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By Vanessa Vargas

Published in: Education, Technology
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  2. 2. Most writing strives to conveyinformation clearly and efficiently, to helpthe reader understand without undueeffort.Strive to make your writing directexpressing ideas plainly and concise usingfew unnecessary words. By doing so, youavoid being imprecise, wordy, or obscure.
  3. 3. Public speakers are often advised: “tell them what you are going to say ;say it; then tell them what you said.” EXAMPLES:Spoken language, repeating the message will helpthe audience understand it clearly. this advicereflects the patterns of spoken language.We started eliminating unnecessary words:In spoken language, repetition helps listenersunderstand.
  4. 4. Generalizations are broad statements withoutspecific detail that enable us to express the largeconcepts essential to abstract thinking.For example:Many factors played a part in the republicanlandslide.(what factors?)
  5. 5. Although generalities can occur anywhere,look particularly at your openings andconclusions, where you may be trying hard toimpress.EXAMPLE:Fetal alcohol syndrome affects one every 750newborn it is clearly not good for them, causingcoordination problems, malformed organs, smallbrains short attention spans, and behavioralproblems.
  6. 6. In speaking, we allow ourselves may extra words.This habit often carries over into writing. As youedit, test each word to see whether you caneliminate it. If the meaning of the sentence isunchanged, leave it out.
  7. 7. Phrases like in my opinion, it has come to myattention that and due to the fact contribute nothingto a discussion.Example:In this day and age children in many instances know moreabout black holes than they do about black beauty.You change:Today children often know more about black holes thanthey do about black beauty.
  8. 8. wordy phrases More conciseMost of the people Most peopleAll of the word All the wordDue to the fact that Because, sinceDespite the fact that AlthoughAt that (or this) point in Then, nowtimeCommunicate to(or with) TellImpact on AffectIn this day and age Today, nowIn any case AnywayIn the case of Regarding, concerningIn most instances UsuallySubsequent to After
  9. 9. Wordy phrases More conciseIn case IfIn the final analysis Finally, at last
  10. 10. Writers often use modifiers such asclearly, obviously, absolutely, fortunately, hopefully, really, and totally to make a sentence sound forcefulor authoritative.These intensifiers usually add little, and they can bedeleted. Be careful, though, to test for alteredmeaning.Example:The strike against General Motors clearly disruptedproduction of light trucks. It was undoubtedly to do so.
  11. 11. Needless repetition is called redundancy. As youedit, evaluate each instance of repetition. Take outthe repeated word or phrase and compare bothversions. Ask yourself whether the repetition linksideas, sustains an established rhythm, or preventsconfusion. If it does not, take it .Example: the general consensus of opinion amongstudent was that the chancellor had exceeded herauthority.
  12. 12. Redundant phrasesFirst ever Refer backFirst and foremost Basic fundamentalsFull and complete Initial preparationPast history Terrible tragedyRound in shape Final resultRed in color Free giftGeneral consensus of True factsopinionA faulty miscalculation Completely destroyedOld and outdated
  13. 13. An elliptical construction helps avoidunneeded repetition. Such constructionsare usually used in the second part of aparallel construction.Example: Her words suggested one thing, heractions suggested another.
  14. 14. It is tempting, when you want tosound authoritative, to usetechnical, obscure, ornate language.When such language is needlesslycomplicated or overinflated is calledpretentious.
  15. 15. Pretentious More conciseIncarcerated offenders PrisonersClient populations People servedVoice concern that Said, worriedRange of selections ChoiceMinimizes expenditures Saves moneyOf crucial importance Important,crucialProvide an occasion for Be worth investigatinginvestigationInstitution of higher College, universitylearning
  16. 16. A Euphemism is an inoffensive word or phrasedeliberately substituted for one consider harsh orindelicate. Our conversations are full ofeuphemisms, firing are called corporate downsizing.Example:People say I lost my grandmother the last yearinstead of my grandmother died last year.As a result of the reordering of budget prioritieslibrary acquisitions will be deferred andmaintenance activities reducedWill stop buying books and staff will clean thebuilding less often.