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Preparing for the future

Keynote talk for the Association for Teacher Education in Europe (ATEE) conference in Utrecht, the Netherlands, on 16 February 2018.

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Preparing for the future

  1. 1. Rebecca Ferguson The Open University, UK ATEE Winter Conference 2018, Utrecht Preparing for the future
  2. 2. Preparing for the future
  3. 3. 12 years of change 2012: ‘Year of the MOOC’ 2007: Launch of the iphone 2006: First tweets
  4. 4. Innovating Pedagogy reports
  5. 5. We proposed a long list of new educational terms, theories, and practices. We then pared these down to ten that have the potential to provoke major shifts in educational practice, particularly in secondary and tertiary education. Lastly, we drew on published and unpublished writings to compile the ten sketches of new pedagogies that might transform education. Innovating Pedagogy
  6. 6. The innovations described in this report are not technologies looking for an application in formal education. They are new ways of teaching, learning and assessment. If they are to succeed, they need to complement formal education, rather than trying to replace it.
  7. 7. Flipped classroom For details and resources, see the 2014 report 1.
  8. 8. Flipped classroom Image from Flipped Learning Network If you are repeatedly explaining basic concepts that could be better covered via online instruction, it makes sense to flip and apply a more engaging style for the face-to-face element.
  9. 9. Flipped classroom • Students study resources (such as videos, books and software) at home • Classroom is used as a space for dynamic, interactive learning • Can reflect a shift towards collaboration and groupwork Teachers who flip are enthusiastic – 96% say they would recommend it, 71% report an increase in grades, 85% report an increase in student engagement and classroom participation.
  10. 10. Threshold concepts For details and resources, see the 2014 report 2.
  11. 11. Threshold concepts Concepts that learners struggle to understand. They may be • transformative: they shift a learner’s perceptions of a subject • irreversible: once learned, they are hard to unlearn • integrative: they expose the inter- relatedness of some things • bounded: they border with other threshold concepts to define a disciplinary area • troublesome: they appear difficult and unintuitive. A good starting point is for teachers to explore which curriculum topics seem strange and counter-intuitive An example is inertia. An object in motion will continue in motion unless an external force acts on it. This goes against the ‘common sense’ notion that it will stop when it runs out of energy.
  12. 12. Tricky topics Bring teachers together Brainstorm activity Mind Maps Plenary for ‘identify’ stage Stumbling blocks Capture problems Develop quiz Construct intervention In-school activities Analyse success
  13. 13. Computational thinking For details and resources, see the 2015 report 3.
  14. 14. Computational thinking Each area of the curriculum is associated with a set of skills that can be applied throughout our life, giving us new ways to understand the world. In the case of computing, as we learn its principles and languages, we also acquire a set of problem-solving skills. Together, these are known as Computational Thinking.
  15. 15. Computational thinking Decomposition Breaking a large problem down into smaller ones Pattern recognition Recognising how these smaller problems relate to ones that have been solved in the past Abstraction Identifying and setting aside unimportant details Algorithm design Identifying and refining the steps necessary to reach a solution Debugging Refining those steps Presenting a solution in a usable form Researchers who have investigated how children engage with the programming environment Scratch have identified skills and shifts in perspective related to computational thinking: experimenting & iterating, testing & debugging, reusing & remixing, abstracting & modularising, expressing, connecting and questioning.
  16. 16. Spaced learning For details and resources, see the 2017 report 4.
  17. 17. Spaced learning It has long been known that we learn facts better in a series of short chunks with gaps between them, rather than in a long teaching session such as a lecture. Recent research in neuroscience has uncovered the detail of how we produce long-term memories. This has led to a teaching method of spaced repetition There was no significant difference in exam scores between students who had done spaced learning in a single day and those who studied over four months.
  18. 18. Spaced learning Session 1 (20 minutes) Rapid presentation Break (10 minutes) Physical activity Session 2 (20 minutes) Recall key concepts Break (10 minutes) Physical activity Session 3 (20 minutes) Apply the knowledge through problem exercises A study of spaced learning shows a significant increase in learning compared to a typical lesson. The method has been tested successfully in schools, but a larger-scale trial is needed to show whether it can be implemented at scale. Evaluation report
  19. 19. Epistemic education For details and resources, see the 2017 report 5.
  20. 20. Epistemic education Epistemic Aims and Value Goals and values that drive cognition and action.These include wanting to know, seeking the truth, and avoiding error. Epistemic Ideals Criteria people use to decide whether they have achieved their epistemic aims. These can also be used to evaluate other people’s epistemic products, such as arguments and websites. Reliable Epistemic Processes Strategies that enable the achievement of epistemic aims. Even though truth is hard to achieve, a reliable process is more likely than other processes to get to the truth. Epistemic = Relating to knowledge or to the degree of its validation
  21. 21. Epistemic education • Expose learners to the diversity of knowledge • Help them to develop epistemic criteria • Support development of reliable strategies for making sense of the world • Encourage learners to reflect on their assumptions • Motivate learners to care about truth and knowledge Reading like a historian
  22. 22. Intergroup empathy For details and resources, see the 2017 report 6.
  23. 23. Intergroup empathy Skills and knowledge that help people develop a more positive outlook towards other groups: • Gaining accurate knowledge • Correcting wrongly held beliefs • Overcoming anxieties • Reducing feelings that the other group is a threat • Re-humanising the other group • Realising a common, unifying human identity • Developing an ability to judge the merit of different perspectives and narratives Foster Empathy through E-Learning (FEEL) is an approach based on the understanding that developing empathy in group members is key to improving relations between groups of people
  24. 24. Intergroup empathy Elements to consider: • Mediation helps people to overcome negative feeling • Gamification helps to overcome anxiety • Role playing helps learners to look at issues from a new angle • Virtual reality can offer challenging encounters in a safe environment • Imagined contact is useful when face-to-face contact is difficult • Constructive issues help participants to avoid potentially explosive situations
  25. 25.