Blended learning in clinical education


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This is the presentation I gave as a progress report on my PhD, at the UWC "Innovations in Teaching and Learning" colloquium.

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Blended learning in clinical education

  1. 1. blended learning in clinical educationmichael rowedepartment of physiotherapyuniversity of the western cape
  2. 2. background: blended learninga systematic combination of face-to-face and technology mediated interactions between students, teachers and learning resources (bliuc, goodyear & ellis, 2007)allows for greater flexibility and responsiveness in teaching and learning (lewin, singh, bateman & glover, 2009)
  3. 3. background: blended learning (2)true potential is in enhancing communication and promoting reflectionblended learning is highly context dependent, so it cannot be generalised from other domains (harris, connolly & feeney, 2009)the medium is less important than the way in which learning is approached (laurillard; cited in ennew & fernandez-young, 2005)
  4. 4. background: reflectionreflection and reasoning both emphasise the connection between action and thinking (aars, 2008)focused reflection is a significant factor in developing clinical practice through clinical reasoning (murphy, 2004)making meaning through reflection is more important than memorising content
  5. 5. 1 establish global contextaim: how have others used blended learning in clinical education?method: systematic literature reviewoutcomes: - few well designed studies evaluating blended learning - some studies demonstrate positive clinical outcomesRowe, M., Frantz, J. & Bozalek, V. (2012). The role of blended learning in the clinical education of healthcare students: A systematic review. Medical Teacher, 34:e216-221
  6. 6. 2 establish local contextaim: what are students experiences and perceptions of emerging technology in learning?method: survey of studentsoutcomes: - students use technology, but dont understand it - studying is not part of social - internet access is a concern Rowe, M., Frantz, J. & Bozalek, V. (2012). Physiotherapy students’ use of online technology as part of their learning practices: a case study. South African Journal of Physiotherapy, 68(1): 29-34
  7. 7. 3(a) pilot interventionaim: how can we use wikis effectively for collaborative content creation?method: wiki-based assignment and surveyoutcomes: - students are able to collaboratively develop content - groupwork is more of a problem than technology - wikis are difficult to facilitate Rowe, M., Frantz, J. & Bozalek, V. (2012). The use of a wiki to facilitate collaborative learning in a South African physiotherapy department. South African Journal of Physiotherapy (accepted for publication)
  8. 8. 3(b) pilot interventionaim: how can we use a social network for reflection in clinical education?method: reflective blogging around clinical experiencesoutcomes: - students need significant facilitation - social networks provide useful platformsRowe, M., Frantz, J. & Bozalek, V. (2012). The use of assisted performance within an online social network to develop reflective reasoning in undergraduate physiotherapy students. Medical Teacher, e1-e7
  9. 9. 4 intervention designaim: how will we integrate technology into teaching in order to develop personal & professional attributes?method: delphi study with 3 different panelsoutcomes: - values and attributes are essential for clinical practice - process is more important than product - technology affordances before platforms & services Rowe, M., Frantz, J. & Bozalek, V. Beyond knowledge and skills: The use of a Delphi study to develop innovative teaching practices in a blended learning module. BMC Medical Education (submitted and under review)
  10. 10. 5 explore theoretical perspectivesaim: what theories of learning and instructional frameworks are appropriate?method: review of relevant theoryoutcomes: - socio-cultural theories fit clinical education - instructional frameworks are rarely used - authentic learning tasks model the clinical contextRowe, M., Bozalek, V. & Frantz, J. A theoretical approach to technology-mediated teaching and learning in medical education. Medical Education (submitted and under review)
  11. 11. 6 implementationclassroom context: - case-based learning in small groups - collaborative content development with facilitation - online environment for supportclinical context: - integrated with classroom context - emphasis on solving problems, not knowing facts
  12. 12. 7 evaluationaim: how are we evaluating and adapting the module?method: developmental evaluation & focus groupsoutcomes: - frequent changes based on feedback - students want the certainty of knowing the answer - initially resistant, but moving towards appreciation - acknowledgement of benefits e.g. enhanced reasoning - technology is grudgingly accepted
  13. 13. conclusionsthis approach is resource intensive (time, energy, facilitators)technology is good for moving content out of the classroomcase-based learning (i.e. classroom context) must be integrated with practice (i.e. clinical context)students demonstrating enhanced: - clinical reasoning - reflective skills - evidence-based practice
  14. 14. moving forwardintroduce teaching approach from 1st year, emphasising: - authentic learning tasks for students - technology integration early and throughout - understanding concepts, not memorising facts - move conceptually between modules - develop modules that are flexible and adaptable - iterate rapidly based on feedback
  15. 15. thank you