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Islam

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Islam

  1. 1. Pre Class <ul><li>List 5 things that you know (or think you know) about the religion of Islam, Islamic culture and history. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Arab? Islam? Muslim? Islamic? <ul><li>Arab – someone who speaks Arabic </li></ul><ul><li>Islam – the faith founded by Muhammad </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim – someone who practices the religion of Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic – describing an object (ie. Islamic country, Islamic calendar, Islamic law) </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Arab World
  4. 4. Islam - religion started by Muhammad and his teachings/revelations from Allah <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Means “submission” –people must throw themselves upon the mercy of God (submit) in order to be saved </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Muslim” – people who practice the religion of Islam </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Arabia Before Muhammad <ul><li>Bedouin tribes – nomadic animal herders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Worshipped pagan gods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constantly at war (scarcity of water, resources) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mecca </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular because of the Kaaba (tribes worshipped pagan gods) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prosperous – Kaaba made it a center of trade </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Muhammad <ul><li>born in Mecca 570 A.D. (Arabian Peninsula) </li></ul><ul><li>“ revelation” from God in a cave </li></ul><ul><li>preached MONOTHEISM (one God) and social justice </li></ul>
  7. 7. Why didn’t Arabs like Muhammad's message? <ul><li>Threatened their gods/way of life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>monotheism, non-violence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Threatened their power and wealth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kaaba brought trade and prosperity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rich had to give to poor </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. 622-The Hijra <ul><li>Muhammad forced out of Mecca and went to Yathrib (Medina - city of the prophet) </li></ul><ul><li>began the religion of Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Year 1 on Muslim calendar </li></ul>
  9. 11. Prophet’s Mosque-Medina                              
  10. 12. 630 Muhammad returns to Mecca <ul><li>captures the city </li></ul><ul><li>Died in 632 </li></ul>
  11. 13. Kaaba <ul><li>Before Muhammad: </li></ul><ul><li>“ black stone” worshipped, along with pagan gods </li></ul><ul><li>After Muhammad: </li></ul><ul><li>re-dedicated to one God (Allah) </li></ul><ul><li>1 st mosque (Muslim house of worship) </li></ul><ul><li>Sight of the hajj </li></ul>
  12. 15. Why does Islam spread? <ul><li>Social justice message – non-violence, equality </li></ul><ul><li>Strength of Muhammad’s forces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New power in Arabia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People converted to Islam </li></ul></ul>
  13. 16. Muhammad’s Teachings <ul><ul><li>Allah was the one and only God and all should submit and be thankful to Him </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All believers in Allah were equal under Him (SOCIAL JUSTICE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rich should share wealth with the poor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allah knows people’s destiny, but they should strive to live good lives </li></ul></ul>                               
  14. 17. <ul><li>Christians and Jews “people of the book” </li></ul><ul><li>required to treat them with tolerance </li></ul>
  15. 18. How have religions spread??
  16. 19. <ul><li>Faith </li></ul><ul><li>Daily prayer </li></ul><ul><li>Almsgiving </li></ul><ul><li>Fast </li></ul><ul><li>Pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj) </li></ul>Five Pillars of Islam
  17. 20. Testament of Faith <ul><li>There is ONE God, Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet </li></ul>
  18. 21. Daily Prayer <ul><li>Pray five times a day </li></ul><ul><li>facing Mecca </li></ul><ul><li>In Arabic </li></ul>
  19. 23. Almsgiving <ul><li>Charity to the poor and aged </li></ul><ul><li>2.5% of possessions </li></ul>
  20. 24. Fast <ul><li>during the month of Ramadan </li></ul><ul><li>NO food – sunrise to sunset </li></ul><ul><li>Refrain from violence, harsh language, gossip, etc. </li></ul>
  21. 25. Dates – used to break fasts by many Muslims (Kuwait)
  22. 26. Hajj <ul><li>“ pilgrimage” to Mecca </li></ul><ul><li>All Muslims who are able must make the journey </li></ul>
  23. 28. The Black Stone, surrounded by its silver frame and the black cloth kiswah on the Kaaba in Mecca A 1315 image of Muhammad lifting the Black Stone into place, when the Kaaba was rebuilt in the early 600s. [27]
  24. 40. The Koran <ul><li>Sacred book </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad’s miracle </li></ul><ul><li>God’s final message to his people </li></ul><ul><li>Final authority for Muslims, on: religion, politics, law, economic, and social life </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic Law – Sharia </li></ul>
  25. 41. Islam: After Muhammad's Death <ul><li>AD 632 – Muhammad dies </li></ul><ul><li>Abu Bakr takes over as caliph (successor to the prophet; political leader of Islam) </li></ul><ul><li>AD 661 – Ali, the 4th caliph (relative of Muhammad) is murdered </li></ul><ul><li>Dispute over who will be the next successor erupts!!! </li></ul>
  26. 42. Sunnis/Shiites: SIMILARITIES <ul><li>Monotheistic (believe in one God = Allah) </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad = prophet </li></ul><ul><li>Koran – unchanging EXACT word of God </li></ul><ul><li>Hadith/Sunnah </li></ul><ul><li>Sharia (Islamic law) </li></ul><ul><li>Worship in mosques </li></ul><ul><li>Mecca = holy city </li></ul><ul><li>5 Pillars = responsibilities as Muslims </li></ul>
  27. 43. Islam Splits <ul><li>SUNNISM </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Any devout Muslim can be caliph </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on Koran, Hadith and Sunnah </li></ul><ul><li>Scholars interpret Koran </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t recognize imams/ayatollahs </li></ul><ul><li>No clergymen </li></ul><ul><li>85-90% </li></ul><ul><li>SHIISM </li></ul><ul><li>“ Ali’s Party” </li></ul><ul><li>Caliph must be direct descendant of Muhammad </li></ul><ul><li>Believe Muhammad chose first imam (Ali) </li></ul><ul><li>Imam – leader – interprets Koran/Hadith </li></ul><ul><li>Ayatollahs issue decrees on Islamic law </li></ul><ul><li>10-15% </li></ul>
  28. 44. Pre Class <ul><ul><li>Which difference between Sunnis and Shiites do you believe is the most significant? Why? </li></ul></ul>
  29. 46. Islam’s Zenith
  30. 47. Expansion of Islam <ul><li>Spread beliefs and gain riches </li></ul><ul><li>Arab armies launched Jihad (holy war) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To defend Islam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Struggle within” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>732 Arabs conquer empire from Indus river, to Atlantic Ocean </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance/ taxes on non-believers </li></ul>

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