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# oPTIONAL I - Unit II FLUENCY

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1. Use of conventional formulae - greeting - apology - invitation - refusal - accepting - thanking.
2. Describing and interpreting picture, tables, graphs, maps, etc.
3. Various concepts and ways in which they are expressed - construction - suggestion – prohibition - permission - probability - likelihood - possibility - obligation - necessity - concession.
4. Oral drills - Repetition drills - Mechanical drills - Substitution drills

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• Use the analogy of the signs of risk for heart attack.
Rather than teaching phonics in a scattered fashion and only when children encounter difficulty.
So that children do not have to think about sounding out a word when they need to focus on meaning.
• Sounds in : sat - /s/ /a/ /t/ - change the s to p = pat
change the a to i = sit
change the t to a = sam
What are the sounds (phonemes) in “truck”, “shrimp,” and “check?”
• Counting – clap the number of words in a sentence or syllables in a word
• ### oPTIONAL I - Unit II FLUENCY

1. 1. UNIT II: Fluency Use of conventional formulae - greeting - apology invitation - refusal - accepting - thanking. 1. 2. Describing and interpreting picture, tables, graphs, maps, etc. 3. Various concepts and ways in which they are expressed - construction - suggestion – prohibition permission - probability - likelihood - possibility obligation - necessity - concession. 4. Oral drills - Repetition drills - Mechanical drills Substitution drills
2. 2. Use of conventional formulae - greeting - apology - invitation - refusal accepting - thanking.  We should know “what to say” in a particular context and “how to say” it.  We should learn how to use language for carrying out various communicative functions.  There are certain conventional formulae in English generally used in such communicative functions.
3. 3. Greetings Some of the common expressions of greetings are given below. Nice to see you after a long time. Hi, Rajesh! How are you? Hi/Hello, Everybody! How’z life? I hope you are well. How nice to see you again. Choice of the appropriate expression depends on the degree of intimacy with the person. Expressions such as Hi and Hello are used in informal context with friends. Others are used in very formal, indicative of respect to seniors.
4. 4. Apologising Good manners and common courtesy demand expressions of apology. Some of the common expressions are the following – Sorry I am really sorry Pardon me … Please accept my apology for… Please forgive me for… I owe you an apology
5. 5. Response to apology That’s alright Not at all Please don’t worry Don’t feel bad about it please. It doesn’t matter at all While in the company of others when we want to sneeze, cough or hiccup or interrupt someone talking, we apologize saying sorry or excuse me.
6. 6. Inviting The commonly used expressions of invitation are the following I would like you to … Won’t you please…..? We should be delighted if you could…. Please accept our invitation
7. 7. Accepting an invitation Thank you. I’d be happy to With pleasure I would love to I would be delighted to
8. 8. Refusing an invitation No, Thank you I am really sorry, I don’t think I can I am sorry. I can’t I wish I could. But…
9. 9. Thanking We thank/express gratitude in different ways for different reasons. "Thank you so much for the gift!" Many examples of thanking appear in a ritualized form, such as saying "Thanks" or "Thank you" to a bus driver, a cashier, or to a friend who has handed you something.
10. 10. Describing and interpreting picture, tables, graphs, maps Describing and interpreting pictures  Introduction  Be organised and systematic  Use a wide and suitable range of vocabulary  Facial expressions  Interpretation of People  Interpretation of Place and Objects
11. 11. Describing and Interpreting Graphs, Tables and Maps The ability to interpret graphs and tables is useful in everyday life. Tables and graphs are visual representations. They are used to organise information to show relationships. A graph shows this information by representing it as a shape. Researchers and scientists use tables and graphs to report findings of their research. In newspapers, magazine articles, and on television they are often used to support an argument. Students must know how to interpret the data and the way it is presented.
12. 12. Uses of a Table A table helps to organise information and so it is easier to see relationships. If a variable is continuous the table reveals a lot more information. It may show the range, interval, and number of readings. Tables with multiple variables can provide a lot of information.
13. 13. Characteristics of graphs Graphs are by nature a summarizing device. Effective tool for comparisons and contrast. Made according to exact specifications and depict quantitative data Graphs, being symbolic are abstract in character. Self explanatory is possible. Regarded as flat pictures which employ dots, lines or pictures to visualize numerical and statistical data to show relationships.
14. 14. Uses of Maps To depict geographical features of earth’s surface and to understand the position of earth in the universe. To show relationship between places To furnish information concerning distances, directions, shapes and sizes. To clarify descriptive materials. To reduce the scale of areas and distances To understand the lines
15. 15. Various concepts and ways in which they are expressed Suggestion Prohibitions Permission Probability and Likelihood Possibility Obligation and Necessity Concession
16. 16. Suggestion There are numerous forms of polite request and suggestion. Would you mind opening the window? Note also the use of suppose/supposing, how/what about to make informal suggestions Suppose we try to do it my way. Suppose you let me have a try. These are not much different from the use of let’s Let’s try to do it my way. We’d better start early. You’d better do as the doctor says and stay in bed.
17. 17. Prohibitions Prohibitions are often indicated by means of brief announcements, e.g. with no and a gerund. No smoking! No parking! Smoking not allowed. Parking prohibited between 8 a m and 6 p m. Must is the most usual verb in spoken English for orders and prohibitions. You `must be back before dark.
18. 18. Permission There are numerous ways in which permission may be asked for and granted. The verbs permit, allow, let and the noun permission are obvious examples. Will you allow/permit me to use your bicycle? My doctor won’t let me get up yet.
19. 19. Probability and Likelihood These concepts may be expressed by the use of the adjectives, probable and likely, It’s likely/probable that he’ll come. Is there any probability/likelihood/chance of his coming? He’s likely to come. He’ll probably come
20. 20. Possibility Possibility depends upon ability or knowledge It’s possible that he’ll come. It may rain tomorrow The news may, or may not, be true. Can the news be true?
21. 21. Obligation and Necessity In most countries the law obliges parents to send their children to school. Is attendance at school obligatory? He was compelled by illness to give up his studies.
22. 22. Concession A simple way of expressing concession is by the use of the conjunctions ‘although’ and ‘though’. Although they are brothers they never write to each other. Though he is rich he has made his money honestly.
23. 23. Oral drills – Repetition drills – Mechanical drills – Substitution drills Drill is commonly used in connection with the teaching of mental skills. Practice is commonly used in connection with the teaching of motor skills. Drill or practice is basically an individualized method. Practice makes things perfect and
24. 24. Repetition drills Give clear, natural sounding and consistent models. Use hand movements to indicate intonation, Use fist to beat the stress. Back chaining helps learners focus on correct pronunciation and intonation. Example: yesterday / get up yesterday/ did you get up yesterday/what time did you get up yesterday?
25. 25. Guessing games Substitution drill Conversion drill Manipulation drill Completion Drill Matching tables