CONCRETE, SPECIFIC NOUNS AND MODIFIERS ABSTRACT : CONCRETE: *TRANSPORTACION *CARS *U.S. DOLARS *DIME *CHILDHOOD *CHILD *NUTRITION *BROCCOLI GENERAL SPECIFIC *PETS *ROVER *STORES *MURPHY’S DRUGS *TEACHERS *MY ENGLISH PROFESSOR
Up in the tree, a bird sang, its voice warm andmelodious. Nearby, an animal crouched, watchingthe bird. Emotion made the animal’s eyes glitter.Stealthily it began to slink forward, body to theground. It was only a little distance from the birdwhen another animal dashed toward it from thenext yard. As the first animal fled, the bird flewdown and perched confidently on the secondanimal’s head.
WORDS AND PHRASES THAT DESCRIBE NOUNS AND VERBS Madeline was pretty girl with nice brown eyes. Fair-skinned laughing The city housing manager pointed out a row of old wooden houses. peeling and crumbling
A, AN OR THENouns are either count nouns or noncountnous. COUNT NOUNS NONCOUNT NOUNSSINGULAR PLURAL INFORMATIONISLAND ISLANDS HOMEWORKCHILD CHILDREN JUSTICERATIO RATIOS SUCCES
1. You must use an article before a singular count noun. an island the child a ratioExeceptions: Singular proper nouns Italy Pearl Street Lake Erie2. Use a or an with a singular count noun when you haven´t specified one particular thing or induvidual. There is a problem with this approach. *Readers don´t know what the problem is yet. We all appreciate an understanding friend. *Any understanding friend, not a particular one.3. Use the with a singular count noun in the following cases. The noun has already been mentioned. The noun is made specific by elements that follow it. The noun is made specific by the context. The noun names a unique person, place or thing
4. Usethe with plural count nouns in the following cases. The noun is made specific by elements that follow it. The novels that I like best focus on characters rather than events. The noun is made specific by context. We saw a play tonight. The actors were from London. The noun is a proper noun referring to a country or a set of lakes, mountain range, or islands. The United States The Rocky Mountains The Great Lakes The Bahamas.5. Use some (any in any negative sentences) or no article with noncount nouns if the noun is not specific They asked for some information at the tourist center. There isn´t any homework for tomorrow. The citizens are demanding justice.6. Use the with noncount nouns if the noun is specific because it has been previously mentioned, it is clear from the context, or it has modifiers. We ordered some new skiing equipment. After the equipment arrived, we decided we didn´t need it
1. REPLACE STATIC VERBS WITH ACTION VERBS This problem will soon become evident. erupt sprawl onto The outer suburbs of los L.A are in the hills beyond the San Fernando Valley.2. AVOID WEAK ACTION VERBS bakes He makes good. sings wonderfully She has a wonderful singing voice.3. CHANGE NOUNS BACK TO VERBS Few biographies of FDR have given a satisfactory explanation of the disastrous Yalta conference. Satisfactorily explained
When a verb is in the ACTIVE VOICE, the person or thing performingthe action is the subject.The active voice hepls readers visualize what happens and whodoes it. actor ative-voice verb direct object,recipient of action Juana collects the tickets.When a verb is in the PASSIVE VOICE, the recipient of the actionbecomes the subject, and there is no object.subject of action passice-voice verb agent of action inprepositional phraseThe tickets are taken by Juana