>Islam today, and Arab Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Suggested reading, distribution of </li></ul><ul><li>educational material </li></ul><ul><li>Qs & As </li></ul>
  3. 3. Islam <ul><li>Founder: Muhammad Ibn (son of) Adballah </li></ul><ul><li>Born: 571 AD in Mecca, Arabia </li></ul><ul><li>Descendant of Abraham </li></ul><ul><li>Nicknames: Almustapha (the chosen), Alamin (the faithful) </li></ul><ul><li>Titles: The prophet, the messenger (Alrasul) </li></ul><ul><li>Tribe: Quraiysh </li></ul><ul><li>Holy Book: The Quran, derived from ‘read’ </li></ul>
  4. 4. Quraiysh Qussaiy Abdmanaf Abdshams Hashem (Amneh+) Abdallah Abutalib Hamzeh Alabbas Abulahab Alhareth (661-750) (750-1258) Muhammad Ali Adbelmuttalib Ummayah Dynasty Abbbassides Dynasty Abraham Ismail Adnan
  5. 5. Historical Overview
  6. 6. • Mecca • Medinah The Levant Mesopotamia The fertile Crescent H I j a z EGYPT ARABIA Dynasties of the South
  7. 7. Middle East, 7th Century <ul><li>The Arabian Peninsula </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The source of Arabs and the Semitic race </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly desert, few urbanized areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban centers, Mecca </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainly tribal society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First mention of ‘Arabs’, 854 B.C. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arabs of the North and Arabs of the South </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynasties in the south </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Christianity (inclusive), Judaism (exclusive), polytheism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The Sassanid or Persian Empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ailing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Byzantine or Eastern Roman Empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Christianity is the state religion, 3rd century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A foreign occupying power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sectarian conflicts with the locals </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Byzantine Empire * Persian Empire An Arabian dynasty An Arabian dynasty * •
  9. 9. <ul><li>571 Muhammad born in Mecca. </li></ul><ul><li>610 First revelation in the Harraa cave (27 Ramadan). </li></ul><ul><li>622 “Hijra”or Escape. Muhammad and followers escape prosecution </li></ul><ul><li>and go to Almadinah (Yathrib). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Year 1 in the Islamic calendar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Missionaries’ sent all over Arabia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>building peaceful coalition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>629 Muhammad conquers Mecca peacefully (NO REVENGE) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>destroys idols in Alqaaba. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>single-handedly, brings peace to war-torn Arabia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>632 Muhammad dies in Almadinah. Unmarked grave (his will) </li></ul>Islam, 610-632
  10. 10. Islam by the death of Mohammed 632
  11. 11. <ul><li>Abu-Bakr - 632-634 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first elected official. Wise leader, crisis manager </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Omar Ibn Elkhattab - 634-644 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A first-rate statesman. Honest, modest and just. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conquered the Levant, Egypt, Iraq, Persia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Damascus (9 / 635) and Jerusalem (5 / 638) surrender peacefully </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Omar’s pledge to the Jerusalemites </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A modern state: Treasury, communication, defense. Engraved currency. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Othman bin Affan - 644-656 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collected and compiled the Quran </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergence of power struggle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ali Bin Abitalib - 656-661 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power struggle escalated to armed conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergence of political parties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End of democracy. Ummayah Dynasty in Damascus, Muawyia (661-680) </li></ul></ul>632-661: the Four Elected Successors (Caliphs )
  12. 12. Islam at 644, the year Omar died
  13. 13. The Ummayah Dynasty, 661-750 <ul><li>Empire center and capital move to Damascus </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion: All N. Africa (Atlantic), W. Europe, much of C. Asia, the wall of China </li></ul><ul><ul><li>711: Conquer of Spain and Portugal. Tariq Bin Ziyad </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expansion into W. Europe blocked in France by Charles Martial, 732 </li></ul><ul><li>Power Struggle continues, but the Caliphs brutally liquidate all rivals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Karbalaa in S. Iraq (10 Nov, 680) and the emerge of the Shiha </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Addelmalek builds Al-Aqsa Mosque and the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem (691) </li></ul><ul><li>Massive translation of Greek and Indian writings </li></ul><ul><li>Arabization of the empire </li></ul><ul><li>Bloom of architecture, arts, agriculture, and science </li></ul>
  14. 14. 732, 100 Yrs after Mohammed
  15. 15. The Abbassides Dynasty, 750-1258 <ul><li>The center of the Empire moves to Iraq and Iran </li></ul><ul><li>Baghdad, built 762 AD by Almansur (2nd Caliph). </li></ul><ul><li>With over 2 M, Baghdad becomes the glamorous center of the world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Science, art, architecture, learning, and wealth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lighted streets, public baths, public libraries and hospitals everywhere </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other dynasties in Egypt, Spain, and parts of the Levant. </li></ul><ul><li>A 2nd Ummayah dynasty in Spain, 9th century </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Qurtoba (Cordova) competes with Baghdad </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cairo, built 968 AD </li></ul>
  16. 16. Islam as Monotheistic Religion
  17. 17. <ul><li>Islam: </li></ul><ul><li>” Surrender”, related to ‘salaam’, or peace. </li></ul><ul><li>Abraham, father of all prophets, is the first Muslim </li></ul><ul><li>Islam is also a code for social conduct </li></ul><ul><li>Quran plus the authentic statements of Muhammad (Hadith) = Shareeha (constitution), as Interpreted by Islamic scholars </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad is the last prophet (33: 40). </li></ul><ul><li>Gabriel highest ranking angel </li></ul><ul><li>The Quran: </li></ul><ul><li>Islam’s holy book, an inspired scripture. God’s word inspired to his messenger, </li></ul><ul><li>114 Chapters (chapter = Surah), 4 to >200 verses/chapter (verse = Aiyah) </li></ul><ul><li>Confirms most narratives and prophets of the Jewish and Christian faiths </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Special place for Virgin Mary, the only female (the Chapter of Mary) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Allah is the word for God used by Christian and Muslim Arabs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>God = Allah (Arabic) = Eluhim (Hebrew) = El (Aramaic) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One and only one God, no trinity </li></ul><ul><li>Arabic as the language of the Quran </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>The framework for Muslim life. Essential practices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. The declaration of faith: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;There is no deity but God, and Muhammad is the messenger of God&quot; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Prayer: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Five obligatory prayers each day. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A direct link between the worshiper and God. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No hierarchical authority or priesthood </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 . Zakat: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Obligatory charitable giving. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wealth belong to God and it is held in trust by humans. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zakat , or, &quot;purification&quot; by setting aside a portion (2.5%) for the needy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Fasting: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>From sunrise to sunset during the holy month of Ramadan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Pilgrimage: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A pilgrimage (Hajj) to Mecca, Arabia. Only those who can </li></ul></ul></ul>The 'Five Pillars' of Islam
  19. 19. Jihad and the Conduct of War <ul><li>Islam is not addicted to war, and jihad is not one of its &quot;pillars” </li></ul><ul><li>Jihad in Arabic does not mean &quot;holy war”. It means &quot;struggle” or “strive”. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the difficult effort needed to put God's will into practice at every level </li></ul><ul><li>The &quot;greater jihad” in the Quran is that of the soul, of the tongue, of the pen, of faith, of morality, etc. The &quot;smaller jihad&quot; is that of arms. </li></ul><ul><li>Many directives in the authentic statements of Muhammad (Hadiths): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He told his companions as they go home after a battle &quot;We are returning from the lesser jihad [the battle] to the greater jihad, at home&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three levels: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal: That of the soul </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal: Raising one's voice in the name of Allah on behalf of justice. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>&quot; The most excellent jihad is the speaking of truth in the face of a tyrant &quot; (Hadith) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical: Combat waged in defense against oppression and transgression. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Profoundly misunderstood in today's world . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Much of the Koran revealed in the context of an all-out war imposed on early </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims by the powerful city of Mecca, and many passages deal with the conduct </li></ul><ul><li>of armed struggle. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>While one finds &quot; slay [enemies] wherever you find them!&quot; (e.g., 4: 89), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in almost every case it is followed by something like &quot;if they let you be, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and do not make war on you, and offer you peace, God does not allow you </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to harm them&quot; (2:90; 4: 90; 5: 2; 8: 61; 22: 39) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Since good and evil cannot be equal, repel thou evil with something that is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>better, and love he between whom and thy self was enmity may then become </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>as though he had always been close unto thee, a true friend&quot; (41:34) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>God does not allow harm of civilian, and requests the protection of women, </li></ul><ul><li>children and the elderly during war (4:96; 9: 91; 48: 16,17) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ If any one slew a person--unless it be for murder or for spreading mischief </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in the land--it would be as if he slew the whole people; and if anyone saved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a life, it would be as if he saved the life of the whole people.” (5:32) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>You shall feed and protect prisoners of war, and you shall not expect a </li></ul><ul><li>reward (4: 25,36; 5:24) </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, the only permissible war in the Quran is one of self-defense, you </li></ul><ul><li>cannot kill unarmed (civilian), and you have to protect prisoners of war </li></ul>Jihad and the Conduct of War
  21. 21. Jihad and the Conduct of War <ul><li>Warfare is always evil. Sometimes you have to fight to avoid persecution. e.g., the one Mecca inflicted on early Muslims (2: 191; 2: 217), or to preserve decent values (4: 75; 22: 40) </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims may not begin hostilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Fight in the cause of Allah those who fight you, but do not transgress limits; for Allah loves not transgressors.&quot; (2: 190). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Notice: Defensive war, fight back </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Hostilities must be brought to an end as quickly as possible, and must cease the minute the enemy sues for peace (2:192-3; 41:34) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Martyrdom’: Those killed during fighting or while doing civic duties (martyrs) are promised a place in heaven (several passages, e.g., 2:154; 3:169-172) </li></ul><ul><li>However, suicide is not allowed; it is forbidden and condemned (e.g., 6:151, 17:33, 25:68) </li></ul><ul><li>One of my favorite Hadiths </li></ul><ul><ul><li>'Do not attack a temple, a church, a synagogue. Do not bring a tree or a plant down. Do not harm a horse or a camel’ </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Relation with other Faiths <ul><li>Like the Torah, the Quran permits retaliation eye for eye, tooth for tooth. </li></ul><ul><li>But, like the Gospels, it says “it is meritorious to forgo revenge in a spirit of charity (5: 45) </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledges Adam, Noah, Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Moses, </li></ul><ul><li>David, Solomon, Zacharia, Jesus, John the paptist, and others as the “ the good prophets of God” </li></ul><ul><li>A special place for Jesus and Mary (e.g., 3:45,46; 4:156-158; 19:1-98) </li></ul><ul><li>Accepts that Mary’s conception is from God’s soul. </li></ul><ul><li>Rejects the divinity of Jesus (no trinity). </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus was not killed (e.g., 4:155-159; 5:17-19) </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Islam did not impose itself by the sword. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;There must be no coercion in matters of faith&quot; (2: 256) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Muslims have to respect Jews and Christians, the &quot;People of the Book,&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>who worship the same God (e.g., 2:62; 29:46). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;And dispute ye not with the People of the Book , except with means better, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>unless it be with those of them who inflict wrong: but say, 'We believe in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the revelation which has come down to us and in that which came down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to you; Our Allah and your Allah is one ; and it is to Him we bow.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In one of his last public sermons Muhammad said </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ God tells all human beings, &quot;O people! We have formed you into nations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and tribes so that you may know one another&quot; (49: 13). Do not conquer, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>convert, subjugate, revile or slaughter but to reach out toward others with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>intelligence and understanding” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Levant remained mainly Christian for almost 200 Yrs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No one was forced to convert to Islam </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The right of all faiths to warship was respected </li></ul><ul><li>Sites of warship, holy places and shrines of all faiths were protected </li></ul>Relation with other Faiths
  24. 24. <ul><li>Charity, Charity, Charity …. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On top of the Zakat. Help the orphan, the poor, the ill, the lost, the homeless, the elderly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endless times in the Quran (16 times in Chapters 2-5 alone) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Freedom, Integrity, Equality, Justice …. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ An hour of justice by a ruler is better than sixty days of hard work” (Hadith) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endless request for justice in the Quran (e.g., 2: 282; 6; 152) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ O mankind, We’ve created you from a male and a female and have made </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>you nations and tribes that you may know and interact with each other. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The noblest of you in the sight of God is the best in conduct” (49:13). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No Arab is privileged over non-Arab but by his or her conduct (Hadith) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All people are equal like the teeth of a comb (Hadith) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ You are not considered faithful in the sight of God unless you like for </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>your brother (read, others) what you like for yourself ” (Hadith) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>when you are greeted with a greeting of peace, answer with an even better greeting, or at least the like thereof &quot; (4: 86). </li></ul></ul></ul>Social Justice
  25. 25. <ul><li>Right and Status of Women </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminated many pre-Islamic discriminatory practices </li></ul><ul><li>Gave women rights (e.g., inheritance) and equality to men, both were made </li></ul><ul><li>from a single soul (e.g., 4:1) </li></ul><ul><li>Limited the number of wives a man can marry </li></ul><ul><li>Treat women with kindness and respect their rights as equal to men </li></ul><ul><li>The hijab or head scarf </li></ul><ul><li>Modest dress apply to women and men equally (Quran and Hadith). </li></ul><ul><li>Women are required to cover their bodies so that their figure is not revealed. </li></ul><ul><li>Women are not required to cover their faces. </li></ul><ul><li>The forbidden or ‘taboo’ (muharramat) include pork, blood, improperly butchered </li></ul><ul><li>animals, baby animals, gambling, and charging interest </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol drinking was gradually disallowed </li></ul>Other Values
  26. 26. Science and Civilization
  27. 27. <ul><li>A dedicated quest for knowledge and a burst of scientific innovation </li></ul><ul><li>in a multi-ethnic and multi-faith society </li></ul><ul><li>Lasted for over 8 centuries, and produced a plethora of knowledge and </li></ul><ul><li>discoveries in all disciplines </li></ul><ul><li>Induced the later European renaissance </li></ul><ul><li>The Arabic tong, invigorated by the Quran, was the vehicle, and tolerant, </li></ul><ul><li>inclusive, and knowledge-advocate Islamic faith was the culture </li></ul><ul><li>Repeated requests in both the Quran and the Hadith for seeking </li></ul><ul><li>knowledge, and application of rational thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek knowledge even in China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek knowledge from crib to grave </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On judgement day, the ink of scientists is valued by God higher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>than the blood of martyrs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The two important disciplines of science are theology and Biology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Initially, massive translation of Greek and Indian writings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>preserved all literary and scientific works and transmitted them to Europe </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Medicine and Pharmacy </li></ul><ul><li>Chemistry and Physics </li></ul><ul><li>Mathmatics </li></ul><ul><li>Astronomy </li></ul>
  29. 29. Medicine and Pharmacy <ul><li>Institutionalized and regulated the practice of Medicine and Pharmacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The modern concept of clinics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Board exams and license to practice. Regulatory boards (FDA's!!!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classification of plants and Algae for their medical use, and outlined possible side effects (PDR’s!!) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hospitals : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tens, including specialized, in each of Baghdad, Qurtoba, and Damascus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile hospitals for emergency. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Departments and University Hospitals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patients records and vital signs, urine tests, family history. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Surgery : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Threads from animals intestine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opium and Hashish for Anesthesia. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol as disinfectant. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment of cataract, and removal of kidney and gallbladder stones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Autopsy !!! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students training (Anatomy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause of death </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Abu-bakr Elrazzy ; 9th Century </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Father of Physicians, great clinician and experimentalist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many books including “Smallpox and Measles” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ibn-Elhaytham : 10th Century </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multidisciplinary scientist. Ophthalmologist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanism of sight. Function of the eye </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 100 books in Med. and Math. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ibn-Seena (Avisai) : 10th Century </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The “Qannun”, the medical text book in Europe till 19th Cen. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Described the medical use of over 2700 plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light has a finite speed, which is much faster than the speed of sound </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ibn-Rushd (Aviros) : 13th Century </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Philosopher and Physician. Many books </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ibn-Elnafees : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood circulation and the role of lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abulkassim Alzahrawi (Abulcasis or Albucasis) : 11th Century </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the greatest surgeons. A good dentist and GP. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Removal of breast cancer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hemophilia and its hereditary transmission (female to male) </li></ul></ul>Known Physicians
  31. 31. <ul><li>Arabic terms and methods of preparation for Alkali, Alcohol, Tartarate </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered and prepared in pure form 28 elements (Ibn Elhaytham) </li></ul><ul><li>The processes of crystallization, fermentation, distillation, sublimation, </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation of acids (H 2 SO 4 , HCl, HNO 3 ) and bases (NaOH) </li></ul><ul><li>Light travels in straight lines. Laws of refraction, reflection and illusion of light. </li></ul><ul><li>Eluded to the Magnetic properties of some objects </li></ul>Chemistry and Physics
  32. 32. <ul><li>Arabic numeral and the decimal system of numbers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right  Left. English. But 1000 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Arithmetic. Roots and powers </li></ul><ul><li>Algorithm = Alkhawarismi </li></ul><ul><li>The mathematical ZERO </li></ul><ul><li>Algebra (combining fractions). </li></ul><ul><li>The Use of (x, y, z) to solve complex arithmetic/geometric problems </li></ul><ul><li>Trigonometry (Albairuni and Albuzjani), differential and Integral. </li></ul><ul><li>  = 3.141596535898732. </li></ul><ul><li>Some known Mathematicians: </li></ul><ul><li>Abu-bakr Alkhawarismi </li></ul><ul><li>Thabit Ibn Qarra (9th Century). Calculus. </li></ul><ul><li>Ibn-elhaytham </li></ul><ul><li>Albairuni (10th Century) </li></ul><ul><li>Albuzjani </li></ul><ul><li>Omar Elkhayam (2° & 3° equations) </li></ul>Mathematics
  33. 33. <ul><li>Astrology (myth)  Astronomy (science) </li></ul><ul><li>Movement, path, and location of planets and stars </li></ul><ul><li>The Asturlab </li></ul><ul><li>Earth is spherical and rotates along its axis and around the sun. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calculated earth circumference (Albairuni) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calculated the time needed for one rotation around the sun (solar year), with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>an error of 2’ 22” only (Albattani) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calculated the equinoxes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Current names of most constellations, and many stars are from Arabic </li></ul><ul><li>Some known astronomists: </li></ul><ul><li>Alkindy (9th Century) </li></ul><ul><li>Albattani (9th Century) </li></ul><ul><li>Ibn-elhaytham (11th Century) </li></ul><ul><li>Thabit Ibn Qarra </li></ul><ul><li>Almajreeti </li></ul>Astronomy
  34. 34. Sunni and Shiha <ul><li>Sunni </li></ul><ul><li>90% of Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>Follow the Quran and the Hadeeth as we have them today, </li></ul><ul><li>and as interpreted by the Sunni scholars </li></ul><ul><li>Shiha </li></ul><ul><li>Came to be as a sect after 680 A.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Believe in the Quran and Hadeeth, like Sunni </li></ul><ul><li>However, they place Ali very high as a holy figure, and think ‘main stream’ </li></ul><ul><li>Islam discriminated against him </li></ul><ul><li>Today Shiah is mainly in Iran (90%), Iraq (55%) and Lebanon (~40%) </li></ul>
  35. 35. Important Holidays <ul><li>Al-adhaa (the sacrifice) </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolizes Abraham attempt to sacrifice his son Ishmael by God’s request. </li></ul><ul><li>Should sacrifice an animal and give the food to the poor. </li></ul><ul><li>The pilgrimage to Mecca </li></ul><ul><li>Alfetr </li></ul><ul><li>Observed at the end of the holy month of Ramadan (the fasting month) </li></ul><ul><li>The Islamic New Year </li></ul><ul><li>Yr 1, Islamic calendar = 622 A.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Alisraa Walmaaraj </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolizes the ascending, in Jerusalem, of Mohammed's soul to heaven </li></ul><ul><li>The Birthday of Muhammad </li></ul><ul><li>Ashuraa day (Shiha only) </li></ul>
  36. 36. Islam Today <ul><li>1.3 Billion worldwide, three continents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0.3 Billion Arabs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indonesia (200 M) > India (180 M) > Pakistan (160 M) > Bangladesh (120 M) > </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>China (80 M) > Egypt (70 M) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There are about 20 M Christian Arabs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Egypt > Syria > Lebanon > Palestine > Iraq </li></ul></ul><ul><li>About 7 M Muslims in the USA, 3-4 M are Arabs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roughly half of the Arab Americans are Christians </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Farouq Elbaz (Egypt), NASA, the moon mission </li></ul><ul><li>Ahmed H. Zewail (Egypt) Winner of the 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, </li></ul><ul><li>Cal. Tech. </li></ul><ul><li>Saleh Wakeel (Iraq), member of the Nat’l Acad. Sci., Biochemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Qais Elawqati (Iraq), member of the Nat’l Acad. Sci., Microbiology </li></ul><ul><li>Majdi Yacub, first open heart surgery </li></ul><ul><li>Michael Debakee (Lebanon), chief cardiologist of the White House </li></ul><ul><li>Ralph Nader (Lebanon), consumer advocate, Green Party founder, </li></ul><ul><li>and 2000 presidential candidate </li></ul><ul><li>John Sununu (Palestine), White House Ex-Chief of Staff </li></ul><ul><li>John Sununu JR., current state governor </li></ul><ul><li>Donna E. Shalala (Lebanon), Ex secretary of HHS </li></ul><ul><li>Helen Thomas, Ex dean of the White House press corps. </li></ul><ul><li>Edward Attiyeh (Syria), Ex governor of OR </li></ul><ul><li>Spencer Abraham (Lebanon), Secretary of Energy </li></ul><ul><li>George Mitchell </li></ul>Arab Americans
  38. 38. Arab Americans <ul><li>Casey Kasem and Don Bustany (Lebanon) creators of radio's American </li></ul><ul><li>Top 40 </li></ul><ul><li>Mustapha Elaqqad (Syria), Hollywood movie director </li></ul><ul><li>(director of the ‘Halloween’ series) </li></ul><ul><li>Tom Shadyac (Lebanon), Hollywood movie director </li></ul><ul><li>Salma Hayic (Lebanon), a Hollywood star </li></ul><ul><li>Yasser Seirawan (Syria), US Chess Champion </li></ul><ul><li>Jacques Nasser, president and CEO of Ford Motor Co </li></ul><ul><li>Ray Irani CEO of Occidental Petroleum (Exxon Mobil) Co </li></ul><ul><li>The Hyatt, Hagar, and Farah enterprises </li></ul><ul><li>Christina McAuliffe, an astronaut who died aboard the space shuttle </li></ul><ul><li>Challenger </li></ul><ul><li>Candy Lightner, founder of MADD </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>“ History of the Arabs”, Philip Hitti </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Arab People”, Albert Hourany </li></ul><ul><li>“ Islam, An Empire of Faith”, PBS Video, 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Islam: A Short History”, Karen Armstrong, 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Muhammad”, Karen Armstrong, 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Jihad: A Commitment to Universal Peace” , Marcel A. Boisard, American Trust </li></ul><ul><li>Publications, 1988 </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Oxford History of Islam”, John L Esposito, ed. 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Islam: The Straight Path”, John L Esposito, ed. 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Meaning of the Holy Quran”, Abdullah Yusif, Ali, 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Lives of the Prophets”, Leila Azzam, 1995 </li></ul><ul><li>“ From Difference to Equas”, George Kindy, and Philip Saliba, eds., NYAS, 1994 </li></ul><ul><li>Science in Medieval Islam, Howard R Turner, 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>Arab American Encyclopedia, Anan Ameri, and Dawn Ramey, eds., 2000 </li></ul>Suggested Reading

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