Eliana lopez


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Eliana lopez

  1. 1. Editing grammar
  2. 2. Sentence :It is a group of words expresing acomplete thought.SENTENCE GRAMMAR describes howsentences are organized andstructured.
  3. 3. sentence fragmentA sentence fragment is an incomplete sentence. Afragment occurs when a sentence is missing eithera subject or a predicate, or when a dependentphrase or clause is mistaken for a sentence.A COMPLETE SENTENCE needs to contain aSUBJECT, which is the word or words that tellswho or what the sentence is about. A subjectconsists of a noun or a pronoun.If a "sentence" is missing its subject, the main"who" or "what" the sentence is about will beunknownEx 1- Swam in the pool. 2- Skipped down the street
  4. 4. A complete sentence also needs to containa predicate, which is the word or words in asentence that express the action or state ofbeing of the subject. A predicate consists of averb.If a "sentence" is missing its predicate, themain action or being of the subject will beunknown:Ex: Her niece in the pool CORRECT FORMS Her niece swam in the pool (verb of action) Her niece was in the pool (verb of being)Other fragments cannot stand alone becausethey contain a subordinating element:
  5. 5. they are dependent clauses punctuated as sentences.Ex: she skipped down the street. Her toothy grin waswide.Fragments occur often in everyday speech and ininformal writing. In academic writing, however mostinstructor regard sentence fragments as errors.If you are unsure whether a group of words is asentence fragment, ask yourself the followingquestions:1- Does it contain a verb?2- Does it contain a subject?3- Does it contain a subordinating word or clause?
  6. 6. Eliminating sentence gragmentwhen you discover fragments in yourwriting, decide which element is missing, andthen turn each fragment into a completesentence by doing one of three things: -Add the missing subject or verb. -Find a sentence nearby and incorporate the fragment. -Remove the subordinating element to create a indepent clause.
  7. 7. Providing missing elementsWhen a fragment exists because the subject orthe verb of the sentence is missing, supply thenecessary subject — the noun or pronoun thattells who or what the sentence is about, or theverb that is the action:Ex: 1- Swam in the pool. - Her niece swam in the pool. 2- Jumped on the trampolin -The young girls next door jumped on the trampoline. 3- My mon in the kitchen. - My mon is the kitchen
  8. 8. 4-The protesters talked quietly and slept. And prayed-The protester talked quietly and slept and prayedJoining the fragmentAnother solution is to make the fragment part of a nearbysentence.Ex: 1- At the beginning. All went well for the business - At the beginning, all went well for the business. 2- Few employees interviewed held the company president in high regard. Or believed he could bring the business back to profitability. - Few employees interviewed held the company president in high regard or believed he could bring…
  9. 9. Dependet clause fragmentsIt is a clause introduced by a subordinating conjunction (asafter, since, because, when, where, or whether) or relativepronoun (as who, which, or that). PREPOSITIONS OF TWO OR MORE WORDThese introduce an independent clause:according to contrary to instead ofalong with due to on account ofas a result of except for regardlessfor the sake of relative to as compared withas for in contrast with up untilaside from in favor of with respect toTo make these fragments into complete sentences, aseparate independent clause must be connected:
  10. 10. Ex: 1- this is my cousin Jacob. Who has never missed a day of school.-this is my cousin Jacon who has never missed a day of school.2- The trees stood bare. After the leaves had all fallen. - the trees stood bare after the leaves had all fallen.3- All went well for the business . Because it happened at the beginning.- All went well for the business because of it happened at the beginning.Creating special effectsTo reproduce the sound of spoken language or create dramatic emphasis.Ex: I knew that i was no legitimate resident in any world of ideas.I knew i could not think. All i knew then was what i was not, and it tookme some years to discover what i was. Which was a writer. By which i mean not a good writer or bad writer, but simply a writer.
  11. 11. Exercise 1: Identify the following as either completesentences or fragments.1. Having a dental appointment used to be a terribleexperience for Susie.2. Either the dentist would try to fill a cavitaty3. Without numbing the tooth.4. Or would poke and prod her gums until they bled forhours.5. However, the dental office she found in her collegeslocal community was just the opposite
  12. 12. 6. The dentist gentle7. Always asking whether he was causing her anypain.8. And the hygienist explained every step of thecleaning process.9. Even allowing her to examine the tools used.10. Now, a dental appointment was anexperience Susie didnt dread.